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CALirORNlA 

STATE LIBRARY 



Call \n. 



Q EDD7 lEDb360 S 

California State Library 



Digitized by tine Internet Arcliive 

in 2013 



http://arcliive.org/details/pacificrupres03unse 




Volume III.] 



SAN FRANCISCO, SATURDAY, JANUARY 5, 1872. 



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[Number i. 




OliD TIME BEMINISCENCES-See Taoe ». 



J> v(»i» w J< Jb* JL w *tuW«^»^'X£ 3tt^ ItjiSoS* 



[January 6, 1872. 



NOTES OF TRAVEL IN ALAMEDA GO. 

[By our Traveling correspondent] 

Alvarado. 
This thriving littlo village of five or six 
bimJreil iuhiibitantn, is located on Alameda 
creek, about ten miles south of the county 
seat, San Leandro, and five miles from the 
bay of San Francisco, in the district of 
p. overflowed lands mentioned in my last 
r letter. The principal occupation of its in- 
habitants has been the collection of salt, 
which forms in large quantities on the 
overflowed lands of this section. Some 
■fifteen or twenty companies are engaged in 
the business, and their works extend from 
opposite San Leandro to this point, a dis- 
tance of 10 or 12 miles. From 12,000 to 
I 15,000 tons are gathered annually. But 
-—.Another industry has sprung up in their 
midst, and by the efl'orts of one single 
company, the eyes of the entire manu- 
facturing interests of the State are looking 
upon it with more or less jealousy; it is 

The Alvarad} Beet Sugar Manufactory, 
•erected about one year ago, at a cost of 
$170,000, including 300 acres of land; all 
of which was in beets the past season. 
This company had about 250 acres addi- 
tional in beets the present season, upon 
leased land. The average crop of the 
/sugar beet per acre in this section is 12 
I tons, worth about §4 per ton at the factory. 
/ Some 70 men are engaged at the manu- 
I factory, and about 100 more in the field. 
i Tills institution worked up last year 
\ 6,000 tons of beets, and this year, up to 
'November 1st, 3,200 tons. The works of 
this sugar manufactory are run by three 
engines, of a combined power of 100 horses, 
and five additional boilers, of lO-horse- 
power, for making steam for miscellaneous 
purposes. At this writing they have on 
hand 3,000 tons of beeis, and are increas- 
ing their stock every day. Messrs. Miller 
ii Lux hiive 350 head of cattle here, fatten- 
ing for slaughter, being fed almost ex- 
clusively on the pulp of the beets (after 
the sugar is extracted), mixed with a little 
hay or straw. Cattle fattened by this 
method, I understand, give general satis- 
faction. 

The Town 

of Alvarado has two hot«la — the Brooklyn 
House, kept by Messrs. Nawert & Fuller, 
and the Alvarado Hotel, by J. F. Meyers. 
There are several fine stores, and one man- 
ufactory of agricultural implements, car- 
riages, wagons, etc., carried on by Jos. 
McKeown, Esq., employing from six to 
twelve men regularly. Mr. McK. is also 
proprietor of the patent right of this 
county of. the celebrated patent " Self- 
opening date," and manufactures the same 
to order. 

Productive Ranch. 
Jos. Ralph, the possessor of 100 acres 
of land one mileeastof Alvarado, has three, 
acres of the same in orchard, the trees of 
which are set 20 feet apart, with a goose- 
berry bush between each tree. From this 
little ])atch he last year sold §515 worth 
of gooseberries, 175 boxes of quinces, and 
500 boxes of apples. This year he mar- 
keted 10,000 pounds of gooseberries, and 
from 3G acres reaped 1,050 sacks of wheat; 
six acres of car." ots averaged 30 tons per 
acre; his corn crop was light. Last year 
he rented a portion of his ranch for raising 
sugar beets, at S25 per acre. 
Mount Eden. 

This place, situated midway between 
Alvarado and San Lorenzo is at pres- 
ent a town of no marked importance, con- 
taining not over 100 inhabitants; how- 
ever, two stores and one hotel manage 
to do a paying business. The hotel bear- 
ing the same name as the village, is kejjt 
by George Ludwig, who is also general 
agent for S. Murphy's Express, running 
through this region. 

San Lorenzo 
Is one of the successful and flour- 
ishing towns of this county, surrounded by 
fine farms, with some of the most splendid 
private residences in the State, among 
which we may menticn those of C. W. 
Hathaway, Wm. Meek, E. T. Crane, etc., 
costing from §10,000 to S50,000 each. 
The town has about 400 inhabitants, sever- 
al fine stores, one good hotel and one ex- 
tensive manufactory of 

Agricultural Implements, 
owned and carried on by H. Smyth, who 
employs regularly from 12 to 15 men in 
the manufacture of all kinds of plows, 
cultivators, harrows, etc.. and I might add, 
the manufacture of a side-hill plow of his 
own invention. The works of this manufac- 
tory are rail by steam. Of the salt works, 
which extend along the bay, in this county, 



as mentioned above, one of the most exten- 
sive is that of 

Chisholm & Co., 
Which is situated about three miles west of 
this place, and three-fourths of a mile south 
of Robert's Landing. Tliis institution 
was established ia 1857, and has a capac- 
ity of manufacturing during the season 
) 5 months) 3,000 tons. Last year 2, 200 tons 
were manufactured; and profiting by past 
experience, each year gives them a nner 
quality of salt. During the season, 10 
men are employed. A new and subtan- 
tial wharf has been erecttd at this point, 
which has a depth of five feet at the moor- 
ings at low tide. Another establishment 
of the same kind with nearly equal ca- 
pacity, is that of D. Pestdorf, situated 
two miles south qf San Lorenzo. From 
May to Octob<* last year, he manufac- 
tured 3,000 tons. This article wholesales 
in this vicinity at SI. .50 per ton, and is 
worth at wholesale $i in your city. 
Fruits and Berries. 
Adjoining the town of San Lorenzo, 
Hon. E. T. Crane has 60 acres, 35 of which 
are in orchard, consisting of a "well se- 
lected variety of fruit trees. The bal- 
ance of this little farm is in pasturage and 
corn. A few acres planted in the latter 
cereal yielded this year 100 bushels per 
acre. The yield of the fruits for the sea- 
son sum up as follows: 3,000 bo.xe3 of 
apples, 1,000 boxes of pears, 1,000 boxes 
of peaches, apricots, plums and prunes, 
48 tons ©f currants, and (> tons of cherries. 
From 3 to 30 men are regularly employed. 
Larro Farm— Fine In-p ovements. 
Situated three-fourths of a mile east of 
San Lorenzo are the improvements and 
private residence of Wm. Meek, E.sq. 
His .possessions consist of 2,000 acres in 
this vicinity, and 200 acres elsewhere in 
the county. He farmed last year 900 acres, 
and will this year have 1,200 acres in 
wheat and barley. Ho raised last year 
6,500 centals of wheat and barley, besides 
mowing 50 acres for hay. The balance of 
the farm, not tilled by himself, is rented 
to the Sugar Beet Company, at a rental of 
820 per acre. Mr. M. has a very fine 
young orchard, from which he has laid by 
this season, 2,400 boxes of winter apples. 
To judg0 of the e.xtent of the improve- 
ments upon this farm, 8,000 days labor 
were performed last year. From 15 to 20 
men are regularly employed. His line im- 
provements consist partially of a .?20,000 
house, 84,000 water tanks, and a §1,000 
fountain. This gentleman is a lover of 
-fine stock and has some of the finest horses 
in the county. 

Extensive Nursery. 
The San Lorenzo nursery, owned by the 
Le welling Bros., is situated one and one- 
half miles east of San Loreilzo, and about 
four miles south of San Leandro; and con- 
sists of 117 acres, all in orchard. This 
nursery has lately been removed to an- 
other piece of land adjoining San Lorenzo, 
and contains 30,000 or 40,000 trees, 23 acres 
being occujiied in that department. These 
gentlemen are acknowledged to be the 
largest growers of currants and cherries 
in the country, and among the largest of 
apples, pears, plums and prunes. 
Haywards. 
This beautiful little village is situated six 
miles southeasterly from San Leandro, and 
contains between 500 and 600 inhabitants. 
Owing to its geographical position and its 
railroad communication with your city, it 
has become a cattle and grain centre for a 
large area of country, in the vicinity. 
The town is acqommodated with three good 
hotels The American Exchange, one of 
the three, is driven by that prince of hotel 
keepers, Tony Oakes, who not only has a 
good baritone voice and plays the guitar, 
but sets a first-class table. There are an 
abundance of livery stables, the principal j 
one of which is run by Smalley .t Stratton. 
Good turnouts and reasonable prices are I 
their motto. A. Collins is the principal I 
merchant, and deals in every variety of I 
dry goods, Yankee notions, boots and 
shoes, groceries, crockei-y, hardware, etc. I 
Flouring Mill. 
P. C. Heslep is the proprietor and man- 
ager of the above named institution at this 
place. It is run by a steam engine of 40- 
horse power, has three run of burrs, and 
has a capacity of 120 barrels in 24 hours. 
It is in operation seven months of the year. 
Their specialty is ground feed,' corn, rye, 
buckwheat, and Graham flour. From four 
to five men are regularly employed. The 
flour manufactured at this mill gives gen- 
eral satisfnction in this vicinity. John 
Booken, Esq., is the brewer at this place, 
and manufactures annually 2,000 barrels of 
beer. 

Roberts's Landing, 
The property of Wm. R. Roberts, Esq., is 
situated three and a half miles south of 



San Leandro, on the edge of San Fran- 
cisco Bay, and is approached by a fine 
turnpike road, and is one of the principal 
points, through which the. products of this 
county pass to your city. The steamer 
Ellen, lUO tons burthen, also the proi>erty 
of Mr. R., plies between here and your 
city, daily. One of the warehouses at 
this point is .")0 by 316 feet, and the two 
others are 50 by 100 each, and are used for 
storing cereals. There is also a hay ware- 
house 60 by 100 feet. The warehouses 
have a capacity of storing 7,000 tons of 
grain, and contain, at this writing, 60,000 
sacks of wheat, besides com. oats,, beans 
and salt. Of the latter, 12,000 tons are 
now on hand, stored under cover, but not 
in warehouses. Freight from here to your 
city is $1.50; distance IB miles. 

San Leandro, 
The cbiinty seat of this county, contains 
about 500 inhabitants, and is situated seven 
miles south of Oakland. It is a pleasant rural 
town with many handsome private build- 
ings, but has no hotel of prominence at 
present; the Eustidillo House having closed 
some months since, restaurants andprivate 
houses accommodate the traveling public. 
Stores, groceries and livery facilities are, 
however, very complete. 

Sweepsteak Plow Company. 
One of the most complete and largest 
manufactories of improved gang and 
single plows in the State is located in this 
place. The works are the property of 
Messrs. Baker & Hamilton of your city, 
and are carried on under the management 
of J. Kindelberger, Esq. They consist of 
a luiilding 70 by 125 feet, and were started 
in 1870, by J. W. Bursa, Esq. They man- 
ufactured this season 700 Sursa gang 
plows, besides other agricultural imple- 
ments. Forty-three men find employment 
in the different departments, as black- 
smiths, machinists, moulders and wood 
workers. 

Trees and Plants. 
It will be seen by an advertisement 
published in the appropriate column, that 
Arthur Fleming has added to his already 
extensive business, the agency for the sale 
of trees, plants shrubs, etc., grown at Oak 
Shade Nursery, Davisville. Ho is also 
constantly receiving an assortment of gar- 
den seeds, of the best description, at his 
drug store on Davis street, San Leandro. 
Fleming's establishment has become one 
of the iudispensables of the place, and ho 
has well Earned the large patronage he re- 
ceives. Mr. F. is also the agent of Wells, 
Fargo it Co., and carries on an extensive 
news business. 

Fine Poultry. 
One of the custom house officers of your 
city, W. Ford Thomas. Esq., who makes 
this place his private residence, has about 
two acres, neutly fitted up for the especial 
purpose of raising fine poultry, and has 
on hand at present about 250 full-blooded 
light and dark Brahmas, Houdans, Bufl' 
Cochins and Partridge Cochins. Several of 
his male Brahmas weigh 16 lbs. on foot. 
Mr. Thomas is in receipt of orders for 
nearly all the eggs and young poultry 
that he can supply. Success to his enter- 
prise, as he has probably spent more 
money in importing fine poultry than any 
man in the State. h. p. mc. 

(To be continued.] 

Letter from Nell Van. 

Eds. Pbess:— Do not think me ungrate- 
ful for being so negligent in responding 
to your kindness in forwarding to me, week- 
ly, your most valuable paper. If I ever 
valued it when in my Santa Cruz home 
and longed for its arrival each week, how 
much more do I appreciate it now, and 
read it with a glow of pride and satisfac- 
tion, as a growth of our lovod California. 

This visiting among frienda not seen for 
twenty years, is so exciting and engross- 
ing of both time and thoughts that I have 
been unable to accomplish anything with 
my pen, above a few random sketches of- 
my surroundings to the friends on the 
Pacific. But toassureyou I feel an interest 
in you still; I write a short letter. 

To those who have ever called New York 
home, how familiar are all Its peculiari- 
ties. Yet many are the changes in its 
fine public buildings, parks, etc., which 
delight and astonish one. 

The Grand Duke hasbeenlionizedand the 
newspapers have teemed withhi.s wonderful 
reception. The Tammany frauds are under- 
going investigatitm, and now the chief ex- 
citement seems to be the illness of the 
Prince of Wales. 

San Domingo. 

I hoard Fred Douglas speak in Steinway 
Hall, last night, on San Domingo and its an- 
nexation to the United States. He pictured 



in glowing terms the fertility of her soil, the 
condition of her inhabitants and the ad- 
vantages to be gained bv annexation. 
"If," said he, "it vriia a benefit to annex 
Alaska for the small cons-deration paid, 
how much greater the advantage of annex- 
ing San Domingo and its -jenial climate, 
which can be had for nothing." A lady 
who sat near me said that two of htr sons 
had spent some lime on the island of San 
Domingo and they had always resolved to 
go there to settle sometime in the 
future. Mahogany trees are abundant, 
and cofTee plantations can t)e bouglit for 
a dollar an acre ! The climate is mild , but 
not dej)ilitating as some of the islands in 
the tropics are represented to be. It is but 
three days sail from FloriAi, and all that 
Americans need there is society, which 
they should endeavor to take with them. 

The Grand Depot 
Is completed and occupied by thodifi'eront 
railroad trains coming into New York from 
the north. It is said to occupy aix acres 
of ground, though the )>resent building 
incloses but two and a half acres; the re- 
mainder is used for various purposes con- 
nected with railroad interests. One can 
scarcely imagine a finer building than the 
one above mentioned. Much dissatisfac- 
tion is felt, however, by the residents of 
the northern part of the island above 
Forty-second street, where the depot is 
situated, on account of the numerous ac- 
cidents which have occurred since the loco- 
motive trains are allowed to pass through 
Fourth Avenue to the depot. Eleven lives 
were lost during the first two weeks, and 
the suggestion to sink the depot below 
ground has been made, which many urge 
should h.ave been thought of before its 
erection. 

Great preparations are being made every 
where for Chrfstmas. The stores are gay 
with toys and holiday gifts, and the florists 
display their wealth of Christmas greens ar- 
rangetl in various devices. New York is a 
great place, indeed, but with all its grandeur 
and beauty, it can never quite surpass our 
charming California towns with their 
wealth of climate and peaceful homes. 

Nell Van. 

New York, Dec. 13, 1871. 



Eureka Lakes. 



Were the reader traveling in Nevada 
County, climbing up the hills and paus- 
ing in the gorges to take a drink from a 
dancing streamlet, then on again up among 
the increasing boulders and eaiions, a sur- 
prise would burst upon him in the shape 
of a group of Lakes — twenty-four in all — 
clustering around each other like the sot- 
ting of a cluster-ring, and more beautiful 
in appearance than allthe diamond clus- 
ters in the world. 

Twenty-four — the largest only throe 
miles long and scarcely a mile wide— all 
sizes and shai)es, set in the hills with such 
a variety of scenery that one hardly knows 
where- to look first, or what particular 
point to admire most Pines and oaks or- 
nament the strips of land between them, 
while a numerous variety of gorgeous 
flowering-shrul>s, such as the wild lilac 
and manzanita, perfume the clear air with 
an exquisite fragrance. There is nothing 
particularly marked about any one of these 
Lakes, but the entire group of waterlets 
(if we may coin the word) presents a;<re 
markable scene to the eye. They are situ- 
ated in the eastern part of Nevada C'.ounty, 
and ought to bo one of the fashionable re- 
sorts of the Statff. 

Nothing so really lonely and uniijue can 
be found elsewhere on the coast as this 
group of twenty-four pure-water Lakes; at 
a distance some of them look as if one's 
arms could span them — 

"So wondrous wild, the whole might soem 

The wenory of a fairj ilroain." 
From any approach they seem to smile 
a welcome, and they really jiossess the 
fook of "intelligent nature.' If "the air 
hath voices," Eureka Lakes have smiles, 
and countenances that seem to change in a 
variety of sweet expressions as one changes 
position. 
The smallest appears from a distance like 
"A narrow inlet, still and deep, 
Aflfordinp scarce such breadth of lirim 
As served the wild duck's brood to swim; 
Lost for a space through thickets veering. 
But broader when again appearing." 
Another, but a trifle larger, hemmed in 
with flowering shrubs, its quiet face re- 
flecting the shadows of the clouds; then 
still another, sparkling with glimmering 
rays of sunshine that rest in silver lines 
across it from shore to shore. And so we 
may spend days among them, hardly know- 
ing which to admire the most, and wonder 
if other lands can have anything more 
lovely.- Lisle Lester. 



January 6, 1872.] 



ECHANICAL ^WrOGRESS. 



Steel fSr Locomotive Boilers. 

Tbe IJ-iihviiy Master Mecbanic's Associa- 
ciatiou, at New York, reeeutly sent out a 
series of questions to the various master 
mechanics of the country, requesting an- 
swers. Eleven questions, in all, were sent 
ont, the first of which was: — "Do steel 
boiler plates, as now manufactured, have 
the projaer degree of hardness, or should 
they be softer and more ductile '?" 

The answers to this queiy wtre, on the 
whole, uufavorablo to tlie use of steel; tlie 
great objection being that when used in 
the form of liie-bo;-: sheets, such sheets aic 
liable to crack. If they arc to bo flanged, 
much care must subsequently be taken 
in annealing them. 

To the 2d question: — " Do you advise 
the substitution of steel plates for iron in 
the outside shells of locomotive boilers ?" 

Very few favored the use of steel, be- 
cause when it is so soft as to be suitable for 
such purposes it is so little stronger than 
iron that the plates cannot safely be made 
thinner; and as steel costs twice as much 
as iron there would be loss incurred in 
using it. Steel in tube sheets, however, 
ai)pears to stand very well and to give 
good satisfaction. Steel rivets are never 
used. 

The 8th query was as follows: — If man- 
ufacturers will supply material of the re- 
quired size, would yoii advise making the 
cylindrical part of the boiler in one piece, 
extending from the smoke-box to throat 
sheets ?" 

In answer to this, all the replies, with a 
very few exceptions were in fav^r of mak- 
ing the barrel of the boiler of a single 
sheet, provided sound material of the nec- 
essary size could be furnished. 

9th. "Have you used steel flues; if so 
do you prefer them to copjier or iron." 
No one appears to approve of the use of 
steel boiler tubes. They are condemned 
for the reason that they will not caulk as 
well as iron. 

The above are the chief ])oints of inter- 
est sought for. Thirty-three answers were 
received from the master mechanics of as 
many of the principal railroads of the 
country. 



MiNEUAL Cotton.— At the last meetiug 
of the Franklin Institute, says the Journal 
of the Fran/iiiii Institulu, Mr. Coleman Sel- 
lers exhibited a sample of a material which 
is now for the first time to be manufactured 
and applied to useful purposes ia the arts. 

The product possesses a general resem- 
blance to cotton, for which it may doubt- 
less in certain cases be substituted with 
advantage, buton closer examination seems 
more like spun glass, which in reality it 
is. It is formed by allowing a jet of steam 
to escape through a stream of liquid slag, 
by which it is blown into the finest threads, 
sometimes two or three feet in length. 
These threads, though somewhat elastic, 
readily break up into much smaller ones, 
and, the color of the substance being 
white, the appearance of a compacted 
mass of it makes the name under which it 
has been described a very appropriate one. 
The admirable non-conducting property of 
the material for heat, as well as that of 
the great quantity of air which it retains 
in its interstices, would seem to fit it very 
■well for a non-conducting casing to steam- 
boilers and pipes, an application for which 
it is at present being tested. 

ARTiFicrAi. Sausage Skins. — During the 
recent war in Europe, so great was tlie de- 
maud for sausage skins that recourse was 
had to a substitute. The Berlin pea 
sausage factory for some time consumed 
daily a hundred thoiisand skins; but soon 
the supply began to run short; parchment 
paper was suggested as a substitute. Th<' 
difficulty in the use of this material was to 
paste the edges of the paper containing the 
sausage together, ordinary paste being 
useless for this purpose. Dr. E. Jacob- 
sen, however, prepared a paste which kept 
tbe edges firmly united after several hours 
boiling, and of which 5,000 pounds were 
used for pasting sausages. 

Several layers of parchment paper united 
with this paste closely resemble parch- 
ment in appearance and strength, and the 
material thus produced would be very 
valuable for many purpo.ses, such as book- 
binding and the like. Parchment paper 
may be firmly pasted to linen cloth with 
the same paste, and the article thus pro- 
duced is a water-tight paper-linen, very 
well adapted for packing purposes. The 
composition of the paste is unfortunately 
not discloaed.—Manu/acturer and Builder. 



Mechanical Puddling a Success. 

The Iron and Steel Institute of Great 
Britain recently dispatched a special com- 
mission to this country to report upon 
Danks' puddling machine, which has for 
some time been in successful operation in 
the iron districts of Pennsylvania. The 
commission were so well pleased with the 
working of the machinery that they sent 
the following cable telegram: "Danks' 
furnace successful. Construct furnaces 
for 10 cwt., squeeze or hanimei- single ball. 
Economy and quality satisfactory." This 
announcement will be received with con- 
sidei-uble interest by the iron masters in 
this country. 

The inventor of this device, in a paper 
recently read before the lion ami Steel 
iusiitute, claimed for it the following ad- 
vantages: A great saving in the cost of 
labor, and also in the consumption of coal, 
varying according to the size of the fur- 
nace; a superior and more regular quality 
of puddled iron from a giveu quality of 
pig; a yield of puddled iron much in ex- 
cess of the charge of pig metal, instead of 
the usual loss, the extra yield being ob- 
tained by the reduction of the rich fettling 
used in the machine; eight to ten heats, 
whether of from 5 to 10 cwt., are made in 
a day of ten hours when suitable metal is 
used; the refining process is very com 
plete, the whole of the phosphorus and 
silica, and the sulphur to a large extent, 
being removed by the chemical action of 
the lining mixture; the very heavy and 
exhaustive labor of puddling is performed 
by steam power, thereby enabling one 
skilled man to attend to the working of a 
largo quantity of iron; the bringing to na 
ture and balling of the iron is completed by 
the rotary action without the use of rab- 
bling, except when the heat has to be di- 
vided into smaller balls; and the capacity 
may be suited for heats of any weight from 
5 cwt. upwards. The cost of the furnace, 
weight of product considered, is about the 
same as that of the usual hand-puddling 
furnaces. We understand that Mr. Danks 
will charge as royalty 50 cents per ton. 

A Domestic Steam Engine. — It is grati- 
fying to observe that a more than usual 
amountof inventive talent is being directed 
to facilitating household and other light 
work about the shop and farm. We notice 
in this direction that a small domestic 
steam motor, has recently been brought 
out by a distinguished mechanical engiueer 
of Paris. These motors are constructed to 
vary in capacity from one to four-fifteenths 
of a horse-power. It is intended to drive 
a sewing machine, churn, lathe, small saw, 
pump, ventilator, and in fact any and all 
machines now driven by hand or foot 
power. The engine is heated by a gas jet, 
the boiler being vertical and of peculiar 
and most perfect construction for utilizing 
the largest amount of heat. It can be set 
anywhere in a room, where it can be con- 
nected with a gas-burner. The boiler is 
largo, so as not to require being fed of tener 
than once in four hours, even when in con- 
stant use, and still holds only four gallons. 

By a peculiar arrangement the speed of 
the machine is made to enlarge or contract 
the volume of the flame, and thereby regu- 
late the production of steam to the amount 
of work done. When the machine is at 
rest, the flame is so reduced as to merely 
keep the steam at a low pressure. The 
same device also acts as a safety valve. 
Explosion would be next to impossible. 
The engine and boiler weigh only 200 



iCiENTiFic Progress. 



Encke's Comet. 



This comet, a very insignificant object 
in itself, has elicited much interest among 
astronomers from the short duration of its 
orbit, its near approach to the sun— nearer 
than Mercury— and the ajjparent uniform 
retardation of its period. We made some- 
what lengthy mention, last week, of its 
connection with the theory of a resisting 
medium in space, and but lately alluded 
to the telegraphic leport that Dr. Huggins, 
the English astronomer, had succeeded in 
obtaining the s^)ectrum of the comet. A 
few days since we received an advance 
sheet from the forthcoming January num- 
ber of the Boston Journal of Chemistri/^ 
from which we learn that Professor 
Young, of Dartmouth College, had also 
obtained a spectrum which he has figured 
in the proof-sheet before us, and which we 
have here reproduced. 

The comet itself as seen through a tele- 
scope, is a rounded mass of nebulous mat- 
ter, about 5' in diameter, with no defi- 
nite outline, and without any distinct nu- 
cleus. It is considerably brighter in the 
center; but so extremely attenuated that a 
star even of the ninth magnitude may be 
seen through it, almost as distinctly as 
when no obstruction is intervened. 

The spectrum, the bands of which, three 
in number, herewith shown, areapparently 
identical with those in the spectrum of the 
vapor of carbon. The middle band, 
near "b," it will be noticed is much bright- 
er than the other two, and is the most posi- 
tive of the throe. It appears that Prof. 
Young was more successful than Huggins 
in fixing the position of the two outside 
bands. 

The spectroscope, to say nothing of ob- 
servation, indicates that thematerial of the 
comet is gaseous, and gaseous only; for 




pounds, is 33 inches high, and costs in 
Paris but .$100. 



An Imi'koved Lamp.— We notice the fol- 
lowing recent lamp patent which must be 
a great assistance in the awkward duty of 
lamp filling: The improvement embraces 
a guide arranged in the body of the lamp 
adjacent to the filling-hole, and adapted to 
guide a float within the lamp. Also, a 
bright cap on the float, so mounted in the 
lamp as to be conspicuously seen in look- 
ing down into the filling-hole, and to warn 
when the filling is nearly completed. Also, 
a perforated cylinder in the hollow stock 
or shaft of the lamp, so arranged as to re- 
ceive air freely 1)olow, and to discharge it 
gently into tho space around, to bo thence 
conducted upward through an annular 
space to the burner. 

CcTTiNo Threads byPre8si:7rt!.— Of late 
threads have been raised by forging in- 
stead of cutting. The red hot end of the 
holts is placed between dies, with a female 
screw thread cut into them. The upper 
die being pressed down on the iron, the 
threads are instantly formed, and are 
much tougher than tbe old oae, 



there is no trace of any continuous spectrum 
such as must result from the presence 
of solid or liquid dust, in a state of how- 
ever fine division. Prof. Young obtained 
his spectrum observations on the Ist, 2d 
and 5th of December. The observations 
of Dr. Huggins were made at intervals 
from the 8th to the 17th of November. 
The Doctor says he could not discover with 
certainty any trace of polarization, and 
asserts that incontestably there is no poiar- 
.ized light in that of the comet itself. 

We were under the impression that this 
was the first spectrum obtained of a comet; 
but we are now reminded that Huggins ob- 
tained one of Comet II, 1868, which cor- 
responds exactly with the one here shown 
of Encke's comet. 

Dr. Huggins calls attention to the fact 
that the longer axis of the comet was di- 
rected almost exactly towards the sun, 
and that its head and nucleus were tui'ned 
away from that luminary. This, he re- 
marked, appears to be the rule with nearly 
all the smaller class of comets. They 
carry their tails before them, and not until 
their smaller fanshaped appendages have 
been well warmed by the sun's rays, do 
they begin to shoot out large tails in the 
other direction. 

It is an interesting fact that tho cometary 
matter appears to be thus directed toioards 
the sun, and that it has not as yet fulfilled, 
in appearance at least, any of the condi- 
tions requisite for the maintenance of the 
theory that comets draw their sustaining 
matter from the sun. 

The aspect of the comet, according to a 
drawing made by Mr. Carpenter of Green- 
wich, was that of "a somewhat shuttlccock- 
dhaijed nebulous haze, with two wings of 
much fainter light, extending on either 
side, giving a flattened appearance to the 
head of tho comet." A drawing made by 
Dr. Huggins agreed quite closely with the 
above. He thought that he had detected 
a minute but distinctly marked nucleus in 
tho head of the "shuttlerock." 

Electriojty as a Dental Agent. — The 
use of electricity as an agent in aid of dental 
surgery is a novel scientific application. 
Dr. Bon will exhibited, at a late meeting of 
the Franklin Institute, an electro-magnet, 
which was constructed to drive a plugging 
tool for filling teeth. By 



Depositinq Aluminum on Metals.- , . 
Baynes Thompson, of White Hall, Eng., 
writes to the editor of the Chemkal Neas 
that for more tlmn two years he has boeu 
depositing aluminum daily on iron, steel, 
and other metals, and driving it into their 
surfaces at a heat of about 'M^' Fahr , in 
the same way as ho does silver and nickel. 
He also says that he can do the same thing 
with aluminum bronze, of vuriest tints 
from the palest li inon to the richest gold 
color. Some years ago. Dole of Birming- 
ham, England, also claimed to be able to 
coat copper, brass, ana Gorman silver with 
aluminum by means of electrolysis. As 
there is no reason to doubt the veracity of 
these gentleinfii, it would appear to be a 
fact that aluminum can h', deposited by 
electro-galvanic action the s;ime as nickel, 
copper, and other metals. We should bo 
glad to be funiislied with the details ot tho 
jjrocess. 

Gold in the Eozoic of Wisconsin. — 
Prof. Koland D. Irving, of the University 
of Wisconsin, reports the discovery of 
gold in the Eozoic of V^ isconsiu. He has 
found small quantities in the quartz veins 
of Clark county, a few miles to the north- 
ward of the junction of the Potsdam Sand- 
stone with the great stretch ot Eozoic 
rocks, which underlie the northern half of 
the State. The prevailing rocks in this 
section, are chlorilic and talcose schists, 
intersected by numerous veins of quartz. 
Associated with the gold were small quan- 
tities of magnetic iron in scales, pyrite 
and mispickel, as usual, scattered through 
a barren looking, tough white quartz, pre- 
senting none of the reddish or rotten ap- 
pearance common to surface gold ores of 
any value. Ho obtained, by assay, u 
yield of 20 cents per 2,000 lbs. 

New Products from the Oxidation of 
Carbon. — A most important investigation 
from Prof. Schultze has just been an- 
nounced, upon the products obtained in 
the direct oxidation of carbon with per- 
manganic acid in alkaline solution. Be- 
sides oxalic and other acids, which 
were thus obtained iu considerable 
quantity, the savant just named 
has succeeded in obtaining one 
which he called provisionally 
"antliraconic" acid, but which he 
at the time suspected, and sub- 
sequently, with the aid of Dr. 
Carstanjen and Baeyer, proved 
to be identical with mellithic acid. 
The importance of this splendid discov- 
ery to theoretical science will be duly ap- 
preciated Ijy the laborers in the field of 
organic chemistry, and at the meeting of 
the scientific association at which it was 
announced, it was received with enthusi- 
asm ; while as the pioneer research in a 
field now opened for future fruitful dis- 
covery, its value to applied chemistry can ' 
hardly be over-estiamted. 

The mellithic acid was obtained from 
various forms of carbon (amongst which 
was the graphite), and yielded, on distilla- 
tion with soda-lime, benzol, and this, upon 
nitration and subsequent reduction g*ve 
analine. 



Pendulum Experiments. — A series of 
careful experiments for determining the 
gravity of the Earth are about to be made 
at the Mont Cenis Tunnel. They will be 
made first in a lateral chamber about the 
centre of the tunnel, and will be after- 
wards repeated at the corresponding verti- 
cal point on the mountain, the difierence 
of level being about 1,600 metres. In ad- 
dition to these observations they propose 
to determine tho earth's magnetism and 
the temperature of the strata to which they 
can obtain access. By preliminary obser- 
vations they have ascertained that the 
movement of the trains will not to any ser- 
ious extent interfere with the precision of 
the observations. The dififerent points of 
observation will bo connected with tele- 
graph wires for the purpose of chrono- 
graphic registration. 

Electrical Induction.— P. Bla.serma, 
having experimented upon the velocity of 
electrical induction, estimated the rate of 
propagation in air at 550 metres, and in 
gum lac at not more than 330 metres per 
second. The latter velocity is about 
equivalent to that of sound in air. Dr. 
Helmnotz, suspecting that the results were 
aflfectcd by induction witbin the apparatus 
em]>loyed, has recently reported some ex- 
periments which . demonstrate a velocity 



its agency the 

work of dentistry is said to be greatly les- 1 of more than 195 miles per second, or more 
sened, and the time of an operation con- than 600 times as great as Blaserma'a eati 
eiderably shortened. I mate. 



SPi^QE^xO 3ELw« 



dPIR,^SS. 



[January 6, 1872. 



H®s\T'cJ'^T'^^^^' 



WEEDS AND SEEDS. 

[Written for the Prkss, by E. J. IIooPEB.) 

Canada Tbistles, Marigold, Migration of Seeds, 
Change in Locality. 
Owing to the great drouths in the dry 
season iu California, weeds are not found 
80 rampant and injurious as they are in 
many other parts of the world; and the 
cultivation, or use of the plough and har- 
row in dry times being more needful to 
absorb all dews and moisture. These 
operations also tend much to their destruc- 
tion and extirpation. But we have even 
in California more weeds than we desire, 
and we are likely to have a larger addition 
to these {as well as seeds) in the importa- 
tion of manj- articles of new plants, grasses, 
grains, etc. As weeds are great leeches, 
and almost the worst enemies that farmers 
and gardeners have to contend with, as 
w ell as the most unsightly objects upon 
the farm or garden, the numerous read- 
ers of the Press may be interested in 
knowing some of the ways by which Na- 
ture has scattered them over the earth. 
Canada Thistles, Marigold. 
So universally are weeds regarded as 
injurious to agriculture, that in some 
countries laws have been enacted to insure 
their destruction. In the more northern 
parts of the United States it h.as been ma<le 
a fineablo offence to permit the Canada 
thistle to perfect its seeds. France im- 
poses a heavy penalty on all who are in 
like manner neglectful of the common 
Thistle. {Every man in Denmark who fails 
to destroy the common marigold is severely 
punished. In the early history of Scot- 
land whoever poisoned the King's lands 
with weeds, introducing thereby a host of 
enemies, "was denounced as a traitor." 
Unhappily with us there as elsewhere is 
an abundant yield of these weed-pests. 

As such instances as the above show how 
snch nuisances and foes of the farmer have 
been regarded by the agricultural world 
both in Europe and America, one would 
think that it is now high time for us iu 
California to hear of their diminishing in 
number. But no such diminution can as 
yet be asserted — on the contrary, they are, 
evidently greatly on the increase. 
Migration of Seeds. 
The history of the migration of seeds is 
full of the most curious statistics. The 
review of a recent publication makes the 
following interesting statement: 

The lonely island of St. Helena, for ex- 
ample, at the time of its discovery in 1501, 
produced about 60 vegetable species. Its 
flora now comprises 750 species. The fac- 
ulty of spontaneous reproduction sup- 
poses a greater power or accommodation 
than we find in most domesticated plants: 
although every wild species affects a habi- 
tat of 4 particular character, it will grow 
under conditions exceedingly unlike those 
of its birth place. The 750 new species 
which have found their way to St. Helena 
within three centuries and three quarters, 
■were probably not in very large propor- 
tion introduced there bj' human art. As a 
general rule it may bo a.s3umed that man 
has intentionally transferred fewer plants 
than he has accidentally into countries 
foreign to them. The weeds that grow 
among the cereal grains, and form the pest 
of the kitchen garden are the same nearly 
in America as in Europe. 

Some years ago I was informed by an 
eminent botanist and traveler that the col- 
lection of seeds -which he made in the 
wheat fields of upper Egypt, and in the gar- 
dens of the Bosphorus were almost all of 
them identical with those that grow under 
the same condition in New England. 
Change in Locality. 
The change from one locality to an- 
other is effected by a thousand castial 
circumstances. The upsetting of a wag- 
on of an emigrant on his jourpey across 
the western pLains may scatter upon 
the ground the seeds he designed for his 
garden. The herbs which fill so impor- 
tant a place in the rustic materia medica of 



the Eastern States springs up along the 
prairie, paths opened once by the caravan 
of the settler. The hortus s^iccns of a bot- 
anist may accidentally sow seeds from the 
foot of the Himalayas on the plains thsil 
skirt the Alps. It is frequently observed 
that exotics transplanted to foreign cli- 
mates suited to their own growth escape 
from the flower gardens and nituralize 
themselves among the spontaneous vegeta- 
tion of the pastures. 

It is said that the straw and grass em- 
ployed in packing the sculptures of 
Thorwaldsen were scattered in the court- 
yard of the museum in Copenhagen where 
they are deposited, and the next season 
there sprang from the seeds no less than 
twenty-five species of plants belonging 
to the Roman Campagna. In the cam- 
paigns of 181-1, the Russian troops brought 
in the stufting of their saddles, seeds from 
the banks of the Dnieper to the valley oi 
the Rhine, and even introduced the plants 
of the Steppes into the environs of Paris. 
The Turkish armies in their incursions into 
Europe brought eastern vegetables in their 
train, and left the seeds of Oriental wall 
plants to grow upon the ramparts of Budda 
and Vienna. The Canada thistle is said to 
have sprung up in Europe 200 years ago 
from a seed which dropped out of the 
stuffed skin of a bird. There may be good, 
but there may be much evil also, in num- 
berless ways of distribution of many kinds 
of seeds. That was not an unfortunate 
event to Calif ore ia that was the cause of 
spreading the wild oats — supposed to have 
been done by the Spaniards. 

Apples Withoot Blossoms. — Some time 
last spring there was considerable talk 
about apple trees that never bloom, and 
which have been very productive. During 
the summer Mr. Ely, of Norwich, Conn., 
sent some of these apples to the Farmers' 
Club of New York. The apples came 
originally from the farm of Mr. Ely's 
father, in Litchfield county, of the same 
State. The original tree has borne for over 
50 years and still has never shown a per- 
ce])tible blossom. The shape of the blos- 
som end is very peculiar, and Mr. Fuller 
was requested to dissect one, and make 
such remarks as he might see fit aud which 
might bo of interest to all who participated 
in the former discussion or read about it 
in the papers. 

Mr. Fuller remarked that Mr. Ely had 
not examined closely, or he would have 
found that his trees do bloom. We have 
in these specimens the proof that these are 
blooms — not perfect, however, because 
there were no petals, and this is why the 
man thinks there are no blossoms. The 
petals in almost any flower is merely an 
ornamental organ and not essential to the 
production of fruit or pulp. These apple 
blossoms had a calyx, for it is now upon 
them; they had also pistils, for they con- 
tain seed and probably stamens, as I find 
the dried up fragments of the same within 
the calyx. If our correspondent will ex- 
amine his apple trees very carefully he 
will find that they do really bloom, al- 
though the flowers may be inconspicuous 
on account of an entire want, or deformed 
petal. 

Grimes's Golden Pippin, is a new apple 
that has been introduced for public favor 
by S. B. Marshall, of Cleveland, Ohio. It 
is thus described in the Small Fruit Instriic- 
tor: "It is of a Russety, golden color, 
fair, smooth skin, medium size; round to 
oblongish; slightly ribbed at the apex; 
flesh white, with an orange 'splash,' juicy, 
and has got the 'tone' and 'character' that 
go to make up one of the finest dessert 
fruits. In flavor, it reminds one of Peck's 
Pleasant and also Newton's Pippin, being 
milder than either, yet sufficiently crisp and 
sprightly to suit all lovers of those choicest 
apples." Our nurserymen can obtain 
scions of the Golden Pippin tree by writ- 
ing to S. B. Marshall, Cleveland, Ohio who 
has them for sale. 



Field ^f^o fwf. 



Nectarines. — The nectarine is especially 
valuable to can or preserve whole, or to 
pickle. All the varieties grown in this 
country have much more of the prussic 
acid flavor than the peach, a property 
highly relished in the canned, preserved 
or brandied fruit; besides, the skin being 
smooth, it is best retained, as by this 
means the fruit is kept whole and is very 
ornamental after it is cooked. 



Ripe Oranges. — With the approach of 
cold weathi r comes the ripening period of 
oranges. The golden looking ball can be 
seen on the trees of this vicinity in all of 
their luxuriant beauty. One shipment of 
oranges has already been made to San 
Francisco, aud more are on the way to the 
depot for that destination. — Los Angeles 
Star. 



Culture of Rice. 

Editors RaKAi.'Pi!E.ss: — I am no rice bird, bu( 
I am told that I have suitable lauds for grow- 
ing rice. I would like to make an experiment, 
aud ascertaiu whether it can be profitablv 
grown ou my lander not; and being wholly un- 
acquainted with the peculiarities of soil, c'limatf 
and culture the best adapted to its growth, 1 
would be glad to obtaiu such information on 
the subject as will enable me to make a begin- 
ning on a small scale, with a fair prospect of 
success. 

Can you, without too much trouble, impart 
the desired information, and oblige a 

Web-foot. 
San Joaquin, Dec. 18th. 
As we recognize our correspondent by 
quite another name upon our subscription 
list, we will endeavor to give him just the 
information he desires on the culture of 
rice, in the hope that others may be in- 
duced to try like experiments with this 
valuable low-land grain. 

Much has been said of the fitness of the 
tule lands along the Sacramento and San 
Joaquin rivers for the production of rice, 
and particularly that district of country 
around the confluence of these two rivers. 
But we must be permitted to differ to some 
extent with many who, without giving 
sufficient thought to the subject, have en- 
dorsed the proposition of its admirable 
adaptability to the purpose. 

All acquainted with rice culture will ad- 
mit these conditions as requisites. The 
ground must be so situated that it can be 
perfectly flooded at will, with fresh water, 
to a dejith of from six inches to a foot or 
more. Each field by itself, whether large 
or small, must be perfectly flat or level, to 
admit of flooding it alike evenly over the 
whole surface. 

The soil must be of a nature that will 
admit of its being worked into the con- 
sistency of soft mud, therefore it must not 
be so full of half decayed vegetable fibre 
as to cause it to leach and thereby draw 
the moisture too rapidly from the surface, 
when the water is drawn off from the 
growing rice, at certain stages of its 
growth. 

No rice field should be exposed to the 
force of strong winds during any period 
of its culture, but particularly when the 
plant is in bloom, and again just previous 
to and during the final ripening of the 
grain. 

Now do the lands at the confluence of 
the rivers we have named, possess these 
requisites? Have they not an extremely po- 
rous sub.soil, and for the greater part of 
summer do they not feel the effects of 
more than ordinarily powerful and almost 
constant winds? 

We have no doubt but that certain dis- 
tricts on both these rivers further away 
from their confluence, and not so much 
exposed to the strong winds that set with 
snch force through the straits of Can^ui- 
nez, may yet be found admirably adapted 
to rice growing, but experiment such as our 
correspondent proposes, can alone settle 
the question. 

A rice field should bo surrounded with 
a sufficient levee to retain the neces.sary 
depth of water when turned on, with 
flood-gates and ditches sufficient to admit 
the water and pass it over the surface and 
drawing it therefrom at numerous points, 
which will prevent the washing away of 
the surface soil of the field, which would 
be liable to happen if the water was all 
distributed over the field from one point, 
and all drawn off from the same place. 

Having put the field in condition for 
rapidly flooding it, and equally rapid 
drainage, prepare the soil by extirpating 
every weed and all grass roots. This 
clearing of the land of all mauuer of veg- 
etable growth, is almost as requisite to 
success as the presence of water. 

Next convert the whole surface by har- 
row or cultivator and water to the depth 
of three or four inches, to a soft pastry 



mud. Upon this mud sow the rice broad- 
cast, as you would wheat, and about sixty 
pounds to the acre; it needs no harrowing or 
covering; then let on the water, and just 
deep enough to cover the ground. 

The heat of the sun will in a few days 
warm it enough to cause the rice to sprout. 
When it is swelled ready to sprout, draw 
of the water. 

The young shoots will soon appear 
above ground, and when they have reached 
a height of six or seven inches, let the 
water on again, being careful never to let 
the water entirely cover the tops of the 
plants, for this would kill them; but in- 
crease the water as the growth advances, 
keeping the water, say one-third the 
height of the stems, and when the rice 
begins to bloom, it is well to have the 
water if possible, half the hight of the 
stems; let it continue thus until the heads 
begin to turn yellow; then draw off the 
water and let the land dry sufficient to ad- 
mit of harvesting the crop. 

It requires a little over three months 
to mature a crop of rice, so that by 
sowing the first crop in February, it 
would be an easy matter to grow two 
crops on the same land in a single season. 

In locating rice lands it should always 
be borne in mind tliat strong winds 
during the season pf blooming are ex- 
tremely injurious to the crop. 

Before the season of harvesting arrives, we 
will give all needful directions in relation 
thereto, if reminded of it by our San 
Joaquin correspondent. 



" Farmers, Write for your Paper." — 
Wo are under many obligations to our 
friends for the promijtness with which they 
have already replied to the above request, 
and wo shall feel very thankful for a con- 
tinuance and increase of such favors. We 
wish to add. There is no way in which 
we can make the Rural Press more jirofit- 
able to its readers and subscribers, than in 
publishing the individual experiences of 
the few for the benefit of the many. Every 
farmer knows that he can learn much by 
traveling among his brother farmers and 
informing himself with regard to their va 
rious modes of farming, their experiments, 
their successes, and even their failures. 
Now we propose, with the help of our 
friends, to bring this information right to 
the home of each reader of the Rural, and 
thus save them the expense and loss of 
time in traveling around for such informa- 
tion. 

Tell us then, friends, how j/ou make your 
farms pay, so that we can tell the same to 
the many thousands who read the Rural. 
Write us short, jiractical articles, such as 
every one can understand. We don't want 
theory; we want just what you know to be 
facts by practice. We wish to give our 
readers information that will make the 
farm pay, and make this journal invaluable 
to every farmer ou the Pacific Coast — make 
it such that every one can, with its help, 
make his farm pay. 

Farming Implements Needed in Mon- 
tana. — A writer from Montana informs uh, 
that the agricultural implements in that 
Territory as a general thing are a very infe- 
rior article, which eastern manufacturers 
have forwarded there. Plows and other 
farming utensils of new and improved 
styles are badly needed. We would be 
pleased to have the many readers of the 
Rural in Montana inform us what kind of 
implements are required, and will give any 
information they desire, as to the most 
improved kinds of agricultural implements 
in use on the Pacific coast. 



Grand Island. — The levee, although 
.unfinished, has not been damaged $100 by 
the flood; in places where the different 
sections of levee had not connected, the 
water flowed in until it had obtained a 
depth of three feet in the lowest part of the 
Island. This will soon drain off. 



January 6, 1872.1 



^q^icduxJfv^L fioxis. 



CALIFORNIA. 

ALAMEDA COCXTF-Fiom the Brook- 
lyn Home Jo'irnal: AoBicrLTURAii Advan- 
tages. — Our connty takes the lead as a 
grain grower, while Santa Clara's specialty 
is fruits. Here many of the agricultural 
experiments that have made California 
noted, were first m.iJe. Here the first 
ramie was planted, here the first apple 
trees were procured for Oregon, which has 
since become famous for that fruit; here 
the first beet sugar in the United States 
•was made; here plants have been raised 
which have sent seed to the four quar- 
ters of the globe. But our great boast is 
our grain product. Of course the grain 
interest has largely suffered during the 
dry seasons just passed, but it will revive 
again with increased activity and ))rofit. 
As an evidence we may mention the fact 
that before the last heavy rain, one wheat- 
grower in the Livermore Valley had fin- 
ished sowing 1,800 acres of wheat, and is 
now plowing 1,800 acres for a like purpose. 
AVe may safely say that for richness of soil, 
variety of products, beauty of scenery and 
agreeableness of climate, the plains of the 
Alameda and the valley of Santa Clara, 
stand unrivalled in the world. And what 
is more, there exists no drawbacks what- 
ever that would make them undesirable 
habitations. 

CorxTY Statistics. — The County As- 
sessor has made up his annual report to 
the Surveyor-General of the industrial and 
agricultural condition of the county dur- 
ing 1871. There have been 121, 2i0 acres 
of land cultivated, being 3,477 acres more 
than last year. There is a heavy decrease 
in the average and quantity of wheat, rye 
and corn; but there is a corresponding in- 
crease in the average and number of bush- 
els of barley and oats. The cultivation of 
buckwheat is about the .same. The increase 
in beans and peas is considerably over that 
of last year. The rejiort for 1870 shows 
that 1,013 acres of potatoes were cultivated, 
producing 82,6i0 bushels. This year we 
have 1,300 acres in cultivation, with a pro- 
duct set down at 81,800 bushels. Last 
year there were 293 acres of onions culti- 
vated, which produced 25,108 bushels; 
7,465 acres of hay, prodiJ^ing 12,475 tons; 
375 acres of fla-^L, producing 68, GOO pounds; 
5 acres of hops, producing 1,870 pounds; 
1,295 tons of beets, 32 tons of turnips, 
1,280 tons of pumpkins and squashes, 
75,350 pounds of butter, 4,218 pounds of 
cheese, 215,775 pounds of wool, 4,325 
pounds of honey. In fruit trees and vines, 
the increase this year over the last is con- 
siderable, except in peach, pear, plum and 
almond-trees, and raspberry vines. Last 
year there were but 120 mulberry -trees; 
this year there are 940. The number of 
gallons of wine was 4,080 in 1870, and 
4,780 in 1871; brandy, 500 gallons in 1870, 
to 865 gallons this year. 

CALAVERAS — Sa,n Andreas Citizen, 
Dec. 23d: Good Prospects. — The ground 
is now wet to a greater deijth than it has 
been at any time during the last three 
years. Everybody is cheerful, and com- 
l^laints about drj' seasons and consequent 
hard times have ceased to be uttei-ed. 

COXTRA COSTA-Gazette, Dec. 30th: 
Growixg.— The warm weather that has 
prevailed since the storm came on us has 
quickened the growth of grass, while the 
grain sown before the rain has already shot 
its tiny spears 2 or 3 inches out of the 
ground, and they are opening their blades, 
giving the hills and fields a verdant aspect. 

Antioeh Ledger: Putting in Crops. — 
Many farmers who have lost heavily dur- 
ing the past year, and who have deferred 
seeding their ground till assured of rain, 
will now exert themselves to sow as large 
an acreage as possible. The soil of this 
valley is in excellent condition and in a 
virgin state. We may now reasonably hope 
for an abundant harvest and greater busi- 
ness activity. Between Bay Point and 
Point of Timber there are from 60,000 to 
75,000 acres of tillable land, which in an 
ordinarily favorable season will produce 
$2,000,000 worth of grain. The beneficial 
results that will accrue to our town with 
this immense yield cannot be over-esti- 
mated. Before another Christmas we pre- 
dict a largely-increased population for 
An-tioch, with a railroad from our water- 
front extending through the valley, to- 
gether with a canal which shall forever 
after supply our valley with water for irri- 
gation. 

FRESXO—Kqtositor, Dec. 27lh: Our 
bills are looking beautifully green once 
again. Grass will soon be long enough to 
afford good grazing for stock. The rains 
thus far this season have so encouraged 
the farmers that many who for a while had 



almost given up the idea of attempting to 
farm are now busily engaged in planting 
and seeding their ground. Nearly twice as 
much grain will be planted in this county 
this year as ever before. 

LOS AXGELES - Plowing. — The 
ground is sufficiently moistened to jjlow 
uf)on what are known as the dry lands. 
The farmers are commencing to plow, and 
a larger amount of land will be plowed and 
.seeded than for any previous year in the 
county. 

itf^i?/iV^.— Too Much Rain.— The ground 
is so soaked, that farmers will be unable 
to plow for a month, except on the hill- 
sides. 

MENDOCIN'O — Democrat, Dec. 28th: 
Corn and Potatoes. — The coast of this 
county produces immense crops of oats 
and potatoes; and this year, we understand 
from Navarro they were unexpectedly 
good, particularly for the latter. G. W. 
Wright, who lives a short distance from 
Cuffy's Cove raised from 20% acres 3,600 
sacks of potatoes, averaging 129 pounds 
each, making in all 464,400 pounds. 

MONTEREY~C&airoyi\\e Argux, Dec. 
23d: ExtojRAGiNG Prospects. — Farmers 
are jubilant over the very cheering out- 
look, and confidence, doubtless, has been 
restored among stock men. The landscape 
is rapidly assuming the welcome hues oi 
spring, and to the agriculturist and grazier 
alike— in fact, to every industrial interest 
the season promises well. 

XAP A— Cor. Reporter, Dec. 30th: Conn 
Yalley. — The climate is more genial here 
than in Napa Valley, and free from frost. 
.A.t the residence of Mr. Frank S.age in the 
upper part of Conn Valley flowers are still 
in full bloom and flowering vines are clam- 
bering upon the walls of the house. This 
valley connects Pope and Napa Valley. It 
is quite hemmed in with lofty mountains 
and traversed by a small, but rapid and 
picturesque stream. The general direction 
of the valley is southwest and northeast. 

Wine Product.— Napa connty is rapid- 
ly assuming its destined place among the 
first wine producing localities. The fol- 
lowing may be considered reliable as to 
the quantities of wine made by some of our 
leading wine-makers: Carver & Pellet of 
St. Helena, 75,000; Charles King, 65,000, 
G. Groetzinger, of Yountville, 75,000; Si- 
grist, of Napa City 60,000; Van Bever k 
Thompson, of Napa City, 23,000, Besides 
these tliere are many others who have pro- 
duced considerable quantities, but we have 
no figures. Among these we mention 
McDonell,of Napa, Burrage, of Yountville, 
Crane k Montgomery, E. D. Keyes, Giaque 
ifc Fulton, of St. Helena, and Keseberg and 
J. Schram of Calistoga. 

Flood. — Among those who have sus- 
tained considerable loss by the flood may 
be named Messrs. G. W. Crowey and Jo- 
siah Trubody-the former having lost about 
300 head of sheep and the latter 6 head of 
cattle. 

PLACER— Cor. Auburn Herald, Dec. 
22d: Foothills. — Plowing and seeding is 
going on with an energy in the foothills 
that will prove a success to our part of 
Placer county. Vineyards have been, and 
are still being, put out on every sunny 
hillside where not many years ago chapar- 
ral and poison oak were its principal pro- 
ductions; and in connection with the grape 
vine there is also some mulberry orchards 
started, for the j)urpose of raising silk. 
But how silk raising will succeed is yet to 
be found out, and experience is the way in 
which it can be tested thoroughly. 

SA CRA MEXTO- Record : Agricultu- 
ral P.VRK. — Somebody has got to foot a 
billof repairs at Agricultural Park. The tin 
roofing of the grand stand was lifted bodi- 
ly by the wind and thrown over the wes- 
terly side of the building. The stand 
erected for General Sherman at the time 
he visited the Park, was entirely destroyed. 

The new levee of the Sacramento Valley 
Reclamation Co., at Sycamore Slough, 
has suffered to a considerable extent and 
has been washed away at the bridge. 

SAXTA CLARA— Grilroy Advocate, T>ec. 
30th: Tobacco Raising. — A year ago Mr. 
J. D. Culp jmrchased a splendid farm in 
S.an Felipe valley, from Mr. E. A. Sawyer, 
and last spring put in a crop of tobacco, 
five acres of which was planted to Havana 
seed. From these five acres he has gath- 
ered and cured a crop of 8,000 pounds of 
fine Havana tobacco, samples of which 
have been submitted to every leading to- 
bacco man in San Francisco, and they all 
have joined in a certificate that it is equal 
to that raised on the island of Cuba. The 
value of Mr. Culp's discovery may readilj" 
be appreciated when we state that the to- 
bacco imported from Havana is worth in 
San Francisco from 81. 12^^ to §2 per 
pound, while it only costs Mr. Culp three 
cents i»er pound to produce the same arti- 



cle here. California has every natural ad- 
vantage for becoming the greatest tobacco 
producing country in the world. The 
richness of the soil and mild climate, to- 
gether with the certainty of dry weather 
when the crop is being cured, are advant- 
ages that cannot be surpassed. 

SAXTACRUZ— Agriculturist, Dec. 30th: 
Coast Mountains. — The coast mountains, 
though rugged and grand, are not so high 
but that the very summits can be tilled in 
comparative safety from the frost. There 
is less frost in the Santa Cruz mountains 
than in ihe Santa Clara valley at their feet. 
In our opinion, the interior slope is ad- 
mirably adapted to the culture of all the 
semi-tropical fruits. Oranges, lemons, 
limes, olives, English walnuts, pecans, 
almonds, etc., will certainly succeed in 
the numerous sheltered and sunny spots 
to be found throughout these hills. The 
wonderful yield and superior quality of 
fine grapes, that Burrell and Feeley liave 
this year exhibited, proves the excel- 
lence of the climate. Corn, potatoes, 
grain, haj', and every sort of farm pro- 
duce, have grown side by side, this season, 
on Mr. Burrell's farm, without irrigation, 
while some of the best farms in this valley 
have failed from the effects of drouth. 

SAX JO A q VlX—Saa-amento Un ion , Dec. 
29th: Loss OF Stock. — Owing to the ex- 
cessive drouth of the past season, J. B. 
.\rrambido & Co. were compelled to move 
their cattle from the pasturage on King's 
river, and accordingly brought them this 
way. Two thousand head were sent over 
the mouLtains; 1,900 were put in G. W. 
Sharp's pasture on Tyler Island, which is 
formed by the Georgiana slough and the 
Mokelumne river, and the remainder, 
about 1,600, were put on Venice Island, 
where they are still. The heavy rain which 
fell at the commencement of the first of 
the series of storms, in two or three days 
covered the grazing ground on Tyler 
Island with water to the depth on an aver- 
age of two feet, leaving only a strip of 
ground on the outer edge of the island 
above water. To this many of the cattle 
and a number of horses (there being over 
200 of the latter on the island, including 
Sharp's and those sent there for pastur- 
ing,) made their way. At the first ap- 
pearance of danger, Sharp and a number 
of assistants started to get the stock from 
the island, and yesterday, after tvorking a 
week, succeded in getting about 1,000 
head of cattle and 80 horses out, and drove 
them to Georgetown, where they now are in 
a famishing condition, having been eight 
days without food. The task of driving 
them out from the tules on the island was 
one of great difficulty, the ground having 
become a swamp in which the poor beasts 
sunk one or two feet at every step, while 
i,he deep holes into which now and again 
they stumbled frequently becamis their 
gi-aves. Ovpr these holes bridges had to 
be constructed, and this was done by 
throwing brush and earth upon the car- 
casses of the animals that had died. Prob- 
ably 700 head were drowned or perished 
from exposure, lack of food or being 
trampled to death by their fellows. There 
are still, it is thought, about 150 horses 
anda number of cattle alive on Tyler Island, 
and an attempt will be made to save them 
as soon as the cattle that have been saved 
shall be got to Bruce B. Lee's San Juan 
gi-ant, whore pasturage has been engaged 
for them. Since Arrambido & Co. left 
King's river with their stock, they have 
lost about §20,000 worth. 

San Joaquin Republican, Dec. 27th: Mr. 
Hanks, who had cattle upon the low 
grounds of the Pescadero Ranch, west, 
side of the San Joaquin river, lost 300 or 
400 head in getting them to the high 
ground. A band of 2,000 sheep, the j)rop- 
erty of a gentleman named Carson, were 
nearly all drowned on Union Island. 
Others who have cattle, sheep, and horses 
in the same locality, must have suffered 
loss, but to what extent we are not in- 
formed. 

Seed Wheat. — Seed wheat in large 
quantities is being forwarded to the west 
side of the San Joaquin. A vast area of 
land will be planted on that side of the 
river this season, notwithstanding the des- 
titution among the farmers. Parties are 
furnishing seed and receive three-eighths 
of the crop in return. 

Vegetation. — The hills and valleys have 
assumed the hue of early spring, and all 
nature seems imbued with new life and re 
newed vigor. The early sown grain is 
giving promise of large returns to 
the farmers for their labor. All are en- 
couraged to make renewed exertions in the 
planting and cultivation of large crops, 
confidence is re-e*tablished, and already 
the country presents a more favorable ap- 
pearance than has bepu the cjise for the 
past 3 years. 



SOXOMA—B,}issmn River Flag, Dec. 
28th: Angora Goats. -We -have been shown 
specimens of wool from Angora goats 
owned by Mr. Alexander of Alexander 
Valley, which for fineness of texture and 
length equal any specimens we have ever 
examined. Mr. Alexander has a flock of 
about 150 goats, which range all the way 
from the common breed to nearly full- 
blood Angora, and he expects his flock 
soon to yield him a fine return for his 
trouble and expense. The wool now is 
quoted at about 90 cents per pound, and a 
flock will average 4 or 5 pounds per head. 
It is just as easy to raise this kind of stock 
as the common sheep and much more prof- 
itable. 

The grass is growing finely in the vicin- 
ity of Petaluma, being 6 or 8 inches high 
on some of the ranches adjoining the city. 
TULARE —Yisalia. Delta, Dec. 21st: 
Squaw V.allet. — We learn that there has 
been an abundance of rain in Squaw Val- 
ley, and that the farmers are busily en- 
gaged in putting in grain with the bright- 
est prospects. The grass is up and grow- 
ing finely, yet great numbers of cattle, 
driven into the valley from the plains, are 
dying on account of not being accustomed 
to the young and tender feed. 

Land Sale. — A Capitalist about six 
weeks ago bought some 35,000 acres of 
swamp land on the edge of Tulare Lake, 
Tulare county, for 37% cents per acre.-. 
Last week he sold this tract to an English 
company for S3 per acre, thus netting 
over §90,000 by the operation. 

FfZCJ— Marysville Stayidard, Dec. 28th: 
Orchard Damaged. — Briggs' new orchard 
will not sutler much dam.age by the pres- 
ent high water — high water on fruit trees 
when the sap is down does no damage to 
trees or the coming crop. But this im- 
mense orchard will suffer some damage 
from the wind and the loosening of the 
soil. This land, before the flood, was alive 
with gophers. The little fellows, when 
forced to leave their holes by the water, 
labored to save their lives by climbing the 
fruit trees. Being unable to reach the 
limbs they would cling to the bark of the 
bodj' of the trees until the waters reached 
them, and then fall off and drown. The 
carcasses of thousands may be seen to-day 
floating beneath the trees of this great or- 
chard. 

OREGON. 
Walla Walla Union, Dec. 16th: Fine 
Stock. — We learn that a gentleman from 
the Touchet' has now between this place 
and Portland some fine stock that he has 
purchased in the Atlantic States. He has 
sheep, hogs and poultry of the very best 
kinds that could be procured, and we know 
of no place where their introduction would 
pay better than here. 

Wheat Remaining. — Since the boats 
stopped running, there still remains in . 
store at Wallula 500 tons of wheat. 

Grass. — The grass has grown considera- 
bly of late, and the outside pasture is 
good. Stock is in good condition for this 
time of the year. The range is better than 
it was a few weeks ago. 

Plowing. — Within the last few days 
there has been great activity on the farms. 
The weather has been fine and the ground 
in good condition, and farmers are busy 
plowing. There is a great deal of new 
land being plowed this fall, and there will 
be larger crops sown than usual. 

Oregonian, Dec. 16th: A lot of apples, 
400 boxes, has been shipped from Coos 
Bay to San Francisco. Something new 
from that quarter. 

At the Horticultural Fair held in this 
city, last summer. Mr. Cullen exhibited 
some very fine Early Rose potatoes' — the 
crop of the season — which took the pre- 
mium. Afterward, he planted his prize 
potatoes and their product were the pota- 
toes shown us last evening. They are the 
second crop from the seed grown in 1871, 
being about as large as a goose e%s,, and 
were matured. Mr. Cullen, also, raised 
some very fine short top blood beets, one 
of which he showed us, measuring 25 
inches in circumference; and some extra- 
ordinary celery, one head gathered Thanks- 
giving Day, weighing 8 pounds and two 
ounces. These products were grown in 
the garden of Senator Corbett, in this city, 
where the soil is not generally understood 
to be first class; and show what can bo 
done oven in poor soil by good gardening. 

NEVADA. 

Cattle Dying. — Accounts from Hum- 
boldt Wells, Dec. 31st, state that American 
and California cattle are dying in that 
neighborhood in largo numbers on account 
of the severity of the winter. As yet it has 
not injured Texas cattle to any extent. 

The flood has caused considerable dam- 
age to the property of farmers in Carson 
Valley. 



6r! 



[January 6, 1872. 



The State Geological Survey.— No. 1. 

An Important Question. 

Prominent among the questions which 
the present Legislature will he called upon 
to decide, is that of the further continu- 
ance or the discontinuance of our State 
Geological Survey. 

This work was commenced in 1861, and 
continued without intermi-ssion until the 
close of 18(57. It was then discontinued 
for two years, owing to the fact tliat the 
Legislature of 18G7-8 made no ajipropria- 
tion for it. But it was again taken up by 
the Legislature of 1809-70, and has been 
carried on during the last two years under 
the appropriation of S2,000 per mouth, 
then made for its continuance. 

It thus appears that the work of the 
Geological Survey has extended through a 
period of about nine years; and the ques- 
tions very naturally arise, what is the 
character of this work; what have been its 
results in the past; what are they likely to 
be in the future; and what is their prac- 
tical value to the Slate at large? 

If. as some lielieve, the Geological Sur- 
vey is doing nothing and producing noth- 
ing but elaborate pictures of extinct shell 
fish and minutely scientific descriptions of 
bngs, then we may well be rxcuaed for be- 
lieving that " the play is not worth what 
it costs." But if. on the other hand, il 
shall api)ear that it is in reality an earnest 
investigation by able brains and skillful 
hands of the "material resources of the 
State, and especially of hermiaeral wealth, 
as well as of the history of the formation 
of her mountain ranges, the cutting out of 
her tremendous canons, the growth and 
extinction of her immense voh^anoea on a 
scale of grandeur far exceeding anything 
ths» continent now shows, the extent of her 
mines of coal and quicksilver, the distribu- 
tion of the gold in lier rocks and veins, the 
character, extent and origin of her vast 
masses of auriferous Rravel, the formation 
of her broad and fertile valleys, the capac- 
ities of her soil, the laws which govern her 
kaleidoscopic climates, in a word, the 
whole physical structure of her frame; — if 
the money hitherto devoted to this work 
by the State has been wisely and econom- 
ically exjiended in the gathering of reliable 
information upon subjects such as these, 
and if the Chief of the Survey is busilv 
employed in sifting and classifying the 
mass of information so obtained, deducina- 
order from what has hitherto been chaos, 
gradually solving the difficult problems of 
our peculiarly complex geology, and pre- 
senting as rapidly as possible in svstematic 
and intelligil)le shajje, the results of all 
this work in his reports and maps, for tlie 
benefit of the people at large, and for 
their guidance in important practical ques- 
tions of agricultural and mining industry. — 
then the matter assumes an altogether dif- 
ferent shape, and the question is rather, 
can a State like California afford to stop a 
•work like this before it be completed ? 

We have recently been investigating 
•with considerable care the work of the Ge 
ological Survey and the present status of 
its affairs, and propose to give to our read- 
ers the results of our investigation. 

The Generarctiaracter of the Work. 

Before entering into details, however, we 
will give a short sketch of the general 
character of the work, its purpose and its 
aims. And in doing this, •we shall make 
the freest use of an article which appears 
in the Jantiary number of the Overkiii<l 
Monthly from the pen of a writer who is 
evidently well acquainted with the sub- 
ject, and knows of what he .speaks. 

Tlie object of the Geological Survey may 
be best made intelligible by .stating that it 
is taking an inventory of the "natural re- 
sources" of the State, and by the term ' 'nat- 
ural resources" is meant the innumerable 
good things which she has inherited from 
motlier Nature. — her soil, valleys, moun 
tains, plains, rivers, lakes, the treasures of 
mineral and metallic wealth which lie be- 
neath her surface, the creatures which live 
upon her soil and in her waters, the plants 
which grow within her borders, these all 
need to he cataiogned ju.st as a merchant 
needs to have his stock of goods invento- 
ried, or a farmer the boundaries and the 
quality of his tields determined. 

That the Legislature which in 18G0 sot 
this survey on foot took this comprehen- 
sive view of the 8ul)ject is clear enough; 
for the Act authorizing the work calls for 
"an accurate and ei)m|)let<! geological sur- 
vey of the State, with proper maps thereof, 
and a lull and scientific description of its 
rocks, fossils, soils and minerals, and of 
its botanical and zoological productions." 
This was the language of the original .\et, 
and it has not only never been repealed, 



but it has been confirmed again and again 
by successive Legislatures. Such there- 
fore is the work which it has been the duty 
of the State Geological Survey to accom- 
plish, so far as the means which have been 
placed at its command would permit. 
Topography. 

It seems hardly necessary to point out 
the desirability of a geographical basis for 
the geological work, or the impossibility 
of any accurate delineation or intelligible 
description of the geological features of a 
country without a correspondingly ac- 
curate knowledge of the situation, extent 
•and outlines of its mountain ranges,- their 
altitudes aViove the sea, the courses of its 
streams, the location and extent of its val- 
leys; in a word, of just such features as 
those which are .shown upon good topo- 
graphical maps. Geological determina- 
tions, in fact, unless madu available and 
jiermanent V)y being recorded upon suita- 
ble maps, are of little value, and of hardly 
any account for practical use. To be avail- 
able, the information must be accurately 
located. As well might one attempt to 
paint a picture on the air, or put a roof on 
a house before the walls were built, as to 
convey geological information without a 
map on which it can be embodied. 
Physical Geography. 

Closely allied to the topography proper, 
is the physical geography of the State, or 
the study of the geographical facts from a 
generalized point of view; for instance, as 
related to the climate, and thus as bearing 
directly on the agricultural and sanitary 
(wndition of the i)eople. Consider for a 
moment how imj)ortant even one class of 
simple fiicts in this department may be- 
come. We refer to the determination of 
hights above .the sea-level. V)y which Mie 
relative difiFerences of elevation are deter- 
mined and the form of the surface made 
out. This kind of information is of the 
greatest practical value in its bearings on 
all questions of drainage, irrigation, road 
building and the like. There is hardly 
any great branch of industry in the State 
which may not be in some degree bene- 
fitted by this part of the work. 
Geology. 

It is po])ularly supposed that the geo- 
logical part of the Survey means merely 
■'prospecting" the ground for the pur- 
pose of making new discoveries of valua- 
ble deposits of ores or minerals. This is 
by no means the case. There are pros- 
pectors enough already in the field. It 
would be difficult to find a gulch in Cali- 
fornia into which some indomitable indi- 
vidual had not already penetrated ; neither 
would it be easy to find any kind of worth- 
less rock, which had not been supposed 
by some one to be of value. The object 
of the Geological Survey is something 
very different from m^re prospecting. It 
is. rather, to examine everything which 
has been already discovered, and from the 
accumulation of such observations to com- 
bine the experience and knowledge of all. 
so that general results may be obtained 
which shall be of great value as tending 
to put a stop to wasteful expenditure and 
misdirected explorations; while incident- 
ally of course a large amount of informa- 
tion is gained which is of essential service 
in properly guiding the active exploraMon 
and development of our mines. The Geo- 
logical Survey makes no pretensions to the 
kind of knowledge that is claimed by tht 
(diarlatans of the "divining rod " and the 
" goldometer." 

It is folly to suppose that the geologist 
should always be able to tf 11 beforehand 
])recisely where a shaft must be sunk or a 
tunnel driven to strike rich pay. No man 
can see through fathoms of solid rock. No 
good geologist or mining engineer ever 
pretends to do it. But he ought to be able 
after a careful examination of the ground 
to understand and weigh ihe probabilities of 
the case with a sounder and better founded 
judgment than a man of less experience 
and information can do. And with refer- 
ence to the mines it is precisely those 
facts of observation and practical experi- 
ence combined with a proper knowledge 
of the character and distribution of rocks 
and ores upon which the judgment of are- 
liable mining engineer is always based, 
that it is the province of the Geological 
Survey to gather, and systematize, and 
|)ubli8h to the people for their better 
guidance in the ever-hazardous work of 
mining enterpri.se. 

Having thus briefly touched upon a few 
of the most salient ))oiut8 in the broad 
field which a geological survey of a State 
like California should cover, we ])roposo 
in oiir next issue to give some definite ac- 
count of what the survey has actually been 
doing, and then to enquire in how far it 
lias met or has failed to meet the require- 
ments of the original Act which ordered it, 
iind the legitimate expectations of the jieo- 
jde. 



Hybrid Animals. 

It is interesting to note ho^w facta crowd 
in on us of a nature so curious that a few 
years ago they would not have received the 
slightest credence, but 'which are now 
placed beyond all dispute. It is not so' 
very long since that hybrids were consid 
ered absolutely sterile. The mule was 
taken as a type of all this class. Now it is 
I pretty certain that, if not the only excep- 
I tion in .sterility, it is nearly so, and even 
i mules have l)een known to produce off- 
spring. In other animals mules are get- 
ting a varied existence. Kecently, at the 
I -\cademy of Natural Sciences of I'hiladel- 
l>hia, a bird was exhibited which was a 
hybrid between a Brahmahen and a Guinea 
'. fowl. It was a very unique and pretty 
I bird, i)ure white, with more of the grace- 
ful in its outline than either of its ])arents. 
The American 2^atiira/ixf, always careful of 
its facts, not long ago gave some authentic 
details of hybrids between the common 
house cat and the raccoon of the Southern 
States. All these undoulited cases jire- 
pare us for admitting the following from 
the Poii/Irt/ Ihdletin, as being within the 
bounds of probability. In this Mr. E. H. 
Kogers, of Tuscaloosa, Ala., sends a de- 
scription of an interesting hybrid produced 
by mating a turkey cock to a common hen. 
He writes: "I have twenty-one fowls, 
the result of this union. At hatching, 
they resembled the chickens in their form 
and their chirping, though somewhat 
larger. After feathering, they assumed the 
color of the turkey, and the tails, instead of 
being like that of the maternal parent, 
were square, resembling that of the turkey. 
The bill resembles that of a chicken .and a 
turkey. Some of them have combs very 
prominent at hatching, resembling much 
those of the common cock, though turned 
a little to one side. The others have no 
combs at all on that part of the head where 
the comb grows. There is a smooth place 
at the uj)per end of which is a little pro- 
jection resembling that of the turkey gob- 
bler. They are now about three months 
old; they have changed but little, and are 
as tall as common hens. I expect to show 
them in different .States this year at the 
Fairs, and I am in hopes .you will see them. 
I send you a feather from the wing of a 
three months' old fowl, that you may see 
its character for yourself." 

The greatest interest to poultry-raisers 
is to kno a' whether these hybrids can be 
perpetuated. \Ve have already said that 
progen.v from hybrids is getting to be the 
rule rather than the exception. It was at 
one time supposed that the buffalo and do- 
mestic cow pro<luced together a sterile 
progeny, but this is now known not to be 
true. 

Almost all persons who believe in the 
sterility of hybrids try no further after pro- 
ducing them; and we offer these migges- 
tions to encourage those who have been 
fortunate in producing them to continue 
on in their experiments. — Philadelphia 
Press. 

The World's Fair of 1873. 

Americana should remember that Vienna 
is to have a world's fair in 1878. At the 
Paris exhibition of 18(j7 nearly everything 
sent from this country took a prize, and 
there is no reason why the same thing 
should not be rejieated at Vienna in 1873. 
The exhibition will undoubtedl.v be the 
largest that has ever yet been seen. The 
park set apart for the exhiliition contains 
four times as many stjuare yarils as has 
ever been similarly occupied, and the prin- 
cipal building alone will have a length of 
4,Gr>0 feet. The comniittee having the 
matter in charge wish to have full display 
of the raw materials and manufactured 
articles of each nation, with statistical in- 
formation in reference to the amount pro- 
duced and the trade therein. 

Special efforts will be made to have the 
art collections as complete as possible, 
and it is projjosed to have a lojin collection 
from all the German museums, similar to 
the celebrated one at Kensington. An- 
other speciality will b- a collection of arti- 
cles used by different nations in their do- 
mestic atTairs, kitchen utensils, furniture, 
dress, ornamental objects, in f.act every- 
thing used about a house. As the Aus- 
trian nation has never had an exhibition of 
this character, they will undoubtedly work 
hard to make it a success. The opportu- 
nity ought not to be neglected by the man- 
ufacturers of this country. — N. Y. Post. 

Cyclones. — Mr. Meldrnm gives reasons 
for believing that the East India cyclones 
are produced by the meeting of the north- 
ern and southern trade winds. 



The Movements of Insects. 

In the sultrj- noontide, seated under the 
shadowy grapevine, I oiten admire the 
busy black ants marching up and down or 
pausing to milk thtur aphide cows that 
feast sumptuously on the delicate, juicy 
young tendrils of the vine. Then, as the 
day declines, I love to rest on the hillside 
and gaze on the myriad of insects floating 
in cloud-like masses over the valley, and 
reflecting the light of the sun now fast 
sinking in the west. Almost simultane- 
ously with their swarming, the evening 
birds dart suddenly from secret recesses, 
and devour with wide extended jaws and 
unsiisj)ended (light their bountiful evening 
meal. Why can I m-ver see these birds in 
the act of coming'? Verily, the work of 
the iifth day of creation seems daily re- 
peated, and " fowl fly above the earth in 
the open firmament of heaven." 

The groups of gay insects that sported 
in the sunshine, their heads turned wind- 
ward as tliougli enjoying the draught of 
the warm summer breeze or the at'rial food 
thus wafted to them unsought, disappear 
with the setting of the sun. Then the 
sphinxes and the night beetles turn out in 
force, and the large hawkmoths hover 
round thephoixof the garden, and silently 
exercise that "right to life, liberty and 
the pursuit of happiness," which the 
cricket, the katydid and their fellow mu- 
sicians noisily assert. 

The men of this generation rejoice in 
their conquests over time and space, in 
their iron horses and palatial cars. "The 
horrid things that crawl" and fly have no 
voice intelligil)le to man, or they might 
advance just claims to the possession and 
practice of every known variety of locomo- 
tion in a degree of perfection that i»roud 
man, with all the aid of mechanism, can 
only rudely intimate. As larva, pupa or 
imago, the insect moves under the earth, 
upon the earth, above the eai'th — under 
the water, through the water, on the surface 
of the water — on tree and herb and grass — 
on insect, bird and beast — in living ti.ssues 
and in the dead — perhafis in the else all 
ctmsumiug tiro. — Lippincotf k .Migazine. 

Ancient Music. — The Egj-ptian flute 
w.as only a cow's horn with three or four 
holes in it. and their harp or lyre hatl only 
three strings, the^lre<-iau lyre hatl only 
seven strings, ancP^vas very small, being 
held in one hand; the Jewish trumpets 
that made the walls of Jericho fall 
down were only rams' horns; their flute 
was the same as the Egyptian ; they had 
no other instrumental music but by per- 
cussion, of which the greatest boast miule 
was the psaltery, a small triangular harp 
or lyre with wire strings, and str\ick with 
an iron needle or stick; their sai-but was 
something- like a bagpipe ; the timbrel 
was a tamborine, and the dulcimer was a 
horizontal harp, with wire strings, and 
struck with a stick like the jisaltery. The.r 
had no written music; had scarcely a vowel 
in their language; and yet (according to 
Josepluis)" had two hundred thousand mu- 
sicians playing at the dedication of the 
temple of Solomon. Mozart would have 
died in such a concert in the greatest ag- 
onies. ^^^^^^^_^ 

Pekspiratiox Odors. — Tlie nnplea.sant 
odor produced by perspiration it, frequently 
a subject of vexation to persons who are 
subject to it. Nothing is simpler than to 
remove this odor much more effectually 
than by the application of such unguents 
and- perfumes as are now in use. It is only 
necessary to procure some compound sj)ir- 
its of ammonia, and place about two tea- 
spoonsful in a bivsin of water. Washing the 
face, hands and arms with this, leaves the 
skin as clean, neat and fresh as one could 
wish. 

Tim FinsT Chinese Patent. — A China- 
man of Canton, China, named Lee Ping, 
and another of San Francisco, named Pon 
Jib, doing business together in the latt.er 
cit.v, have made application to the Patent 
Oljice for a patent on a trade mark for their 
tea. This is the first application from the 
"Heathen Chinee" to the Patent Office. 

Sensation in Horses. — The fact that 
horses and other animals with broken 
limbs do not appear to lose their appe- 
tites, have led some scientific men to raise 
the question whether these creatures suffer 
as much under the circumstances as men 
do; for a man could not sit quietly down 
to dinner just after breaking his leg. 

When a diamond is exposed to the in- 
tense heat proluced by the vidtaic batt^-rv, 
it becomes fused and resembles a piece of 
coke. 

There are 78 railroads in German^ own- 
ing 19,145 miles of road. 



January 6, 1872.I 



The Gloss on Silk. 

The method of giving an artificial gloss 
to the woven pieces of silk was invented 
in 1603. The discovery of the method was 
purely accidental. Octavia Mey, a mer- 
chant of Lyons, being one day deep in 
meditation, mechanically put a small bunch 
of silk threads into his mouth and began 
to chew them. On taking them out again 
in his hand he was struck by the peculiar 
justre they had acquired, and was not a 
little astonished to find tliat this lustre 
continued to adhere to the threads even 
after they had become dry. He at once 
saw that in this fact there was a secret 
worth unravelling, and being a man of in- 
genuity, he apfjlied himself to tlie study of 
the question. The result of his experi- 
ments was the " glossing method." 

The manner of imparting the artificial 
gloss has, like all other details of the weav- 
ing art, undergone certain changes in the 
course of years. At present, it is done in 
this wise: Two rollers revolving on their 
axes are set up a few feet from the ground, 
and at about ten yards, in a straight line, 
from e ich other. Bound the first of these 
rollers is wound the i^ieoe of silk, of 20, 
40, or 100 yards in length, as the case may 
be. Ten j'ards of the silk are then un- 
wound, and fi.xed by means of a brass rod 
in a groove on the second roller, care 
being taken to stretch the silk between the 
two cylinders as tightly as possible. A 
•workman with a thin blade of metal in his 
hand, daintily covers the uppermost side 
of the silk (that which will form the in- 
side of the piece) with a coating of gum. 
On the floor under the outstretched silk is 
a small tramway, upon which runs a sort 
of tender filled with glowing coals. As 
fast as one man covers the silk with gum, 
another works the tender up and down, so 
as to dry the mucilage before it has had 
time to permeate the te.xture. 

This is a very delicate operation; for if, 
on the one hand, the gum is allowed to 
run through the silk, or if, on the other, 
the ooals are kept too long under one place, 
the piece is spoiled. In the first instance, 
it would be stained beyond all power of 
cleaning, and in the second, it would be 
burned. None but trusty workmen are 
confided with this task; and even with the 
most proved hands there is sometimes 
damage. When ten yards of the ])iece have 
been gummed and dried, they are rolled 
around the second cylinder and ten more 
are unwouud. This is repeated to the end. 
Bu'. the silk, with its coating of dry gum, 
is then stiff to the touch and crackles like 
cream-laid note-paper when folded. To 
make it soft and pliant again, it is rolled 
anew, some six or seven times, under two 
different cylinders, one of which has been 
warmed by the introduction of hot coals 
inside, and this is sufficient to give it that 
bright new look which we all so much ad- 
mire in fresh silk. 



Spiders' Silk. — Speaking of the silk 
produced by a certain species of spider, 
Dr. Wilder says: "If you can picture to 
yourself a mass o_f pure yellow gold, which 
not only reflects the light as from a smooth 
and polished surface, but which has all the 
depth and softness of liqviid amber, you 
may realize in some degree the wonderful 
appearance of a sheet of spider's silk as 
seen in the sunshine; and even in the 
shade its lustre is greater than that of 
gold. But to compare the silk to gold is 
to tell only one-half the story; for the 
same spider yields silver as well, so that 
you may draw from its body a thread of 
silver, or both threads together; their 
union giving silk of a light yellow color." 

A Chinese WiND-BvuRotv. — One of the 
strangest sights in China is their wind 
wheel barrow; it is drawn by a donkey, 
and when the wind is fair a sail is set. 
The wheel turns in the middle of a wooden 
frame, sustained by iron bars. Upon the 
frame are hung all kinds of utensils. The 
donkey is generally mounted by the pater- 
familas, the son and heir is at the stern as- 
sisting all he can, while the mother and 
younger ones ride on the vehicle. 

The Brain. — It is said that the brain of 
an idiot contains about one per cent, of 
l)hosphoric m after, that of persons of 
sound intellect, 2% per cent., while 
that of the maniac contains S'/„ per cent. 
If this be so, it would seem that in a man- 
iac the brain appropriates an undue pro- 
portion of phosphoric matter from the rest 
of the system, whereby its /^unctions are 
materially impairedv 



Scientific Amusement. 

The Pall Mall Gazette conveys to its read- 
ers two delightful little experiments in 
vivisection. We reproduce them, as tend- 
ing to afiford both amusement and occupa- 
tion for leisure moments: 

No. 1. — Insert in the back of a rat the 
end of its own tail, having first pai-ed it 
raw with a bistoury; it will heal and take 
root. As soon as the graft is complete, 
amputate the tail about one third of an 
inch fi-om the old root. The rat's tail will 
thenceforward grow the reverse way and 
out of the back. During the first three 
months the rat will evince very feeble signs 
of feeling when the tail is pinched. At 
the end of six or nine months, the sensi- 
tiveness- of the part will have much in- 
creased, but the animal will not yet be 
able to guess whei-e it is pinched. After a 
year, he will, however, be completely up 
"to the trick, and will turn to bite the 
pinchers. 

No. 2. — If you amputate the pdw of a 
young rat, partially skin it, and introduce 
it through the skin of another rat's side, 
it will engraft, take nutriment, grow and 
acquire all the ordinary parts of its struc- 
ture, as if it had remained with its former 
proprietor. 

The latter experiment is decidedly in- 
genious, reflecting great credit on the 
inventor for his originality. Possibly, the 
rats may object. 

Ancient and Modern Workerb in 
Wool. — Under this caption the " Bulletin 
of the National Association of Woolen 
Manufactures " for April, copies the let- 
ter of our correspondent, Mrs. B, , of Min- 
neiska, Minnesota (telling how she worked 
up with a knitting machine some 250 
pounds of wool, and pronounced it not 
only "a recreation," but profitable with- 
al), with the following handsome preface: 

We have often vainl.; sought for a worthy 
parallel for the ancient lioman matron 
whose tomb in the Eternal City bears the 
epitaph commemorative of her domestic 
virtues; which were to " stay at home," 
and " work up wool." 

Domam viansit, 
Lanam fecit. 

We find the parallel at last in the Min- 
nesota lady, who penned the following ar- 
ticle for the WeMent Rural. But if there is 
a parallel, there is a (contrast. Who, — that 
compares the Roman woman ])ainfully toil- 
ing with her distaff all day for a feeble pro- 
duct, with the American matron, by aid of 
modern invention, running olf in mere sport 
her 1,.500 stitches a minute, and turning 
out at odd moments a product which meets 
most of her family expenses, — can say 
that the material science of modern times 
has done nothing for domestic happiness. 

Dust Everywhere. — There is dust on 
the sea, on land, in the valley and on the 
mountain-top; there is dust always and 
everyvk'here; the atmosphere is full of it; 
it penetrates the noisome dungeon, and 
visits the deepest, darkest caves of the 
earth, no palace door can shut it out, no 
drawer so secret as to escape its presence; 
every breath of wind dashes it upon the 
open eye, and yet that eye is not blinded, 
because there is a fountain of the blandest 
fluid in nature incessantly emptying itself 
under the eyelid, which spreads it over 
the surface of the ball at every winking, 
and washes every atom of dust away. But 
this liquid, so well adapted to the eye it- 
self, has some acidity, which, under cer- 
tain circumstances, becomes so decided as 
to be scalding to the skin, and would rot 
away the eyelids were it not that all along 
the edges of them there are little oil man- 
ufactories, which spread over their surface 
a coating as impervious to the liquids nec- 
essary for keeping the eyeballs washed 
clean as the best varnish is impervious to 
water. 



QaOD tjE^LjII' 



SALIVATION. 

[Written for tlie Pkess.] 

Salivation is literally an unnatural flow 
of saliva or spittle. As the saliva is secre- 
ted by the parotid, submaxillary and sub- 
lingual glands, salivation is the result of 
unusual irritation of those glands, caused 
by the presence of some poisonous sub- 
stance introduced into the system. It is 
the first symptom of the action of the pe- 
culiar poison; but unfortunately not the 
only one, and is only the introduction to 
more serious consequences as will be 
shown hereafter. 

Several drugs are capable of producing 
salivation; yet it is my pur||ose to speak of 
but one in this article, which stands pre- 
eminently in the front rank. 

Mercury 

Has been used as a medicine since the 15th 
century, and owing to its uniform and cer- 
tain eflects upon the glandular system, it 
has Ijeen called the "great alterative." 

Its action, however, is not confined to 
the glandular system, for all the tissues, 
even the bones are affected, and in time 
destroyed by it. 

The condition produced by mercurial 
poisoning is technically call htjd'-argyrosis . 

How it is Introduced. 

"To produce its efi'ects upon the organism, 
it is not, by any means, necessary to pass 
it into the stomach, for the skin and mu- 
cous membranes are capable of absorbing 
it, and often do so, sulSciently to produce 
its most violent and destructive constitu- 
tional effects. By experience this fact is 
too well known by those whose business 
requires them to handle it frequently or 
almo.st constantly — miners for example. 
Heat will evaporate it rapidly; but like 
water ii. will evaporate at a low tempera- 
ture, even when undisturbed. Place a 
quantity of it in an open vessel in a house, 
and it will vai)orize sufficiently to salivate 
the inmates of the house. Amalgam left 
exposed to the action of the atmosphere 
and moderate Avarmth, will do the same 
thing, only in a less degree. Agitation fa- 
vors its evaporation, as is well known by 
those who work around quartz mills. 

Inhaling the fumes which sometimes 
are carelessly allowed to escape from a re- 
tort, and working with the hands in con- 
tact with the metal are the quickest and 
most common ways in which the poison is 
introduced into the system, by accident. 

lis Effects." 



Gold Pen Points. — Gold pens are 
dipped with iridium, making what are 
commonly known as "diamond points." 
The iridium for this purpose is found in 
small grains in platinum, slightly alloyed 
with the latter metal. In this form it is 
exceedingly hard, and well adapted to the 
purpose of the gold pen maker. The gold 
for pens is alloyed with silver to about 
sixteen carats fineness, rolled into thin 
strips, from which the blanks are struck. 
The under side of the ])oiut is notched by a 
small circular saw, to receive the iridium 
point which is.selectedby tlieaid of a micro- 
scope. A flux of borax and a blow-pipe 
secures it to its place, and the point is 
then ground oh a copper wheel with emery. 



The first noticeable effect of mercury is 
upon the salivary glands (salivation); then 
follows soreness and ulceration of the 
gums and inside of the mouth. If this is 
extreme, the teeth loosen and fall out, or 
else decay rapidly. It then attacks the 
throat, producing fearful ulceration, and 
sometimes mortification and destruction of 
the soft parts. Accompanying these con- 
ditions there is a very offensive odor of 
the breath. Its destructive effects fre- 
quently extend to the stomach and bowels, 
producing inflammation and ulceration, 
with, sometimes, fearful hemorrhage 
(bleeding) . 

Its effect upon the blood is to decom- 
pose it, make it thin and dark-colored, and 
in a great measure deprive it of the f)ower 
to coagulate when exposed to the air. 

Hemorrhages may occur from the nose, 
the throat, the lungs, or the stomach or 
bowels; or the blood may ooze out of the 
blood vessels into the cellular tissues in 
spots under the skin. 

Its effects upon the bones are, first, jaen- 
ostitis, or inflammation of the covering 
membranes; and secondly, caries, literally, 
rottenness of the bones. 

Its effects upon the skin are to produce 
perspiration, and also to produce eruptions 
and ulcerations. With the lax and soft 
condition of the skin and constant perspir- 
ation, there is great liability to take cold; 
while, at the same time, all mercurial 
affections are greatly aggravated by taking 
cold. 

Mercury also produces ozena, ulceration 
of the nose; iritis, inflammation of the iris 
of the eye; neuralgia (nerve pain) ; rheu- 
matism, gout; falling off of the hair, 
trembling of the limbs, and even jjaral- 
ysis. 

It produces swelling and induration of 
the liver, testicles, mesenteric, parotid, 
cervical, axillarv and inguinal glands. 

The above are only a part, of the poison- 
ous effects of mercury; but enough has 
been enumeratedUo show clearly its terri- 
bly destructive tendency, and its posi- 
tively deatructive efTecls whenever intro- 



duced into the organism by what 
means soever. 

Shun the Danger. 

The terribly destructive efi'ects of mer- 
cury upon the body, as already shown, have 
had the effect to lessen its use very mate- J 
rially as a medicine, and as a knowledge ' 
of the action of medicines increases, it is ' 
believed that the time is not distant when 
it will be looked upon as a criminal act for 
a physician to salivate his patients, ever so 
little. . 

My words of warning, however, are ad- r 
dressed particularly to miners, mill-men, 
and all others who use mercury largely in 
their business. 

If the adage, "An ounce of 

Prevention 

Is better than a pound of cure," ever had 
any force in any case, it does most emphat- 
ically in this; for it is a hundred fold eas- 
ier tq keep it out of the system, than to 
get it out after it lias found a lodgment 
there. To accomplish this the following 
precautions cannot be too closely observed. 
Ist. Neither mercury nor amalgam should 
be kept in the house, and especially in 
the sleeping apartments, without being 
bottled and closely corked. 

2d .Persons working at quartz-mills, 
or those employed in retorting or hand- 
ling mercury in any way, where fumes 
from the mercury are liable to arise, 
should avoid them by keeping on the 
windward side as much as possible. 

3d. Clothing, worn through the dav, 
should never be worn at night, nor should 
it be allowed to remain in the sleeping 
apartment at night. 

4:th. The strictest cleanliness should 
be observed. A thorough bath once a 
week, at least, is almost indispensable. 
The clothing worn at work should also be 
thoroughly cleansed at least once n week. 
It should al.so be hung out and exposed to 
the action of the wind and rays of the sun 
quite frequently. By so doing the parti- 
cles of mercury which have found lodg- 
ment there, will be liberated and driven 
off. 

5th. The mercury should never be al- 
lowed to come in contact with the hands or 
any other part of the body, for wherever it 
does, some of it is almost sure to be ab- 
sorbed. 

Gth. Fumes of mercury should never 
be allowed to escape from the retort, but 
should be condensed with ijarticular care. 

Cure. 

Unfortunately in hydrargyrosis as in 
almost all other affections, no single reme- 
dy can be relied upon as a specific in all 
cases; but it has to be treated as the con- 
dition indicates. I will, however, enu- 
merate some of the most important reme- 
dies for that purpose: 

For violent bone pains, ulcers of the 
mucous membrane, and congestive symp- 
toms, nitric acid. 

For periostitis, phosphoric acid. 

For caries and necrasis, asafoetida and 
phosphorus. 

For ozena, aurum muriaticum. 

For mercurial rheumatism and gout, 
glandular enlargemen s, cutaneous erup- 
tions, tubercles and ulcers, indurations of 
the liver, parotid, cervical, axillary and 
inguinal glands, iodine and iodide of 
potassium. 

For ptyalism, chlorate of potassa, and 
creosote. 

Other most excellent remedies, frequent- 
ly used in the treatment of hydrargyrosis 
are sarsaparilla, conium, sulphuret of 
lime, sulphur, sulphate of zinc, galvanic 
electricity and cinchona; but it would 
be impossible to give their special indica- 
cations in an article of this kind, as the 
affections arising from the same are so va- 
ried, and so often associated and compli- 
cated with the scrofulous, syphilitic and 
sycotic dyscrusias. 

My advice to all is, first, avoid by all 
means the absorption of the poison; second, 
if the poison has already been absorbed 
get rid of it as soon as possible. 

E. J. Frasbb, M. D. 

No. 102 Stockton street. 



Extreme Old Age. — A farmer lately 
died in East Prussia who is said to have 
attained his 130th year. Down to the time 
of his death he was in the enjoyment of 
the best possible health. He was six feet 
one inch in hight and served as body- 
guard under Frederick the Great. Hia 
son, who lives on his father's property, is 
109 years old. He takes long walks every 
day, can road without spectacles, and is an 
excellent companion. The nephew of the 
old man is employed on the East Prussian 
Bail way, and, though he is 72 years of 
age, he is able punctually to perform his 
duties\ 



3PJ.Cf3§^3:D a'TSl.I.S 



[January 6, i$72. 




PtjnUSHED BV 

DEVrEY <at CO. 

. DKWEY. W. B. EWKB. O. H. 8TEONQ. J. L. BOONB. 



Prisoipal Editob... 
Associate Editob. . . . 



W. P. F.WER, A.M. 

...I. N. HOAG, (Sacramento.) 



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SAN iFRANCISCO: 

Saturday, Jan. 6, 1872. 



Our Weekly Crop. 

We have oruamented the front entrance to the 
Bubal to-day, with the picture of a scene 
■which will be familiar to moat of our friends, 
after viewing which the reader will turn with 
increased zest to the somewhat lengthy but in- 
teresting '* Notes of Travel in .\Jiimeda Co.," 
and the "Letter from Nell Van," one of our 
earliest and most valued correspondents. The 
Bketch of the "Eureka Lakes," will also be 
found interesting. The Mechanical and Sci 
entific Progress of the week gives us some in- 
teresting hints about "Steel for Locomotive 
Boilers, " t he ' Success of Mechanical Tuddling ' 
and some further interesting facts about ' 'Encke's 
Comet." 

"The Culture of Rice" and "Weeds and 
Seeds " and our usual Agricultural Summary 
precede some remarks about the progress and 
importance of the " State Geological Survey." 
We are next told Fomo curious and interesting 
facts about "Hybrid .\nimals," the "Move- 
ments of Insects," etc. The Doctor also comes 
in with a valuable letter on the subject of "Sali- 
vation." 

Just here we indulge in some appropriate re- 
flections upon "The New Year and a New Vol- 
ume," and are advised to "Embrace the Op- 
portunity to Plant Trees" which the abundant 
rains now present, but to avoid "Wet Plow- 
ing." Acting upon our own ad\'ice, we have 
decided to plant an orchard, in which "The 
Plum" will occupy a conspicuous position. 
And now, after a brief retrospect of "The Kain 
Fall," we drop for a moment into the "Home 
Circle, "where we learn how "Housekeeping may 
be Made Easy," and many other interesting 
facta. 



Obioinal and Solid. — Contrarj' to ordinary 
custom, much of the original matter in the 
Pbess is set solid, in order to give the readers 
as much information as possible. Hence some 
of our neighbors have often failed to give us 
credit in copying original articles. For in- 
stance, we find the Humboldt Ee(/ister crediting 
our article " Sage Brush as a Fertilizer" to the 
Keese River lieveille. Written for us by a very 
intelligent and observing lady, it was probably 
taken by the Reveille without credit. We have 
foreborne noticing such instances heretofore, 
although we frequently meet with them, pre- 
ferring to see our articles traveling abroad, 
without credit, rather than staying at home. 
We are aware that such things are sometimes 
the result of inadvertence, as we have learned 
in our own experience. Probably this might 
have been such a case. We simiily rise to ex- 
plain — that's all. 



Another Blockade. — Travel upon the 
Union Pacific Kaiload is again suspended 
by heavy snow storms. In some places 
the track as soon as cleared is filled up 
again by heavy drifts. Some of the mer- 
chants in this city are ordering their goods 
to be sent from New York by steamer. 

The Hoo Crop of Ohio for 1871 is esti- 
mated at l,008,ij71 hogs — -an increase of 
forty per cent, over that of 1870. 



A New Year and a New Volume. 

In offering our readers the compliments of 
the season we are reminded that a new year 
also marks the commencement of a new vol- 
and, at the outset, it affords us the high- 
est pleasure to look back upon the approval 
and encouragement, which has been extended 
to us during the past twelve mouths, in our 
efforts to establish a journal which should be 
recognized as a worthy and eflScient organ of 
the agricultural and industrial interests of the 
Pacific Coast. 

Agriculture here, perhaps, more than any- 
where else, must be regarded as a science, and 
one which does not admit of being so readily 
reduced to general laws as in most other local- 
ities. More than qgdinary regard must be paid 
here to circumstances of soil and climate, and 
so peculiar are the relations of these circum- 
stances to each other and to labor, that many 
of the best ascertained systems of agriculture, 
approved in other countries, admit of only 
very partial application here. Thus the only 
hope for improving our own system is by care- 
ful observBtions and deductions from our own 
expeiience. Methods pursued elsewhere are 
valuable here only as affording suggestions for 
modifications of our own. Hence the import- 
ance of a live paper, which shall be up to the 
anomolous circumstances of our locality and to 
the wants and tastes of the community. 

In some remarks last week on the close of the 
volume we spoke of the newspaper as an edu- 
rntor, and the more we think of it the more we 
are convinced that the newspaper is the -true 
educator of the people; and to no <'lass more 
so than to our agricultural communities. Farm- 
ers from the nature of their calling must reside 
in the country, where they are beyond the 
reach of popular lectures and of well selected 
libraries, to which town people generally have 
access. It is thus that to the newspaper they 
must look for the chief i)art of their current 
literature. 

Reading for the Million. 

It is becoming more and more a matter of 
serious concern with all right thinking minds, 
that with the increase of the taste and desire 
and necessity for newspaper reading, there 
should be presented to the public such a flocjd 
of that weak class of literature, the best de- 
scription of which is "namby-pamby." The 
lower class of magazines and the sentimental 
and sensational publications of the day cover 
the land, destroying all taste for really useful 
reading, perverting fhe minds of the young 
of both sexes, and introducing them to false 
views of life and living, without inculcat- 
ing a single common sense idea. Horrible 
tales of " bloody murders;" sickly, romancing 
stories of "love and suicide," column upon 
column of outrageous scandal, and all such 
sensational and pernicious Uterature is fast 
poisoning the minds of the young people of to- 
day. 

While many parents shrink with horror at 
seeing such reading placed within the reach of 
their children, many, quite too many, are in- 
different to its presence. Such printed sheets, 
read in quiet hours, work a subtler and surer 
mischief upon the impressible mind of the 
young, than would overt acts of guilt and 
shame, from the actual sight of which their 
very natures would revolt. 

The Remedy. 
The law, moral suasion, public denunciation 
and parental influences, have in vain been 
invoked to remove or mitigate this evil. There 
is but one remedy. The mind, especially of the 
young, is ever active, and constantly seeking 
for something upon which to feed. Food it 
xmll have, either good or bad; and like the 
physical appetite, the mind naturally craves 
unsuitable food, upon which it will surely sati- 
ate itself, unless proper nourishment is placed 
before it, and pains taken to induce a proper 
selection. The only remedy then is to place in 
the way of our young people iineful reading. Of 
this nothing better or more acceptable can be 
found than newspapers devoted to that class of 
literature. Within the last few years, we are 
pleased to state, that a number of such journals 
have been called into existence, which quite 
fairly meets the wants of which we are speak- 



Within a few years the ordinary conmiercial 
and local paisers of the day, noticing the grow- 
ing demand therefor, have devoted a small por- 
tion of their columns to the various industrial 



depaitments of mining, machinery, architec- 
ture, agriculture, engineering, etc. But the 
increasing demand for this class of information 
gradually outgrew the narrow limits thus 
afforded, and the establishment of class news- 
papers was commenced to meet the demands of 
the speciiii trades and industries. Following 
them, a growing desire gradually grew np for 
a class of papers of a more general character, 
which should furnish useful reading " for the 
million." This desire has thus far brought out 
such journals as the liitral New Yorker, Ikurth 
and Ifome, Boston Jonnial ofCliemi.'itry, etc., on 
the Atlantic coast, and the Scikntu-ic Pre.ss 
and Pacific Rcral Press, on the Pacific coast. 
Itis thus that the newspaper proper is gradu- 
ally enlarging the sphere of usefulness, in re- 
sponding to the higher calls of the more dis- 
cerning and intelligent portion of the public, 
and in creating a more general taste for useful 
reading to take the place of the large amount 
of such pernicious literature as' we here refer 
to. Again thanking our kind friends for the 
valuable assistance they have already rendered 
us in the good work in which we are engaged, 
we trust they will not be weary in well doing, 
but continue their favors for another year; dur- 
ing which we hope to add additional attractions 
to the Press, and still further improve its power 
for usefulness as a public educator. 

EMBRACE THE OPPORTUNITY. 

There has been a right good season for 
planting trees in but few portions of California 
for the past three years. The seasons have 
teen so dry that many of the trees planted 
within that period have made but an indifferent 
growth, and very many of those planted the 
last year have absolutely died for the want of 
the necessary supply of moisture in the soil. 
These facts have very much retarded the 
progress of general improvement in the country 
and comparatively but few fruit or ornamental 
and shade trees have been planted. 

Many farmers, especially in the grain grow- 
ing districts who uudor favorable circiunstances 
or good seasons, would have had fine young 
orchards growing, and would have been in the 
enjoyment of fruits of the earlier bearing va- 
rieties in their season, and who would have 
had their dwellings surrounded with ornamen- 
tal trees, and the streets or highways leading 
through their farms, and the division fences 
lined with shade trees, are to-day without 
orchard or tree of any kind on their places. 
The Year 1872. 
To all snch, and to every one who has been 
waiting a good opportunity for planting out 
an orchard, or for ornamenting their farms and 
homesteads by planting trees, wo would say, 
embrace without delay the most excellent op- 
portunity which the year 1872 is most sure to 
present. From the history of the rainfall in 
CaUfornia so far back as any reliable informa- 
tion can be obtained, to say nothing of present 
indications, we have the best reasons to expect 
the present year will bring us a plenty of rain 
and a most favorable growing season, not only 
for putting out orchards and planting shatle 
trees, but for all other agricultural operations. 
From the same history we learn that such 
favorable seasons as the present, come only 
once in about ten years. We would, therefore, 
urge the importance of a Uttle — yes, a great 
deal extra exertion on the part of all to plant 
their orchards, and ornamental and shade trees, 
as well as to start their artificial forests this 
season. Embrace the present opportunity. 
Trees are Cheap and Plenty. 
In conseijuence of the dry seasons for three 
or fotir years back, and the small number of 
trees that have been planted out within that 
period, large numbers of trees have accumu- 
lated in the hands of our nurserymen, and they 
are offering them at lower rates than trees have 
ever been offered in (.'aliforuia before, and 
probably cheaper than they will again be offered 
for years to come. With the present pros- 
pects of good seasons for a sei'ies of years, the 
farmers can afford to stretch a point in the way 
of making permanent and valuable improve- 
ments this year, especially as the improvements 
we are urging will very much add to the value 
of their places. 

Plant Early. 

Trees planted caily in the season do much 
better than those planted late. We would, 
therefore, urge all who contemplate planting at 
all to get them into the ground as soon as 
possible. The saji is now dormant, but will 



soon begin to move. Again, a tree that is 
planted soon will have the benefit of all the rains 
that are yet to fall, and -vs-ill be in almost as 
good condition for making a good growth the 
present season as though it had not been trans- 
planted at all. The roots that may have been 
cut in digging or that may have been lopped 
off with the pruning knife, if placed permanent- 
ly in the ground not to be again disturbed, 
will, before spring, be completely healed, and 
will soon ha^e thrown out small rootlets before 
the buds will have commenced to swell. 
Plant Well. 
There are but few operations on the farm or 
in the orchard or garden in which a little extra 
labor judiciously performed, will be so well re- 
warded as in planting trees. Let no part of 
the work be sUghted. Dig the holes large and 
deep, and in refilling them use the sur- 
face earth, being careful to spread the roots 
■well and fill in around them with fine, well pul- 
verized soil. Place the tree about the same 
depth in the ground as it stood before digging, 
if placed a Uttle deeper no harm will be done. 
If any of the roots have been broken or_brui8ed 
in digging or handling, be sure to cut such 
bruises off nith a sharp knife, before plantiing. 
Also cut the branches back well 'and with a 
view to a symmetrical growth. But our object 
was not so much to give rules for planting trees 
as to urge the importance of planting them in 
a favorable season. We would, therefore, say 
again, embrace the present favorable opportu- 
nity. 



Wet Plowing, 

The rains have held off so late this season 
and have now come so plentifully and the pros, 
pects look so bright for making a good crop that 
we fear the farmers will be tempted to put the 
plows running while the ground is yet too wet. 
If any be so tempted, we would remind them that 
nothing will thus be gained. On the contrary 
much may thus be lost. 

In the first place it produces a permanent in- 
jurj' to the land itself to stir it when too wet. 
It causes it to dry in hard lumps and clods — 
the particles so compactly setting together as to 
be impenetrable by the air and even to water 
itself, for a considerable length of time. 

Plowing land when too wet is only another 
name for "puddling" the soil; and everybody 
knows that puddling the soil — particularly the 
clay or adobe soils of this country — -is the pro- 
oess by which the adobe bricks are madi". That 
when so j)udilled and packed together it will 
withstand the a<?tion of the weather for years, 
without dissolving or falling to piece. So when 
clods or lumps are formed on the ground by 
working the soil too wet, it will require years 
of the most careful cultivation to reduce the 
soil to a good fine and Uvely condition again. 
The Loss of Crop. 
From what- we have said as to the condi- 
tion of the soil, in consequence of plowing 
when too wet; it may readily be inferred 
that such plowing would pretty certainly cause 
a partial failure at least of the immediately 
succeeding crop. Such most surely will be the 
result. The life and fertility of the soil will 
thus be destroyed and a poor crop or none at 
all will follow as a natural consequence. Bet- 
ter be patient and wait till the ground is in 
good condition even if you can't get in but 
half the'grain you desire to sow, than to run snch 
risks of producing such permanent injury to 
your land and of losing your seed and labor by 
being in too great haste. 

SuBBHAM Island. — Mr. D. L. Perkins 
of Emmaton, furnishes us the following 
particulars concerning Sherman Island: 
Tlie levee has protected the island thor- 
oughly, although tiie tide on the 23d ult. 
was the highest seen for years. But little 
drift has passed down the river. Three 
miles above Mr. P.'s house the whole 
country is under water. Sherman Island 
is very productive, and a beet sugar man- 
factory is talked of. Sugar beets grow to 
perfection and there are good facilities ia 
the way of land, coal, water and river 
navigation, for the establishment of such 
an enterprise. 

The Reclaimed Land Lbvees, so far 
as heard from, have thus far stood the 
press of waters without any material dam' 
age, save by acts of malice. Capt. Walker, 
superintendant of the Tide Land Recla- 
mation Co., reports that the Grand Island 
levee has not sustained a dollar's worth of 
damage from tho floods. There is none 
except surface water on either Sherman or 
Twitcliel Islands. 



JaAiii-y 6, 1872.] 



Oar First-Page Illustration. 

Who among us does not remember when 
he gives himself up to thought and the 
"waves of memory backward roll," some 
of the scenes of his childliood's home, 
when we sported gleefully ai-ound the old 
farm in all the joyous health of childish 
innocence, played hide and seek in the hay 
mows and romped barefooted over the 
fields without a single care or anxious 
thought of the morrow. There stands the 
old farm house, under the eaves of which 
the twittering swallows built thoir pests, 
and which is partially covered with the 
trailing vine which climbs so prettily over 
the porch, lending its fragrance to the 
evening air. Under this vine father loved 
to smoke his evening pipe, shaded from 
the rays of the setting sun by its thick and 
luxuriant foliage, and mother plied the 
needles in careless industry as she told us 
little ones tales of giants and dwarfs and 
far-ofif lands. By her side lies the old grey 
cat rolling over and over with the litHe 
kittens that have spied a ball of yarn, and 
old jack our faithful liouse-dog basks in 
the lingering sunshine as if he too was glad 
the day's tasks were done. 

Then again do we remember the old 
barn, where we passed so many happy 
hours tossing the hay about and waiting 
for father to come in from the field, that 
we might help him feed the tired team. 
Well do wo recollect Kitty, the faithful 
old mare, mother's S2)ecial property, she 
that had a stall of her own and was so gen- 
tle that we youngsters used to feed and 
pet her and climb about her knees, which 
we did without fear or danger. 

Many a noon have we seen her after her 
morning's work was over with her nose-bag 
filled with sweet and golden corn, tossing 
it impatiently up and down in eagerness 
to satisfy her appetite,* thereby spilling a 
portion of its contents and drawing about 
her in numbers the awkward waddling 
ducks, the king of the barn yard with his 
handsome crest and spreading tail, while 
my pets, the pigeons, fluttered round, and 
oven on her head in the vain hope of 
stealing some of the scattered grain. Of 
some such scene as this does our illustra- 
tion remind us. 



The Plum. 

Few fruits are more beautiful on the tree or 
more tempting on the table than plums. As a 
dessert they are everywhere in favor, and ex- 
tensively used as a preserve. Beauty around 
us adds to the sum of our happiness, and what 
can be more beautiful than a well arranged or- 
chard of choice fruit, where, after the fragi-ant 
blossoms are gone, we look upon the rich green 
fohage and watch the slowly developing fruit 
until it arrives at maturity, presenting us with 
the choicest of Nature's blessings to man in 
the form of the golden apple, the luscious 
peach, the rich pale crimson, deep blue or 
golden yellow plum, etc. 

Plum trees are hardy and easily cultivated. 
They are especially suited to the genial chmate 
of California, where seldom, if ever, the 
dreaded "black wart " appears, and where the 
curculio never insinuates its disgusting pres- 
ence. Among the choice varieties of this fruit 
are Ihe Golden Drop, the Imperial, Green and 



Aid to Inventors. 

Editors Press:— The Manufacturer and 
Builder mentions a very useful institution 
now being organized in New York. San 
Francisco would, I believe, derive equal 
benefits from similar associations. It is 
designed to assist inventors, by giving 
them a place and the use of tools. There 
will be committees, to whom inventors 
may refer their ideas or their models. If 
the report be favorable, the Society will, 
in consideration of an interest in the patent 
rights, advance means to develop them. 
There will be lecturers and artists skilled 
in drawing designs and making models; 
workshops and other apartments, with con- 
veniences for the use of inventors. 

The aim will be to enlist all mechanics 
in the scheme, and to hold regular exhibi- 
tions, having the character of Fairs. 

This movement has its origin in the 
widespread dissatisfaction given by the 
awards of the last Fair of the American 
Institute. 

There is, in the climate of California, 



Becoming ArpREOiAXED. — The Rural, 
Press as an advertising medium is now 
rightly apiireciated. It is time that peo- 
ple on this Coast stopped advertising in- 
discriminately in miscalled "cheap" medi- 
ums, and like Eastern advertisers use dis- 
cretion by advertising in the special medi- 
ums which will attract the notice of their 
particular class of patrons. We are this 
week obliged to leave over a lot of adver- 
tisements, among others are the following 
from Sacramento, received 'too late: E. F. 
Aitken, W. K. Strong, J. S. Harbison, E. 
Par-sons, H. Constine, E. E. Ames. This 
is a paying season for advertising seeds, 
trees, plants, etc. etc., on all parts of this 
Coast. 



Importation of Stock. — Mr. W. C. 
Myer of Ashland,. Tackson county, Oregon, 
importer and breeder of fine stock, writes 
us from St. Louis, that he has purchased 
in that city an imported Percheron stall- 
ion and mare. The mare took the first 
premium at the St. Louis fair, and is re- 
ported to be the finest Percheron mare in 
the country. Mr. Myer will also bring 
with him to Oregon from the East, some 
Jersey, or Alderney and short-horn cattle, 
white Brahma fowls, Cotswold sheep, etc. 
This stock will be sent through as soon as 
travel opens on the transcontinental rail- 
road. 



The hobby of the Crown Prince of Prus- 
sia is agriculture. His farm, nearBraden- 
burg, costs him every year $50,000 ; but he 
has, at all events, the pleasure of telling 
his guests at the dinner table that he him- 
self raised all the vegetables that are 
placed on the dinner table. 




The Rainfall. 

The late storm has been one of the mosi ie- 
markable which has occurred since the advent 
of the Americans on this coast. For over two 
weeks, with slight interruptions, it rained more 
or less of the time, d.iy hnd night, until the 2d 
instant. Now, however, the storm seems to 
have fairly passed away, and at this present 
writing the sky is beautifully clear and pleasant. 

The amount of rain which has f.»llen has also 
been remarkable — probabl3' the largest amount 
which has been recorded in so short a time 
since 1849 — and when added to that which had 
previously fallen during the season, makes the 
largest total on record up to December 31st. It 
may also be added, as another remarkable 
fact, that no great storm, with an equal rain- 
fall, has done so little damage, or, so far as 
present appearances show, been productive of 
such a vast amount of good to the State at 
large. 

The temperature has been exceedingly favor- 
able for both grass and grain — the thermometer 
in this city marking the high average of 53" for 
the month of December. The rain has also 
been general — all over the Sta'^e — and has fallen 
so moderately, that the thirsty earth has been 
able to drink it up to a much greater extent 
than usual. 

It is with unfeigned pleasure, that, in the 
light of these facts, we look forward to the en- 
suing year as one of .unparalleled productive- 
ness and prosperity. Everybody looks smiling 
and happy, and the customary salutation of the 
season, as passed around on Monday last, was 
no unmeaning word; but was uttered with the 
almost certainty that we all should indeed be 
happy. 

The miners are also rejoicing in view of the 
abundance of water for mining purposes. The 
Territorial Enterprise says that even though no 
more rain or snow should fall for the winter, 
water would be abundant in that vicinity for a 
year or two to come — a good store of water 
being laid up in the hills, all of which are great 
natural reservoirs. 

The fall in this city to January 1st has been 
20.29 inches. The highest previously noted 
was in '51 and '52, when 19.31 fell. The fall 
at other localities is reported as follows : 

Sacramento to Dec. 31 .... 12 .42 

Stockton " 31 10.80 

San Andreas " 23 10.89 

Turlock (Stanislaus Co.)... " 31 8.52 

LosAugeles " 30 8.21 

Shasta ^ " 26 30.25 

Nevada " 29.... 36.00 



i 



THE REINE CLAUDE DE BAVEY PLUM. 



Purple Gagesf the Washington, the Jefferson, 
and last, though not least, the Eeine Claude de 
Bavey, which being a comparatively new and 
not a very common plum, we have herewith 
illustrated. 

This variety of plum is as large as the Wash- 
ington, slightly oval and plump in form, and 
greenish yeOow in color, with stripes and 
splashes of green, covered with a delicate 
bloom. In taste'it is juicy, melting, sugary, 
rich and excellent, and separates freely from 
the stone, which is small. The stem is short 
and stout, planted in a rather deep cavity, and 
well calculated to withstand the high summer 
winds of California. The tree is a vigorous 
grower.jWith smooth branches, and large, broad, 
ovate leaves, with rounded, irregular serratures. 
It is very vigorous and productive, is of foreign 
origin, and a valuable addition to our late vari- 
eties. It ripens in California the last of Sep- 
tember, and hangs long on the tree. Its pecu- 
liarities, it will be seen, all point to it as a valu- 
able market plum. 

S. W. Moore & Co., No. 420Sansome street, 
have a large number of the trees for sale, and 
advertise in another column. 



To Correspondents. — Two communica- 
tions from "T.W. A. W.,"too late for this 
week; also a note from "H. P.," relative to 
preserving the uufermented juice of the 
grape. 



something that stimulates invention; but, 
between high rents, dear money and ex- 
pensive steam power, inventors find unu- 
sual obstacles to the exploitation of new 
concei^tions. We know no institution 
which would be of more profit to the State, 
considering its cost, than an inventors' aid 
association; and I believe there would be 
little difficulty in getting up such an or- 
ganization. D. R. 

Eeal inventors are often poor and mod- 
est, and need cash assistance. Such men, 
however, know the merits of their inven- 
tions better than committeemen. If lib- 
eral and honest men in this city will devote 
auflScient money and time for the organi- 
zation and perpetuation of such an associa- 
tion, we hope to see it established. Sev- 
eral small associations with a similar 
object, however, have been attempted here 
and failed. One, in 1869, was termed the 
S. F. Inventors' Association. We shall 
look with interest for and report any suc- 
cess this Now York organization meets 
with. 



The Fence Law. — A bill for the repeal 
of the fence law has been introduced into 
the Legislaturfc, upon which we have an 
article prepared, but '.inavoidably crowded 
out this week. 



A Winter Musk-melon. 

In the issue of the SciENXinc Pke.ss of De- 
cember 3d, 1870, reference was made to a new 
and singular melon which Mr. R. Marchella, of 
Oroville, had raised the previous season. They 
were the only specimens of the kind which had 
ever been raised in the State, or probably in 
America, and were the product of about 100 
seeds, which had been obtained at much cost 
and trouble, from some portion of Turkey. The 
botanical name of the melon is given as Bucldri. 
One of these melons has been left at this office, 
where it was cut and devoured. It was plucked 
from the vine some three months previously, 
but was as sound and perfect as the day on 
which it was picked, and to all appearance 
might have been kept for several months 
longer. The appearance of the melon differs 
but little from those of the ordinary growth, 
except that the skin is a little darker and hard, 
like that of a winter squash, a fact to which is 
probably chiefly due its keeping quality. If 
hung up in a dry and cool place, we are in- 
formed, it may be kept good the year round. 
The taste was of a shghtly nutmeg-flavor; but 
the specimen we tried was not so rich as some 
of the ordinary melons. Its peculiarity and 
gi'cat value consists in the fact that it will fur- 
nish a genuine and very good musk-melon for 
the table the year round; as such it is invHhia- 
ble, and will no doubt be largely sought for. 

A year ago the seed could not have been 
piirchased for love or money —the entire first 
year's crop being reserved for the importer's 
own use and propagation. The seeds are for 
sale at this office. 



Sherman Island. — We have in hand 
some notes of a recent trip to Sherman 
Island, which will appear next week. 

The Yuba river at Marysville, was fully 
as liigh on the 29th ult. as during the flood 
of 18G7. 



lOP 



«ly) Jp 3^£4 S b « 



[January 6, 1872. 




Ripe Wheat. 

Some three years since a hwly friend of Elizu 
(). Crosby, in speaking of the death of a mu- 
tual aequaiutance, sonicwhiU iidvancedin years, 
whose funeral she hiul riceiitly attended, said: 
" Among the vrliite flowiTs in her cotHn wiw a 
bunch of ripe wheat, and I thought it most 
beautiful and appropriate." The next day 
Miss Crosby penned the following lines and 
sent them to jV/oore's iiura/ Xetc-Yorker, where 
they were originally published: 

We bent to-day o'er a coffined form, 

And our tears fell softly down; 
We looked our last on the afjed face, 
With its look of peai^e, its patient grace, 

And hair like a silver crown. 

We touched our own to the clay-cold hands, 

From life's long labor at rest; 
And aiuon^ the blossoms white and sweet, 
We noted a bunch of golden wheat, 

Clasped close to the silent breast. 

The blossoms whispered of fadeless bloom, 

Of a land where fall no tears; 
The rii)H wheat told of toil and care. 
The iiationt waiting, the trusting prayer. 

The g.irnored good of the years. 

We knew not what work her hands had found. 

What rugged places her feet; 
What cross was hers, what blackness of night; 
We saw but the peace, the blossoms white, 

-■Uid the buucli of ripened wlieat. 

As each goes up from the field of. earth, 

Bearing the treasures of life, 
God looks for somf gathered grain of good, 
From the ripe harvesi that shining stood. 

But \vaiting the reaper's knife. 

Then labor well, that in death yon go 

Not only with blossoms sweet — 
Not bent with doubt, and burdened with fears. 
And dead, dry husks of the wasted years, — 
But laden with golden wheat. 



Housekeeping Made Easy. 

"Majoram" is writing some sketches for 
tlie American Rural Home, from which we 
e.\tr.ict as follows: 

Nothing which God has made is too 
humble for our study, no office that He 
has created too lowly for lis to fill. The 
lowly things ofthe world are full of mean- 
ing, too full for the intellect of man 
Ijroud as he is of its power, fully to com- 
jireheud. 

I tiiink, sometimes, the sweet faces of the 
angels must grow sad, when they behold 
us casting away these lowly things as 
■worthless and reaching out our hands to 
the things beyond with which we can not 
work. 

"We cannot speak of housekeeping made 
easy, as but little that is worth doing is 
easily done, unless we make lovingly a syn- 
onym for easily, for it is true that nothing 
can lighten labor like unto love; j-et we 
can speak of housekeeping made liappy. 

Housekeei)ing bears the same relation to 
the home-life that tlie basement walls bear 
to the house. In our home building shall 
we do less than the old-time architects who 
builded so truly, and for all time, because 
they build as Tiuto the Lord. 

There is many a home the mistress of 
which must possess infinite tact and pa- 
tience to direct and control so carefully a 
retinue of servants. Many are the homes 
that are less than mansions, much less, 
and perhaps happier in an equal degree, 
and in these liomes there may be no music- 
al instrument, there may be but few books, 
ttnd but two oi- three weekly papers, be- 
cause the.se things are not attainable; and 
tlje hands and heart grow weary sooner, 
jierhaps, for the lack of these qiiickeners 
of the life of the toilers. But dear hearts' 
wait a bit. Ood never makes mistake.''. 
If He has placed you in a family and given 
you only a little to do with. It is through 
these very tilings that you are to minister 
to the higher necessitiosof your dear ones. 
You are to do your |)art faithfully, loving- 
ly, and he will do all the rest. 

Look ! what lovelier household picture 
than tliis: At even tide, the strong man 
with silver threads just beginning to show 
iu his dark hair- the last rays of the set- 
ting sun falling upon his bowed head, his 
family about him witii heads bowed low, 
and brown hands folded reverently while 



he asks a blessing on the bread; then the 
sweet- converse that ends the day of toil, 
and, ah, wearj' ones, the sweeter rest with 
the bread that God liius blessed making 
bone and sinew for tlie morrows' toil. 

Shall not the table become the altar of 
the busy household ? Is it, then, a small 
tiling to prepare the sacrifice'? We talk 
much of the hearthstone; let us not forget 
our fine theories when we spread our ta- 
bles there. Nine-tenths of the men and 
women of to-day are w-hat their table 
training has made them ; we have reason to 
think that the coining men and women will 
be much the same. 

The table is the true.st test of , the refine- 
ment of the household. I do not mean 
that it shall glitter with plate, or be loaded 
witli e.\pensive wares. This is possible 
only for the few, but i)urity in our table 
service is possible lor all. With table 
linen, no matter how coar.se, nicely washed 
and ironed; pure white ware, knives and 
forks free from rust and stain ; tlieu, if of 
silver, our table may boast liiit a dozen 
spoons, yet it may have an air of refine- 
ment if wekeej) it pure. 

Ah, iu so many of our homes, perfect 
cleanliness must take the place of elegance: 
purity of heart and life must work out our 
refinement and cultui-o. Are we not hap- 
pier in having it so"? As a people I hope 
liy-and-by we shall come to despise cheap 
decoration and faulty coloring, jdated 
ware and tinsel; that we shall learn to orna- 
ment only^"?h«i>-\vhich is worthy of orna- 
mentation,' If our service is iuexi)ensive 
let it be pire.. 

What ! iIarj:,,no uapkins ! Do you not 
need them ? I see there are gold rin 
upon your fingers; will you not otbn- tl 
up as a sacrifice upon the household a' 
Unless those rings are the gifts of friends 
(if so thej' are sacred) I would take them 
to the jeweler. I would buy a store of 
napkinsand napkin rings (silver, not (ilated) 
witii their price; and -then I would never 
wear a ring again, only as I wore it for its 
true meaning. 

Female Taste. 

A cultivated taste marks a woman of el- 
egance and refiiiemeut as decidedly as a 
knowledge of classical literature does a 
gentleman; and there is nothing in wlii<'li 
female vulgarity- is more chnirly shown 
than iu want of taste. This is an axiom 
that we think will not admit of di.spnte; 
but it is a question how far tast-e is natu- 
ral, and how far it may be ac^juired. A 
delicat(> taste must to a certain extent de- 
jiend upon the organization of the indi- 
vidual; and it is impossilde for any rules 
to be laid down which will impart taste to 
persons entirely devoid of it. But this is 
very seldom the case with women; as it is 
one of the few points in which women nat- 
urally excel men. Men may be, and prob 
aldy are, superior to women in all that re- 
quires profound tliought and general 
knowledge, but in the arrangement of a 
house, and the introduction of ornamental 
furniture and articles of bijouterie, then' 
can be no doubt of thfe innate superiority 
of women. Every one must have re- 
marked the differeuee in the furnishing of 
a bachelor's house, and one where a lady 
presides; the thousand little elegances of 
the latter, though nothing io themselves, 
adding, like cyphers, prodigiously to the 
value of the solid articles they are ap- 
pended to. 

Love, Fortune or Position. — Who mar 
rios for love, takes a wife; who marries for 
fortune, takes a mistress; who marries for 
j)osition takes a huly. You are loved by 
3-our wife, regarded by your mistress, tol- 
erated by your lady. You have a wife for 
yourself, a mistress for your house and 
friends, a lady for the world and society. 
Your wife will agree with yon, your mis- 
tress will rule you, your latly will manage 
you. Your wife will take care of your 
household, your mistress of your house, 
your lady of apj)earances. If you are sick 
your wife will liurse you, your mistress 
will visit you, your lady will enquire after 
your health. You take a walk with your 
wife, a ride with your mistress, and go to 
a party with your lady. Y'our wife will 
share your grief, your mistress yonrmonoy 
and your lady your debts, if yon die, 
your wife will weep, your mistress lament, 
and your lady wear mourning. Which 
will you have 'i—Tke ChriMian Union. 



Parentai, Paktialtty.— There is a fatal 

danger in family government, from which 
we would warn cv(!ri' ])areut; and that is 
l)artiality. It is too often the case that 
fathers and mothers have their favorite 
child. From this, two evils result. In 
the first place, the pet usually becomes a 
spoiled child; and the "flower of the fam- 



ily" seldom yields any other than bitter 
fruit. In the second place, j)art of the 
household feel envy towards the parent 
who makes the odious distinction. Dis- 
union is thus sown in what ought to be 
the Eden of life, a sense of wrong is plant- 
ed by the parent's hand in the hearts of a 
part of his family, an example of injustice 
is written on the soul of the oflspriiig, by 
him who should instil into it by every 
word and deed, the holy principles of 
equity. 

TIiu Language of Jewels. 

Jewels have a language as well as flow- 
ers. Among other curious old fancies 
about them is, that which connects one 
with each month in the year, and with all 
who are born in that month. 

Thus to .January belong the garnet and 
the jacinth, which preserve the wearer from 
pestilence and from lightning. To Feb 
ruary belongs the amethyst, signifying 
temporance. It protects the wearer from 
evil thoughts, and cures or jirevents in- 
ebriety. The stone of March is the jasper, 
which cures hemorrhage when worn or aj)- 
plied to a wound^ Ijllpse born in April 
should wear tlu) sappbiite, significant of 
jjurity. To May belongs the agate, which 
protects from poison and ajjpeases pain. 
If single in (^lor, it renders the wearer in- 
vincible. .June hu the emeraj<l, signifi- 
cant df hope, teacning the knowledge of 
secrets, bestowing eloquence and wealth, 
enjoying thus a ]>roud i)osition. To .July 
belongs the onyx, which excites' melan- 
choly and vain terror to the wearer; but 
oi'lonately, the mouth also pos.sesses 
cornelian, which cures these evils, 
iBd also secures success, particularly in 
liwsuits. To August belongs the sar- 
donyx, which brings riches to the wearer. 
To September belongs the chrysolite. To 
Octolior belongs the beryl, or aqua: ma- 
rina, which renders the wearer successful 
in navigation, and insures safe voyages. 
Theopalalso belongs to this month — astone 
which unites the colors and qualities of 
all others, and has beenbeautifnlly called, 
by a poet and arti.st, "a pearl, with a soul 
iu it." Its meaning is childlike /airness 
and loveliness. November has the topaz, 
which signifies con riige and cheerfulness. 
It was 8ui>posed to show the presence of 
poi.son by loss of color; giving light in 
the dark, and dispelling eneliantment, if 
worn on the left arm or round the neck. 
It was also supposed to strengthen intel- 
lect and brighten wit. Those whose liirth- 
day is in December have choice between 
the ruby, turquoise or malachite, or can 
wear all three. 



Clerks in New York City. 

There is probably nothing more falla- 
cious than the wilNo'-the-wisp that is ever 
alluring our young men into the position 
of clerk or sale.iman in a store. Many 
young men iu the country, and in mechan- 
ical pursuits in the citj', envy tliem, and 
are conatautly ai>pljing for such positions. 
Misgtuded, ignorant young men! They 
see the clerks under the best circum- 
stances. Perhaps, when on their summer 
trip, w ilh a city outfit, and loaded down 
with brass jewelry, they make a sensation. 
But there are no greater drudges in the 
land* The pay is small and tlie toil im- 
mense. Hundreds of young men who 
crowd around for some iilace in the city, 
don't know what they are after, nor for 
what they are asking. A few clerks do 
well, they rise fast and get good jiay, but 
this number is small. These make them- 
selves so useful that they cannot be dis- 
pensed with. This class are ready to do 
any work that turns up, and are cheerful 
and obliging. The rules of a penitentiary 
are not more severe than those of our large 
stores. Employees have to be on hand 
early to prepare for trade and stay late 
to do up the work of the day. 

Men are marked if late, or if tliey leave 
the stoiy;. Salesmen have to do the drum- 
ming after the store is shut. It is no un- 
common thing for salesmen to be out un- 
til eleven or twelve o'clock at night drum- 
ming in the busy season. The fines for 
misdirected parcels or errors in change 
consume sometimes a month's wages. 
Their pay is small, and the chance of pro- 
motion not brilliant. Few die, and none 
resign who hold lucrative positions; those 
who clerk it when young, grow old in the 
same toil. Life is a treadmill, yet a va- 
cany in the city will be sought for by 
crowds, and the advertisement for a clerk 
will be answered by hundreds. — American 
Max iifiictarcr. 

Thbt have a maternal association in 
Paris composed of aristocratic ladies 
who have agreed to nurse their own child- 
ren. It numbers at preset nearly 200 mem- 
bers. 



YoJfiq poLKs' CoLdf«i<. 



Little Bird Talk. 

There's a shy little bird of the sparrow 
size, cotue to the mulberry harvest. He 
warbles a fine song, and pays for his fruit 
in that way. He has a bit of topknot of 
the brightest red, with a mantle of the 
same color, somewhat faded, down his 
shoulders. The female wears a business 
suit of sober gray and brown. The sub- 
stance of the song is of that low, sweet spe- 
cies of twiddle, such as Beethoven used 
for the filling of his country Inllabys. 
You wonld hear it without listening, and 
wouldn't know what made you feel so hap- 
py, until the higher jiowers revealed the 
presence of the tiny songster, 8]iinning his 
mulberries into harmony from the dim 
mest recesses of the high tree-top. A 
movement frightens him of!". When last 
seen they had a fuzzy young one between 
'em, whose mouth opened like a tobacco 
box, for berries that seemed to drop right 
through him — they disappeared in such 
(|uantities and so rapidly. Topknot quit 
picking. Says he to his mate, with a flut- 
ter. ."That child will have a summer com- 
l>laint, as sure as you're alive, if you don't 
stoj) a stuffin' on hini!" And then he hid 
himself in the branches and commenced to 
whistle and trill, and tell how badly he 
should feel if the little one should sicken, 
and fade away — you couldn't hear him 
without a whimper — and wound up with 
something that sounded like "short feed — 
short feed for little chaps for a month or 
two— for a month or two!" 

Little Brothkrs. — Sisters, do not turn 
of}' your younger brothers as if they were 
always in your way, and any service which 
they might ask of you were a burden. 
Perhaps tiie hour may come when over a 
coffin that looks strangely longer than you 
thought, and over a pale brow where often 
half unwittingly, and jierhiips with a pet- 
ulant push, you parted the hair— you bend 
with tears and sobs that shake your very 
soul, while remorseful memory is busy 
with the by-gone hours. You will wish 
then that when he came and asked you to 
help him iu his play, hv to lift him on your 
lap because he was tired, or to take him 
out becau.se he wanted to see, you had laid 
aside your book and made the little heart 
glad. 



SpiceBox. 

Wht are peu-makers the most dishonor- 
able people in the world? Because they 
make people steel jiens and say tliey do 
write. 

"Tom, who did you say our friend B. 
married ?" "Well, he married §40,000—1 
forgot her other name." 

A Di;pt!Ti suERiFF in Oregon, hearing 
that poultices were good cures for felons, 
went into the county jail and poured a 
kettle of cold "mush all over a horse-thief. 

"GnANDiiA," said ashrewd child, "doyon 
want some candy?" "Yes, dear, I should 
like some." ""Tlien, if you'll buy some, 
I'll give you half," said Polly. 

"Peter," said a shrewd mother to her 
sou, "are you into them sweetmeats 
again?" "No, ma'am, them sweetmeats is 
into me." 

A ciiERK in a post office was a little 
embarrassed the other day, on being 
asked by a lady if there was a letter for my 
cow. Being disposed to treat her politely, 
he replied that there was no letter for any- 
body's cow. The lady being equally em- 
barrassed, and also fdispoRed to be po- 
lite, said she inquired for Mike Howe. 

A Boy's Aroumext. — A boy having 
broken his rocking-horse the day it was 
bought, his mother began to rebuke bim , 
and to throateu to box his ears. He si- 
lenced her by inquiring "What is the use 
of a good boss till it's broke ?" 

Charade. 

My first is a wen spelled backward. 
My second is a very heavy weight. 
My third is a Turkish eating stand. 
My whole the name of o noted man iu 
California. 



Do not talk about yourself to the exclu- 
sion of all other topics. What if you are 
clever and a little more so than any other 
person, it may not be that otlier folks ■will 
think so, whatever they ought to do. 

Answers to Last Week's Charade, and 
Riddles. — Charade— Grace Greenwood. 
Biddle— Letter I. 

A splendid lot of puzzles next week 



January 6, 1872.] 



Ife^^IS^Sl 



^\ 



lOMESTIC 



.CONOMY. 



Hard Beds. 

The preference for hard beds as being 
more healthy than soft ones, is worthy 
only of those who have settled down into 
a Diogenes-iu-the-tub life. It is true a 
tired person will sleep soundly on a hard 
bed, and habit may make such a bed accep- 
table; but whoever has felt the almost 
human kindliness iind warmth of a soft 
Ixair mattress, cannot go back to husks and 
straw without a pang. Let us look at the 
matter physiologically. The spinal col- 
umn is composed of 2i pieces of bone fas- 
tened together by cartilage, with a little 
cushion of highly elastic cartilage nicely fit- 
ted in V)etween each to prevent friction and 
permit perfect freedom of movement. The 
spine is not straight but curves in, as ev- 
ery body knows, at the small of the back 
and curves out again. In a perfect bed 
every part of this vertebral column will 
be supported, but in a hard, unyielding 
surface this is not possible. One portion 
of the body rests firmly on the bed beneath 
it, while another in a line with it receives 
no support. Sleep on such a bed will not 
restore the wearied frame nearly so well as 
repose on an elastic couch where every 
j)art of the body is equally supported. We 
do not recommend softness but elasticity. 

Feathers, except in very cold weather, 
are unwholesome, because they retain an 
excess of warmth about the body, and also 
because they absorb the insensible perspi 
ration thrown oft' by the pores, and permit 
the body to re-absorb the excrementitious 
matter. A bed of soft, fresh straw, evenly 
distributed and covered with a thin cotton 
or woolen mattress, may be a good resting 
place, and furnish sweet sleep. But how 
can man or woman rise refreshed from a 
couch of straw or a shuck mattress which 
has been in nightly use without renewal 
tor a series of years? Yet there are por- 
tions of this very land of plenty 'where 
travelers are put to sleep upon just such 
beds as this. 

Evei-y man in grazing districts may own 
a dozen or two coarse woolen sheep. 
These and their increase will in a short 
time give him wool mattresses than which 
none are more pleasant, more wholesome, 
or durable. The tag-locks washed and 
carded should be hoarded by evei-y farm- 
er's wife for this purpose. In cities and 
villages, and in the more populous parts 
of our. country, those who can afford good 
sleeping phicos generally have them. The 
degree of refinement and cultivation, as 
well as wealth one has attained, may be 
easily read by one glance at their sleeping 
apartment. 

How TO Cook a Beefsteak. — A beef- 
steak is always best broiled; but the fol- 
lowing method is recommended by a lady 
Avriter, when broiling is not convenient: 

The frying pan being wiped dry, place it 
upon the stove and let it become hot. 
In the meantime the steak— if it chance to 
be a sirloin so much the better — pepper 
and salt it, theii lay it on the hot, dry pan, 
which instantly cover as tight as possible. 
Whsn the raw flesh touches the heated 
pan, of course it seethes and adheres to it, 
but in few seconds it becomeslooseued and 
juicj-. Every half minute turn the steak; 
but be careful to keep it as much as possi- 
ble under cover. When nearly done lay a 
small piece of butter upon it, and if you 
want much gravy add a tablespoouful of 
strong coffee. This m.akes the most de 
licious, delicately broiled steak, full of 
juice, yet retaining the healthy, beef fiavor 
that any John Bull could require. The 
same method may be applied to mutton 
chops, or ham, only they require more 
cooking to prevent them from being rare. 
An excellent gravy may be made by ad- 
ding a little cream, thickened by a pinch 
of flour, into which, when off the fire 
and partially cool, stir the yolk of an egg 
well beaten. 



Impoetance of Cookery. — The prepara- 
tion and cooking of food should receive its 
proper share of attention, if the greatest 
amount of benefit is to be derived from its 
introduction in the system. Blot, the 
l)rofe8sor of this art, says that green vege- 
tables, such as cabbage, spinach, etc., 
should be put in boiling water, but dry 
vegetables, as beans and peas should be 
put in cold water to cook, after having 
been previously soaked in lukewarm water. 
In the case of potatoes, the eyes or germs 
are to be cut out, and the skin rubbed or 
scraped off, then steamed or roasted. He 
thinks that fish, although containing 
twenty yev cent, oi nutritious matter, 



ought to be partaken of at least twice a week , 
as it contains more phosphorus than any 
other food, and serves to supply the waste 
of that substance in the system, and jiar- 
ticularly of the brain. 

Prevention of Dampness. 

Dampness in walls is often a great an- 
noyance to housekeepers, and in moist cli- 
mates good precautions should be taken to 
keep it out of the walls and buildings. 
It may be prevented Irom rising in brick 
or stone walls by a thorough application 
of asphaltum to the upper portion of the 
foundation, or to several of the lower tiers 
of bjicks. Asphaltum thoroughly applied 
to the outside of brick work will also pre- 
vent the ingress of dampness. The walls 
may be painted over the asphaltum, if de- 
sired. 

Another method is also recommended by 
by a leading scientific paper as follows; — 
Three-quarters of a jjound of mottled soap 
are to be dissolved with one gallon of 
boiling water, and the hot solution spread 
steadily with a flat brush over the outer 
surface of the brickwork, taking care that 
it docs not lather; this is to be allowed to 
dry for twenty-four hours, when a solu- 
tion formed of a quarter of a pound of 
alum dissolved in two gallons of water is 
to be applied in a similar manner over the 
coating of soap. The operation should be 
performed in dry, settled weather. The 
soap and alum mutually decompose each 
other, and form an insoluble varnish which 
the rain is unable to penetrate, and this 
cause of dami^ness is thus efleotually re- 
moved. 

Alum is also a valuable prevention of 
mildew. Cloths or other fabrics dipped 
into strong alum water, are proof against 
mildew, no matter ho w much they may after- 
wards 1)6 exposed to damps or other causes 
favoring the growth of this disagreeable 
fungus. 

About a year ago, says a correspondent 
of the Journal of Chemistry, I was tilling 
up a large scrap-book, and in the course 
of my work iised, in connection with a 
goodly amount of paste, a small quantity 
that had alum in it. A spell of wet 
weather coming on before my book was 
dry, caused it to mildew badly throughout, 
except where the alum paste hud been 
used; there, no trace of mildew was to be 
seen. Upon observing this, I began try- 
ing various experiments with alum as a 
mildew ])reventive, all of which succeeded, 
though put to the most severe tests. I 
therefore feel that I have, by the merest 
accident, made a valuable discovery, and 
as such I take pleasure in offering it to the 
public. 

The Roast Turkey.— Here is the New 
England method: Select a fine, plump, 
yellow-skinned turkey, weighing from ten 
to twelve pounds. Examine it thoroughly 
to see that all the pin feathers are taken 
out; hold it over a blaze to singe any fine 
liairs that may remain; wash it thoroughly 
inside and out, and rub it over with salt. 
Take the gizzard, heart and liver, put them 
into cold water, and let them boil until 
tender. When done, cliojj them very flue. 
Take stale bread, or the large Boston 
crackers, and grate or chop them. Add 
salt, pepper, and some sweet herb, if liked, 
to the bread crumbs; after which beat up 
two eggs with which to moisten the 
crumbs; add and mix thoroughly with 
this the chopped "inwards," not forget- 
ting to put in salt and butter. Fill the 
inside of the turkey with the dressing, 
taking care that the neck and crop is made 
to look plump, and sew the openings, 
drawing the skin tightly together. Then 
rub a little butter over your turkey, and 
lay it upon the grate of your meat pan. 
Cover the bottom of the pan well with 
boiling water. After a half hour baste 
the turkey by pouring over it the gravy 
that has begun to form in the pan. Re- 
peat the basting once in about fifteen min- 
utes. In an oven of average temperature 
a I'ipound turkey will require at least 
three hours; but every oven has its own 
way of baking, and the cook must be gov- 
erned by it. — Hearth and Home. 

The Roast Goose is to be prepared in 
the same manner as the turkey. The dress- 
ing should be made of mashed potatoes, 
seasoned with salt, pepper and sage, or 
onions, if according to the taste of the 
family. Make giblet sauce by boiling the 
"inwards" until very tender, chojiping 
them tine, and adding them to a gravy 
made by using the liquor in which they 
were boiled, thickened with flour, and to 
which has been .added one ounce of butter, 
and pepper and salt to suit the taste. — 
Hearth and Home, 



Domestic Receipts. 

A Relish for Breakfast or Lunch. — 
Take a quarter of a pound of cheese, good 
and fresh; cut it up in thin slices, and put 
in a "spider," turning over it a large cup- 
ful of sweet milk; add a quarter of a tea- 
spoonful of dry mustard, a dash of pepper, 
a little salt, and a piece of butter as large 
as a butternut; stir the mixture all the 
time. Have at hand three Boston crackers 
finely pounded or rolled, and sprinkle 
them in gradually; as soon as they are 
stirred in, turn out the contents into a 
warm dish and serve. It is very delicious. 

How to Cook Onions. — Peel, wash and 
put them into boiling milk, and water 
(water alone will do, but it is not so good) 
when nearly tender, salt them; when ten- 
der, take them up, pepper them and put 
some l)utter on them, and they are ready 
for use. 

Take large onions and parboil them; 
roast them before afire with their skins on, 
turning as they require; peel, and send 
them to the table whole; serve with melted 
butter. Peel, slice, and fry them brown, 
in butter or dripping. 

Blacking for Ladies' and Children's 
Shoes. Take good black ink, and mix 
with dissolved gum arabic. Apply with a 
brush or sponge. This gives a beautiful 
new appearance to morocflo shoes that have 
become a little rusty. 

French Mode of Preserving Eggs. — 
Dissolve four ounces of beeswax in eight 
ounces of olive oil; in this put the tip of 
the finger and anoint the egg all around, 
The oil will immediately be alisorbed by 
the shell, and tlie pores filled up by the 
wax. If kept in a cool jilace, the eggs 
after twolyears will be as good as if fresh laid. 

Fruit Cake. — Two cups sorghum, one 
of butter, four of eggs; lour of flour, one 
teaspoonful of soda, one ])ound of raisins, 
one pound of Zante currants, one table- 
spoonful cloves, cinnamon and nutmeg; a 
little French brandy im|>roves it. Seed 
the raisins, and' rub an extra cup of flour 
through tlion. 

Mechanical Hints. 

The Use of Screws.— Mechanics gen- 
erally drive screws into wood without any 
precaution. But in cabinet and all other 
fine work, especially, it would be well to 
use certain precautions which are given as 
follows in the Mannfactnrer and Ihiitder: — 
When the wood is very hard, it may ease 
the labor of getting the screw home when 
you grease it; and when you expect that 
the screw will some time have to be taken 
out, it is well to grease or oil it, to pre- 
vent it rusting Also when the object is 
exposed to dampness, screws should be 
protected in this way. When the wood is 
very soft, or when some strain may cause 
the screws to work loose, warm them, dip 
them in melted glue, and also put a few 
drops of glue in the hole. The latter is 
useful when in re))airing an article it is 
found that the holes are rather large. If 
you cannot get other screws large enough 
to till the hole, use a wooden ping inserted 
with glue, and make a new hole in the 
plug or next to it. If the objects .ire ex- 
posed to dampness, apjjly powdered rosin, 
the only precaution being to heat tlje 
screw sufficiently to melt the resin. If 
you want the screws to stick so fast that 
they can not be got out without breaking, 
put some vinegar or other suitable acid in 
the hole, which will rust them in. 

Colored Cements. — A writer in Comptes 
Rendns states that colored cements which 
harden rapidly may be made as follows: 
He takes a solution of silicate of soda (sp. 
gr., 1,298) and add? to it, while stirring, 
first pulverized and previously washed, 
lixiviated chalk, so as to form a thick mass 
like butter, to which are added, for color- 
ing purjioses, the following substances: 
Finely pulverized sulpliuretof antimony 
for black, iron filings for gray, zinc dust 
for whitish gray, carbonate of cop})er for 
bright green, oxide of chromium for deep 
green, cobalt blue for blue, red le.ad for 
orange, vermillion for bright red, and car- 
mine for a violet blue. This cement hard- 
ens within from six to eight hours, and 
may afterward be polished, becoming like 
marble. 

Alloy of Copper and Cast Iron. — 
The alloy of equal parts of copper and 
cast iron, introduced by Soret, is not as 
well known as it dcs(>rves to be. It has 
the appearance of zinc, is much harder 
than copper, and tougher than cast iron. 
In casting it docs not adhere to the forms; 
it docs not rust in thi^ air; niul it may be 
used successfully for m:iny parts of ma- 
chinery, statues, etc. After casting, it 
may be easily electroplated, or the co])per 
may be expTiscd by dissolving the iron 
from the surface with a suitable acid. 



LifE Tl|©ilql^7s. 



Trifle not with serious matters, and be 
not serious about trifles. 

Handle rough-sided men carefully. It 
pays to take a little time when you are 
opening chestnut-burs. 

He who has not forgiven an enemy has 
never yet tasted one of the most sublime 
enjoyments of life. 

Most of the shadows that cross our path 
through life are caused by standing in our 
own light. 

The universe, as it unfolds itself to 
Christian eye, presents no marks of a sparse 
and narrow design. 

We cannot conquer fate and necessity, 
yet we caa yield to them in such a man- 
ner as to be greater than if we could. 

Charity, like the sun, brightens, every ob- 
ject on which it shines; a censorious dispo- 
sition easts every character into the darkest 
shade it will bear. 

It is impossible to make men understand 
their ignorance; for it requires knowledge 
to perceive; and therefore he that can per- 
ceive it, hath it not. 

It seldom happens that any period of 
human existence, whether extensive or 
contracted, passes by without some circum- 
stances occuring calculated to produce 
painful sensations. 

There is no worse robber than a bad 
book. Other robbers may despoil us of our 
money, but a bad book robs us of our 
faith, our purity of heart — of all wo value 
most. Young reader, beware of bad 
books. 

Pure Things. — There is nothing purer 
than honesty, nothing sweeter than chari- 
ty, nothing warmer than love, nothing 
brighter than virtue, and nothing more 
steadfast than faith. These united in one 
mind form the purest, the sweetest, the 
riolwest, the brightest, the holiest and the 
most .steadfast faith. 



The Way to- Succeed. 

Fortune, success, position are never 
gained but by piously, determinedly, 
bravely striking, growing, living to a thing 
till it is fairly accomplished. In short, you 
must carry a thing through if you want to 
be anybody or anything, no matter if it 
does cost you the pleasure, the society 
and the thousand jjearly gratifications of 
life. No matter for these. Stick to the 
thing and carry it through. Believe you 
were made for the matter, and that no one 
else can do it. Put forth your whole en- 
ergies. Be awake, electrify yourself, and 
go forth to the task. Only once learn to 
carry through a thing in all its complete- 
ness and proportion, and you will become 
a hero. You will think better of yourself, 
others will think better of you. The world 
in its very heart admires the stern and de- 
termined doer. It sees in him its best 
sight, its brightest object, its richest treas- 
ure. Drive right along, then, in whatever 
you undertake, and consider yourself am- 
ply sufficient for the deed. You will be 
successful. 

Building Character.— There is a struct- 
ure which everybody is building, young 
and old, each one for himself. It is called 
character, and in every act of life isa stone. 
If day by day we be careful to build our 
lives wit-li pure, noble, upright deeds, at 
the end will stand a fair temple, honor- 
ed by God and man. But, as one leak will 
sink a ship, and one flaw break a chain, so 
one mean, dishonorable, untruthful act or 
word will forever leave its imj)ress and 
work its influence on our character. Then 
let the several deeds unite to form a day 
and one by one the days grow into noble 
years, and the years, as they slowly ))as8 
will raise at last a beautiful edifice, endur- 
ing forever to our ]>raise. 

Have the courage to give occasion.ally, 
that which you can ill afford to spare, giv- 
ing what you do not want nor value, neitii- 
er brings nor deserves thanks in return; 
who is grateful for a di ink of water fiotn 
another's overflowing well, however deli- 
cious the draught ? Have the cournge to 
wear your old garments till yon can pay 
for new ones. 

AVhat a glorious world this would bo if 
all its inhabitants could say, with Shakes- 
peare's shepherd: "Sir. I am a true laI>or- 
er; earn what I wear; I owe no mun hate; 
envy no man's hapi)iness; glad of other 
men's good; content with my farm." 

We should never throw out against a man 
broken hints and dark inuendoes. which 
would leave the hearers to suspect anything 
and everything that ill-nature can sug- 
gest. 



12 



PADIFIO 3a*imJA 3PIl^8S. 



[January 6, 1872. 



RAIN TABLE. 

We publish below the monthlj- rainfall at 
Sacramcmto, from the year 1849, including 
1871. The average rainfall at that point is 
about 20 inches, and it will be seen from the 
table that up to Jan. 1st, of this year, within 
1% inches of this total had fallen. As the 
mean amount of rainfall for January is 3% 
inches, and the maximum 15 inches, we 
may calculate with a degree of certainty of 
having more than the average quantity of rain 
this season. 

We give this table that our readers may use 
it for reference, and will republish it with ad- 
ditions, at some future time. 



*■ S* S" Si: S !) p 



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FinkChkomos. — The cbromo lithographic 
art has now been brought to such perfec- 
tion in America by Mr. J. Hoover, of 
Philadelphia, that lovers of beautiful pic- 
tures can supply their homes with "per- 
fect counterfeits " of the rarest touches of 
the most gifted artists of both old and 
modern days. The popular pictures are 
unmistakably cultivating a new and ele- 
vating taste for fine arts in the American 
community. Mr. Hoover is constantly 
adding to his akeady long list of home 
prints. We have examined those men- 
ioned in liis advertisement in the Press 
and can say they are among the most at- 
tractive and popular of any yet jjublished 
in this country. 

The Weather.— Mr. F. B. Pilling of 
the Signal Service Corps, has furnished us 
with a table showing the monthly mean re- 
port which sums up as follows: Moan 
daily barometer, 30.09; thermometer 53; 
rainfall, inches, 0,43«;; prevailing wind, 
south-west; number of miles travelled by 
the wind since the 15th ult., 4,430 miles. 



Daily Record, 



By the U. 8. Army Siirnal Service, for the week ending 
Wednesday. January 3. 1872. 



qO.! 







atlve 
.idity. 
CVnt. 

tion of 
ind. 


'S5_ S 


Ilia 


=3 


■St 


Bel 
Ilun 
Per 

Direc 
W 




1^1 



Thnmdy.-.'H.TS 
Friday... »74 
Saturday 30.W 
Sunday. 3U.0U 
Monday.. -.'a.SS 
Tu«sday..3U.2t 
W'eddaj-..:w.ai 

Thursdy. 30.00 
Friday ...20.0X 
Saturday 30.16 
Sunday... 30.1S 
Monday.. 91. 12 
Tue«ilay..ao.2.i 
W>ililay.. 

Thursdy. 27.82 

Friday 

Saturday. 
Sunday... 29.01 
Monday. . 
Tuesday. SO.I.'i 
Wed'day..29.75 



S7 
93 
73 
SB 
92 



S. E. 

S. W. 

8. 

Calm 

Calm 

E. 



Fresh l.O.'i Thre.tlg 

Fresh .45 <Jloudy 

Gentle .82 Cioudy 

Fresh .01 Cloudy 

1.70 Cloudy 

.01 Cloudy 

Gentle Clear 



E. Gentle 
S. Fresh 

E. Gentle 
N. F. Gentle 
Calm 



.02 Cloudy 
.01 ThreatK 
.48 Threat'K 
.05 Fair 
C ondy 



Gentle .05 Fair 



8S W. Fresh 



39 N. E. Light 



W. 

N. E. 



Fresh 
Gentle 



ThursjI'y 


■rt.-W 


37 


SO 


Friday... 


•29.49 


39 


81 


Saturday 


a.51 


3li 


90 


Sunday.. 


29.85 


3li 


.0 


Monday. 








Tuesday. 


29.90 


39 


Ii3 


Wed'day 


.30.10 


33 


89 


Thursdy 


.28.99 


4« 


K! 


Friday... 


29.07 


:I8 


b3 


Saturday 


■28.97 


32 


69 


Sunday.. 


■29.47 


28 




Monday- 








Tuesday. 


29.90 


27 


I; 


Wedday 


.29.87 


2« 


Thursdy 


•29..rr 


43 


43 


Friday.. 








Saturday 


29.33 


38 


.■>( 


Sunday. 


.29.89 


28 


W 


Monday 








Tuesday. 


29. 9B 


li 


44 


Wedday 


.29.89 


24 


74 


Thursdy 


.30.08 


II 




Friday... 


29. -« 


1« 


82 


Saturday 


29.37 


3-; 


») 


Sunday.. 


.3U.-.'9 


4 


.4 


Monday. 








Tuesday. 


29.H7 


28 


M 


Wedday 


.30.01 


18 


m 


Thursdy 


.30.48 


10 


79 


Friday.. 


30.^ 2 


21 


H.S 


Saturday 


2)t.8l 


40 


i3 


Sunday . 


.:io.i)9 


30 


78 


Monday . 








Tuesday. 


29.% 


3.^ 


.'>i 


Wedday 


.30.32 


24 


8« 



S. W. Fresh 
S. W. Fre-h 
W. Gentle 
S. W, Brisk 

S. W. Fresh 
Calm 

W. Brisk 
W. Fre>h 
W. Brisk 
8. W. Fresh 

W. Brisk 
N. W. Brisk 



Cloudy 



Cloudy 

.04 Fair 
.07 Cloudy 

.47 Cloudy 

Lt. Rain 
.h!t Lt. Sn'w 
.04 Cloudy 

C'oudy 
.15 Lt. Sn'w 

C' oudy 
F'air 
Cloudy 
Clear 

Clear 
Fair 



W. 

S. 



Gentle 
Fresh 



Light 



N. 
Calm 

Ca'm 

Calm 

S. Gentle 

>. W. Brisk 



s. 
s. 

8. 

N. E. 
S. E. 



Light 
Light 

Fresh .01. 

Gentle 

tientle 



.01 Fair 

Clear 

Clear 
Fair 

Clear 
Ha7.y 
Cioody 
C'.oudy 

Cloudy 
(,'lear 



N. W Gentle 



N. Light 
S. W. Fresh 



Lt. Sn'w 
(^loudy 
(.ioudy 
Cloudy 

Clear 
Fair 



METEOROLOGICAL REPORTS. 

San FKAN'cisro. 

The folldwing is the meteoroloRical report of the 
mouth as computed by Mr. ThumaB Tennent of this city ; 

Basometeb.— Mean hight at 9 a. m. 30.17; Mean hight 
at 12 H. 30. Hi: Mean hight at 3 P. M. 30.14: Mean hight 
at I) p. M. 30.13; Great<bt hight on the 4th at 9 a. m. :jo.42; 
Least hight on the 2l8t at I'i M. 29.69. 

Thermometer.— In the shade and fnie from reflectejl 
heat. Mean hight at 9 a. m. .H: Mean hight at 12 M. 57; 
Moan hight at 3 P. M. .18: Mean hight at il P. m, 56; 
Greatest bight on the 20th, at 3. i'. M. (i2; Least hight on 
the 11th at 9 a. m. 46. 

Self-Beoistebino THP.nMOMETEB. — Mean hight dur- 
ing the night, 42: Greatest hight on the muruing of the 
19th, Hi: Least hight on the morning of the 11th, 33. 

Uain Gauge.— 2d, 0.16 in.; 17th, 0.63 in.; 18th, 3.22 
in.; l»tb, 3.49 iu.; 20th, 0.62 in.; 21st, 93 in.; 22d, 32 
in.; 23d, 3.48 in.; 26th, 0.15 in.; 27th, 0.74 in.; 2«th, 0.23 
in.; 29th. 1.U4 in.; 30th, 0,13 in.; 3lR$, l.fiO in. Total 
(during the great storm in December) , 16.74 iu 14 days. 
Total for the season, 20.60 iu. 

Winds.- North. NE and NW on 12 days; South and 
SE on 17 days; West on 2 days. 

Wkatheb — Cioudy on 18 dayi; variable on 8 days; 
clear on 5 days. 

Stoceiok. 

(Reported by G. A. SatniTLEFr, M. D., Superintendent 

State Insane Asylum. J 



MONTHS. 




lau 


1851 


18.55 


lavi 


"1867 
.03 


I86S 


1869 


1870 1871 


September 














October... . 






.31 




.4.5 


.6-2 


(Kl 


1 .05 


.15 .'4 


Novemlwr 




.61 


.01 


.71 


.8:1 


2.16 


.62 


.83 


.«7>1.09 


December 




1.35 


.23 


11.42 


2.99 


6.48 3.45 


I..55 


1.3.5 11.49 


Total to 
















Jan. lat. 




1.96 


..» 


3. 6 


4.27 


9.29 


4.10 3.4:1 
I86»|1870 
4.18 1.37 


2.17 12.72 


MONTHS. 


18.".3 


18.54 


I8.M 


1856 




t S.07 


1871 

1.47 




•January .. . 


-■ 411 


2 «t 


2 90 


4.50 






February . . 


.(S 


8 94 


2 71 


1 Wl 


1 2.28 


3.17 2.SI 


1.70 




March 


■ 112 


3. HI 


2,211 


1 2K 


1 3,51 


2.49 


.9<l 


.:w 




Aurii 

iKy 


■f. 7(1 


3 21 


3 • S 


I.IK 


166 1..59 


71 


.78 




1 2.') 


66 


l.lll 


1 17 




.82 


.1 


.4,5 




June 




1 W 










.30 






July 








.11 












August.. 


8.99 


isiol 


ris 


12l7 












Total 




121.71 


16.15 


9.23 


6 87 





Note.— 18.57 to 1866 inclusive, not taken. 

The above has been sent us by solicitation, in order that 
the readers of the Pbess may compare the rainlall of Stock- 
ton with that of other points. It is reported to precisely 12 
p. M., December 31st, 1871. 



SacbajiE-tto. 
[ By T. M. Logan, M. D., Secretary State Board of Health. 

Dec. 2\ ia?l. Kalnfall for the •ea.son to date . .9 .0:« mchea 
•' 31, 3.371 " 



Total for the season up to Jan 1, 1872 12 .421 Inchs. 

RnMAKKS.— The average annr.al ralnfsU at Sacramento, 
Is about twenty inches. It will be soon from the above 
statement that we have received within <even and one- 
halt' inches ot this total, as the mean amount of rainlall for 
•January Js three and*,<ine-half Inches, and the maximum 
for this month tlfteen inches^ we may calculate with a 
degree of certainty of having more thin the average quan- 
tity of rain this season. 



Centebviixe. 
Amount of rainfall at Centerville from December 15th, 
1871. to January 3d. 1872. 



Pictorial Engravings. 

During 1871 we presented the readers of 
this journal nearly 300 baudsoiue engravings 
iu its 832 pages. Many of these engravings 
were drawn expressly for our readers, and our 
general selections have been made with a view 
to their appropriateness to our special Pucific 
Coast readers. AVe have the assistance of the 
best designers in San Francisco, and regularly 
employ some of the best engravers in the 
TTnited States, as can be proved by samples of 
their work. 



RAILROAD ITEMS. 

The Nortli Pacific Railway Company has 
been incorporated. Its purjfose is to build 
a railroad from Saucelito, Marin county, 
through said county and Sonoma county, 
to a point on the Walhalla river, a distance 
of 90 miles. 

Trains upon the California and Oregon 
Railroad are running into Red Blnflf. 

Grading upon the Virginia and Truckee 
Railroad is being pushed ahead vigorously 
between Washoe and Carson. An extra 
force has been put to work on the two tun- 
nels near the head of Washoe valley. 

The Central Pacific has taken possession 
of the Stockton and Visalia and Stockton 
and Copperopolis railroads. 

The tracklayers on the road south of the 
Merced river are making satisfactory pro- 
gress. The cars are now running to a 
point but a few niiies from and within 
sight of Bear creek. 

The Hood surveying party, which has 
been laying out the line of Ihe California 
and Oregon Railroad near the line divid- 
ing the t5vo States, have returned, being 
forced by the snow storms to cease opera- 
tions. When they quit operations they 
had advanced a distance of about 20 miles 
into Oregon. 

Although the surveys have been made 
for a railroad from Napa Junction to Peta- 
luma, to connect with the Sonoma Railroad, 
and work was actually commenced, the 
change of ownership of the California Pa- 
cific stopped movements in that direction. 
There are assurances for stating that the 
Sonoma connoction will be matle in time 
for moving tho next year's crops. Recently 
the engineers of the Central Pacific rail- 
road company have been running lines 
from the Summit, two or three miles above 
the Junction, across the tules toward Peta- 
luma, with the purpose, it is stated, of 
looking a route through to Saucelito. 

At the meeting of the Board of Directors 
of the San Diego & Los Angeles Railroad 
Company, it was resolvetl that a survey be 
made with a view to the jicrmanent loca- 
tion of the route from San Diego to Los 
Angelos. Mr. Chas. J. Fox will act as 
Chief Engineer of the surveying expedi- 
tion. The party will commence the survey 
at Old Town and working toward Pawn, 
from thence toward San Luis Rey antl 
Santa Margareta to San Juan Capistrano 
and Anaheim, finally terminating at Los 
Angeles. The route for a branch from 
Anaheim to San Bernardino will also be 
surveyed. From all we can gather the San 
Diego ct Los Angelos Railroad Company 
means business. 

The Bakersville Courier rejoices in an- 
ticipation of the early connection of Kern 
county with the balance of the State by 
rail. It has information of a character 
which leads it to believe "that the exten- 
sion of the San Joaquin Valley Road to 
that place early in the Spring is a cer- 
tainty. 

The Supervisors of Marin county have 
passed an order calling for an election, to 
be held on January 24th next, at which 
time the people will vote whether or not 
the county shall issue bonds to the amount 
of $160,000 in aid of building a railroad 
from San Rafael to Tomales. The North 
Pacific Coast Railroad Company who de- 
sign to construct a road from Saucelito to 
the Walhalla river, by the wa^* of San Ra- 
fael and Tomales, have signified a desire to 
accept of such a subsidy, and will build 
the road if the County Supervisors can 
agree with them on the route to be fol- 
lowed. 

The object of the road is mainly to open 
up to the San Francisco market greater 
facilities in obtaining lumber from the 
Northern Coast counties. 

The Central and Southern Pacific Rail- 
road Companies are about to commence 
very extensive improvements in the .south- 
ern part of San Francisco and on Mission 
Bay. The Central Company has a grant 
of sixty acres of land in Mission Bay, which, 
it is said, can be made available at a cost 
of about 700,000. It is further reported 
that a contract for filling in that part of 
Mission Bay covereil by tho grant has been 
entered into alreatly. By the terms of the 
grant, the Company will be obliged to ex- 
pend the sum of §200,000 on the work be- 
fore March 21st, 1873. 

The new track now being built between 
San Loandro and Melrose, (Simpson's) is 
progressing rapidly — a train of construc- 
tion cars have been lately employed in 
transportating large quantities of railroad 
iron. The road is completed about half 
the distance. When finished the old 
track between these two places will be re- 
moved. 

The San Joaquin Republicau says a large 
number of (four or five hundred) men are 
employed in grading the track for the 



branch road the Central Pacific Company 
are building from the main trunk on the 
west side of the river down the valley. 
The branch will leave tho main road about 
three and a half miles west of Banta's, and 
follow the most direct route down the 
valley. The town of Antioch will not be 
the water terminus. The road will ]>a8s 
some three miles to the west of that place 
and reach deep water at a point below. 

Hazlett's surveying party, of the South- 
ern Pacific Narrow-gauge Railroad, re- 
turning from the survey of tlie route to 
Needles, below Hardyville, on the Colo- 
rado, the present terminus' of the road, 
have arrived at Camp Cody, all well. They 
find a good, practicable route to the Colo- 
rado. 

Squirrel Pests. 

The squirrel pests have so increased 
since the last wet season that the damage 
done by them in some of the agricultural 
countries is estimated as larger than the to- 
tal amount of State and county taxes. The 
late heairy rains however, have so reduced 
their number that the present is suggest- 
ed as a favorable opportunity for milk- 
ing a concerted effort to ritl the fields of 
their presence. The Antioch Ledgtr reftra 
to tho matter as follows: 

"The heavy fall of rain has completely 
flooded all tho low lands, and has even 
saturated the upper lands to such an ex- 
tent and depth that these little rascal dep- 
redators are to be found drowned by the 
hundreds, nay, by the thousands. This 
we learn from a farmer friend, who haa 
suft'ered enough to make him a good ob- 
server. And he suggests that, at this 
juncture, active aggressive war should be 
carried on against the remaining reserved 
corpsof the.se invaders of the farmers' pros- 
perity and comfort. Now that the ground 
is so wot and tho grasses are so j'oung and 
short, the time for applying strychnine is 
the present; and a little pains by way of 
precautron will protluce immense benefi- 
cial result in the next season of crops. 
This is a matter deserving the promjit at- 
tention of farmers and gartleners." 

The following incident communicated to 
i\\e Cali/oi-nia Agrvmlha-ist, furnishes an 
important hint of the manner in which tUe 
work of destruction may be accomjdished 
with perhaps tho least trouble and danger 
to domestic animals, especially in fields 
where the vermin may have to travel some 
distance to find water. As the low lands 
are now pretty generally deserted by them, 
the plan may possibly be quite generally 
adopted even in the present flooded state 
of the country. We copy as follows: 

Six years ago the San Jose Oak Hill 
Cemetery grounds — nearly 00 acres — 5vere 
about to be alwintloned on account of the 
squirrels undermining the grave-stones, 
and destroying the plants, trees, etc. The 
superintendent, however, hit n])on a plan 
that soon jmt a <]uictus on their operations 
in that neighborhood. One day while out 
in the yard, trying to shoot them he heard 
their screechings and contentions at a point 
where he had left a watering pot, near to 
which he hastened and hid him.self, in 
order to learn the cause of so much com- 
motion, and found hundreds of them 
fighting to get at the water, and in every 
direction, as iat as the eye could reach, 
droves were on the way thitherward, 
Whereupon he concluded to furnish them, 
if possible, with all they wanted, by plac- 
ing 12 one gallon flower pots firmly in the 
ground, covering them with bricks, with 
the excejition of a large hole enough for a 
squirrel to drink out of. Those vessels 
were filled with pure water for seven suc- 
cessive days, and were found empty every 
morning. On the eighth evening strych- 
nine was added to the water, and in the 
morning the pots were empty, as usual. 
(Dissolve strychnine in very warm water, 
add a little alcohol, antl when of a milky 
consistency it is read for use. Only an 
eighth of an ounce was used in this ex- 
periment.) In the evening the dose was 
repeated, and the next morning about 
hiilf the contents remained, and there has 
been no occasion to fight them since. 
Even in the large old pasture fields ad- 
joining, hundreds of holes can be found 
cob-webbed over with only now and then 
an occupant. The inference seems to be 
that now, before the heavy rains come, 
is probably- the best time to make a simi- 
lar onslaught that will not be afibrtled 
again in some time. 

Expect but little from him who promi- 
ses a great ileal. 



January 6, 1872.1 



OiYY P^^KEJ R^Epo^Y. 



DOMESTIC PRODUCE AT WHOLESALE. 



[The prices given below are those for entire consignments 
from Jiret hands, unless otherwise specitied.J 

San Francisco, Thiu-s., a. m., Jani 4. 
FLOUR — We note a fair local demand with 
a good enquiry for export. Sales reported 
embrace 4,000 bbls. Cal. extra, 1,500 do. Cal. 
superfine, and 3,000 Oregon extra. We quote 
prices as follows: 

Superfine, $5.75@G.00 ; extra, in ^cts, 
of ly6 lbs. $7.00. Standard Oregon brands, 
extra may be quoted at $7.00. 

WHEAT— In limited demand, and but little 
inquiry for export. Prices show a further de- 
decline. Sales aggregate 8,000 sacks fair to 
choice at $2.20(a}2.30 ^^100 lbs. Quotable at 
close at $2.00(«j2.25 per 100 lbs. 

The latest Liverpool market quotation comes 
through at 12s. 6d. per cental. 

BARLEY — Has been very quiet duiing the 
past week, at a decline in prices. Sales em- 
brace 5,000 sacks ordinary coast to choice bay, 
at $1.70@$l.yo, which is the range at close. 

OATS — Miirket has been inactive during the 
week under review. Sales 2,000 sacks ordinary 
coast to choice bay, at $1.75@,1.'J0. Quota- 
ble at close at $1.75 and 1.90 per 100 lbs. 

CORN—Is quotable at 2.15@2.25 for yel- 
low and white respectively ^ 100 lbs. 

CORNMEAL— Is quotable at $2.75@$3.25 
from the mill. 

BUCKWHEAT— Is dull at $2.50. 
RYE — According to quality is quotable at 
$2.37J^@$2.40. 

STRAW— Quotable at $7.00@$8.00 by the 
cargo. 

BKAN — Selling at $.31 per ton from the mill. 
MIDDLINGS— For feed, are selling at $42.50 
per ton from mills. 

OIL CAKE MEAL— In good demand at $40 
from the mill. 

HAY — Receipts have been light, and prices at 
close are $16@23 for fair to choice "^ ton. 

HONEY — We quote Los Angeles comb at 
12^@15c. Potter's in 2-lb cans, $4 per doz. 
BEESWAX— In good demand at 40c ^ lb. 
POTATOES— Market has been quite dull 
during past week. Diil'erent qualities are sell- 
ing at 0O(a>'J0c. 

SWEET POTATOES— Are selling at $2.00@ 
2.25 '^, 100 lbs. 

HOPS— The range is 45@C5c. 
HIDES— During past week 850 Cal. dry 
sold at 18@19 and 1,080 salted at 8@yKc. 

WOOL — There is a renewed activity in ibis 
article and burry is now saleable; sales of 
237,000 lbs. are reported at full rates. Prices 
for good to choice shipping grades are22(rt}20c. 
§ales of extra choice at 27(ai28c. 
TALLOW— Market quiet at 8%@9%c ^ lb. 
SEEDS— Flax 3c.; Canary, 5(ai7c., Alfalfa, 
15@17c; Mustard — California Brown, 3@6c; 
Cal. White 3-'i@4%c. 'ft «j. 

PROVISIONS— Cahtoruia Bacon 13>^@14c; 
Oregon, 14%@15c; Eastern do. 13>^((£^14c; 
for clear and 14;.^15 for sugar-cured Breakfast; 
Cal. Hams lt@14%; Oregon, 15 %@lGc; Califor- 
nia Sugar-cured Hams, l(i^-^((417c; Oregon do. 
17(tt>18c; Eastern do, iS(«^20c; California 
Smoked Beef, 13%@14c. 

BEANS — Market continues fair. The follow- 
ing are jobbing rates: Pea $3@3.15; small 
White $2.75(«i$3.00; small Butter $2.50@2.75, 
large $3.00(«J$3.25; Pink $3; Bayo, $3.40@ 
$3.00; Navy $3.50 "ft 100 lbs. 

ONIONS— Fair to choice Silverskins $1.00@ 
$1.50 '^ 100 lb.s. 

NUTS — California Almonds, 8@10c. for 
hard and 18(3j.25 for soft shell; Peanuts, 5(aj, 
7c; Pecan, 25c "ft lb Walnuts, new, 12>^c; Hick- 
ory, 12c; Brazil, 16c; Chili Walnuts 10c. ; East- 
ern Chestnuts 35c; Cocoanuts $(3.00 ^ 100. 

COFFEE— Costa Rica 21c; Guatemala 20c; 
Jav. 25%c; Manilla, 19J/$; Rio 19%(2!20. 
Ground Coffee in cases 30c. 

SPICES— Allspice 14(rt>lSc. Cloves 16@17c. 
Cassia 35(V5,36c. Nutmegs$1.00(rt),$1.10. Whole 
Pepper lUc. GroundSpices — Allspice $1.00 ft 
doz.; Cassia $1.50; Cloves $1.12%; Mustard 
$1.50; Ginger and Pepper, each $1.00 ^ doz.; 
Mace $1.50 {i^ lb. ; Ginger 15c ^ lb. 

FRESH MEAT — Market has remained firm 
since last report. We quote slaughterer's rates 
as follows: — 

BEEF— American, 1st quality, 10@llc^ft). 
do. 2d quality 9@10c 'fi tt>. ; do. 3d do. 7@8c. 
VEAL— Quotable at9@12c. 
MUTTON— 9@12%c ft lb. 
LAMB— 12%c ft lb. 

PORK — Undressed grain-fed is quotable at 
5%@6%c. dressed, grain-fed, S^i@{)c. 

POULTRY — Live Turkeys, 20@21c "ft fc, 
dressed, 22(a)25c; Hens and large Roosters, 
$9.00; Spring Chickens, $7.00 @ 8.00; Ducks, 
tame, $9.00(a!.10.00 per doz.; Geese, $15@$18 
^ dozen. 

WILD GAME— Dealers pay the following 
prices for lots from the country: Hare, $3.00(aj 
$3.50; Rabbits, $1.25@$1.50; Quail, $1.75to 
Sl.87%; English Snipe, $1.75@$2.00; Mallard 
Ducks, $3.0O@$3. 50; Small Ducks, $1.50; Wild 
Geese ^ doz. $1.50@$3.00; Terrapin 'ft doz., 
$2.0()@,2.50. 

DAIRY PRODUCTS— CaUfornia Butter,com- 
mon to good in rolls, may be quoted at 40(«j50c ; 
California firkin butter, 27%@32%c. Pickled 
25@32%. Eastern firkin 20(a(30c. 
Cheese — Cahfornial5@19c, Eastern, 16@17c. 
Euos — California fresh, G5@70c. ^ doz. 
LARD-California 12%@V3%; Oregoninbbls. 
and kegs 12%@13c.; Eastern in cases 14J^@15 
do in tcs. 12>i@13, 




FRUIT. 



Mexican Oranges $25 00 

(;alilorcia do 20 00 

Limes, ^ 1,000 8 00 

Australian Lemons, ^^ 100 4 00 

Sicily do 1^ box 8 00 @ 10 00 

California do, 'j^ 10 2 00 

Bananas, ^ bunch 2 50 

Apples, eating, ^ box 1 00 



® 38 00 
@ 26 00 
® 10 00 



do cooking do. 
Pears, cooking, Ifl box 

DRIED 

Apples, ^ ft 

Pears Ti* ft 

Peaches, ^ ft 

Apricots, ^ ft 

Plums, ■^ lb 

Pitted do, 1? ft 

Raisins 13 ft 

Black B^igs, ^ ft 

White do. 



2 50 

3 50 
2 00 

1 00 

2 60 



FRUIT. 



8 @ 

8 @ 

8 @ 

6 (at 

20 @> 

10 @ 

8 @ 

15 @ 



7 
10 

'J 

8J« 

8 
22 
15 

20 



1^ 



30 00 
20 00 
30 00 
20 00 
16 00 
12 00 
25 00 
1(! 00 



VEGETABLES. 

Cabbage, ii ft 

Garlic, ■$! ft 1 @ — 

Marrowfat Squash, per ton 9 00 ® 10 00 

GENERAL MERCHANDISE. 

AGRICULTURAL IMPLEMENTS— Dealers 
report a good demand for seasonable articles 
under this head, the rains having given an im- 
petus to the trade. 

BAGS AND BAGGING— There is no demand 
at present, and prices in consequence are large- 
ly nominal. 

BOOTS AND SHOES— There has continued 
during the past week only a moderate demand 
for seasonable goods at unchanged rates. 
BUILDING AND FENCING MATERIALS— 
The local trade has been fair, and only moderate 
demand for export. Dealers pay for cargoes 
of Oregon as follows: Rough $16; do. 
dressed$30; Spruce $I7@18; Redwood $16@ 
$30_.for rough and dressed. Redwood Lum- 
ber Association's prices are as follows : 

Merchantable worked rustic $31 00 to $32 50 

Kefuae do do 20 00 to 2150 

Merchantable surfaced and rough clear 28 00 to 

Refuse surfaced and rough 18 00 to 

Merchantable beaded flooring 28 00 to 

Refuse do do 18 00 to 

Merchantable rough 16 00 to 

Refuse do do 1100 to 

Fancy Pickets 22 50 to 

Rough Pickets 15 00 to 

The mill price for cargo lots from Northern 
Ports is $9.00@$10 for timber, and $17.50@ 
$20 for flooring. 

FISH — We quote Pacific Dry Cod in bun- 
dles at 5d., and in cases at 8@8%c; Salmon, 
in bbls. $5.50@7.50, hf do, $3.50@4.50; Case 
Salmon, $2@3 'ft doz for 'i(w,2-tb cans respec- 
tively; Pickled Cod, $4.50 in hf bbls and $8 in 
bbls; Puget Sound Smoked Herring, 60@8,5c 
per box; Mackerel, hf bbls, new, jjer rail, 
$12; do in kits, $3; extra mess do, $5; No. 
1, via Cape Horn, $8@10 for hf bbls and $2.50 
for kits; Smoked Salmon, 7@7%c per lb. 

NAILS— Quotable at $5 50@7.75 for invoice 
lots ex ship. 

PAPER— California Straw Wrapping, sell at 
$1..50 ft ream. 

PAINTS— We quote "White Lead at 10@12%c; 
Whitening, 2c; Chalk 2%c 'ft ft). 

RICE— Sales of China No. 1 at8>4'@8%c and 
No. 2 at 7@8c 'ft lb; Siam, quotable at 7(w, 
7%c in mats; Carolina, 10c; Hawaiian Table, 
9c per lb. 

SUGAI^-We quote Cal. Cube at 14%c; Cir- 
cle A Crushed, 14%c, and Granulated 14c; Yel- 
low Cofl'ee and Golden C, 12^3@13c; Hawaiian 
8@,r2c as extremes 'ft lb. 

SYRUP — Prices may be given as follows: 
82%c in bbls, 85 in hf Ijbls, and 90c in kegs. 

SALT— California Bay sells at $5@$15; 
Carmen Island, in bulk, $13; Liverpool Coarse, 
$18@20; do Stoved, $22.50 "f, ton. 

SOAP — The prices for local brands at 5@ 
10c, and Castile at 113/j@12%c 'ft lb. 

TEA— We quote Hyson at 60@75c ; Gun- 
powder and Imperial, 95c-@1.05 ; Young Hy- 
son and Moyune, 90c@1.15i FooChow Oolong, 
50@90c; Pouchong, 37%@45c; Souchong, 50 
(a)75c; Japan 40@75c. 'ft ttr. 



San Francisco Metal Market. 

[ Corrected weekly by Hooker & Co., 117 and 119 Cal. street. ] 

PRICKS FOR INVOICBj 

fobbing prices rule from ten to liftefn per cent, higher than the 
follmoinq gtinlalionn. 

Thursday. January 4th, 1871 
Iron.— Duty. Pig, *7Hton: Railroad, 6Co 'if* l0« lbs; Bar, 
l(a*lSc'Bll>: Sheet, polished, Sc^ ft; common, l'"(al^c 
« ft: Plate, l'jc%* II): Pipe, l.'sci* lb: Gal»aMized,2'».c ^ lb. 

Scot<ai andlEnglish Pijj Iron, ^ ton $W .')« fa) .M 00 

White PiK, li* ton 45 00 M 

Reiined Bar, bad assortment, 'P lb — 04 @ — 05 

Refined Bar, good assortnlent, ^ lb — 05 @ — 06 

Boiler, No. 1 to 4 — U.5 (g) 

Plate. No. 5 to 9 @ — 0.5 



Sheet. No. 10 to 13. 
Sheet, No. 14 to 20 
Sheet, No. 24 to 27. 

Horse Shoes 

Nail Rod 

Norway Iron 

Rollc'd Iron 



■ 05 ^(c 
. — 06 

— 0« 
7 SO 

• 9 

in 

5 



Other Irons for Blacksmiths, Miners, etc. 5 @ 6 

Duty ; Sheathing, VAa ^ Bb ; Pig and Bar, 2Mc 



COI'PER. 
W ft 

Sheathing,}* lb 

Sheathing, Yellow — . 
Sheathing, Old Yellow 

Composition Nails 

Coiuposition Bolts 



~ 24 

— 24 

— 11 

— 24 
24 



Tin Pl.vtf,s.— Duty : 2.') |* cent, ad valorem. 

Plates, Charcoal, IX ^ box 12 00 

Plates, I C Charcoal 10 00 

Rooting Plates II 00 

BancaTin, Slabs, ■¥» lb 

Steel.— English Cast, %41b — 16 

Drill 16 

Flat Bar 17 

PloughPointa 3 75 

Russia (for monldiboards) 12>^ 

Quicksilver.— i!< lb 

Lead.— Pig, » lb -- 0.5;^ 

Sheet — 08 

Pipe — 9 

Bar 08 

ZiNC.-Sheets, f( lb — 10 

BOBAX.— Refined — 2.1 

Borax, crude — 5 



1 — 26 
1 — 24 

»-llJi 



10 m 

— 4.5 

— 17 
17 
20 



— 8.5 

— 06,'i 

— 8'5 

— 10 

— 09 

— 10!^ 

— 30 



. .....Y7i|.^.j^.^^^^..^^..,a^.a.^. ^^^^ 



San Francisco Retail Market Rates, 



Thursday Noon. January 4ih, 1871, 
MISCELLANEOUS. 

70 
40 



® 45 



Butter. Cal fr. Tb 

Pickled, Cal. ft 

do Oregon, lb. . ,^ 

Honey, 1» ft 2.5 @ 30 

Cheese, i* ft 20 ® 25 

Eggs, ner doz . . . ® 7.5 

Lard, $ lb 18 @ 20 

Sugar, cr., 6M ft.I 00 @ 

Brown, do,|» ft 10 (a> IJ 

Beet, do 1 OO (^ 

Sugar, Map. ft. 25 (g) 30 

Plums, dried, ft. 1.5 fa) 3o 

Peaches, dried, * 1.5 ^ 30 

Wool Sacks, new @ 

Second-hnd do &l\^@ 70 

PRODUCE, ETC. 
Flour, ei,^bbl..7 .'0 

Superfine, do .6 50 
Com Meal.lOO ft.3 Ou 
Wheat, * 100 fcs.a 40 
Oats,?* 100 fts...l 7.5 



Wheat-sks. 22x36 12 
Potato G'y Bags. 
Second-hnd do 
Deerskins,^ ft. 
Sheep sks, wl on 
Sheep sks, plain. 
Goat skins, each. 
Dry Cal. Hides.. 

Salted do 

Dry Mei. Hides. 
Salted do 



22 ® 

1.5 «$ 

1-5 (9 

•50 @ 
I2'5(^ 

2.5 @ 

— (ai 



Codfish, dry, ft.. _ 

Live Oak VVood. 9 50 ®10 OU ' 
Tallow 9 @ 



Barley, cwt 1 8.5 @2 20 

Beans, cwt 3.50 ®4 .50 

D;y Lima Beans ^ ft ,s 

Hay, ^ ton 22 00 @24 00 

P..tatoes*cll .. 75 ^112;^ 



® - 

® — 

@a .50 

®2 60 

@1 90 
FRUITS. VEGETABLES. ETC, 
Pine Apples, t. ...5 00 @9 00 
Bananas, ^ ft . . . 3 00(a>.5 00 
Cal. Walnnts, ft . ^ 20 

Cranberries, * g 75 (a)\ 00 
Cranberries, 0,Tl fail 25 

Pears, table,^ bx 75 %\ 25 
Plums, Cherry,*. 6 fa> 8 
Oranges, %4 100..30 00 (cfl 
Lemons, %* 100. 5 00 @7 00 
Limes, per 100... 1 .50 fei 



Figs, dried, %* ft 
Asparagus, wh.' 
Artichokes, doz 
Brussel's sprts, ' 
Beets, %* doz.... 
Potatoes, ^ ft. . 
Potatoes, sweet,' 
Broccoli, IB doz. 1 .50 
Cauliflower, t . . 
Cabbage, JS^doz.. 75 
Carrots, ^ doz. . . 10 
Celery, T* doz 75 



® 




B doz bun 20 ' ( 
Herbs, b'h 25 I 



Cres 

Dried : 

Garlics 

Green Peas, ^ ft 

Lettuce, %i doz.. 12 „ 

Mushrooms,^ ft W-^fai 



5 @ 



Horseradish,** ft 
Okra, dried, "# ft 
Pumpkins. ^ ft. 
Parsnips, tbnchs 

Parsley 

Pickles,^ gal... 

Rhubarb, ^ ft.. 

*i^8 Radishes, t buns 

Red, do 

Marrowfat, do. 

Hubbard, do.. 
Dry Lima, sbl... 
Spinage, I* bskt. 
Salsify,^ bunch 
Turnips,^ doz,. 



VOLS. I AND 11 

of the Pacitic RUbal Press call hov te 
plete, for $3 per voiume. Botind, $5. A few u 
have been Baved. 



13 



ouly 



GivB YouE Old Address when you want the paper 
Bent to a new one. Wc cannot afford to look over sev- 
eral thousand names to stop it at the former P. O. 



A Tea Cultubjst wants a situation. Zamba, a young 
Japanese, now stopping at 614 Pine street, San Francis- 
co. Can also do ornamental hair work. 



Observations on the Culture of Silk in 

California. By I. N. Hoag, of Sacramento, 187D. 
Pamphlet, 33 pages. For sale by DEWEY & CO., 
Publishers of Pacific RtniAL Press, San Francisco 
Poet paid, 25 cts. 



$5 TO $20 PER Day and no Risk.— Do you want a situ- 
ation as salesman at or near home to introduce our new 
7 strand White Wire Clothes Lines, to last forever. 
Don't miss this chance. Sample Free. Address Hud- 
son River Wire Works, 76 William street, N. Y., or 1 
Dearborn street, Chicago. 111. 23vl-12mbp 



POULTRY. GAME, FISH. MEATS, ETC. 
Haras. Cross' s c - 
Choice D'tfield - 



Chickens, apiece KT^@1 00 
Turkeys, ^ ft. . 25 (cfl 3U 
Ducks, wild, ¥ p 50gl 00 



Whittaker's 

Johnson's Or,. 
l-Iounder, ^ ft... 
Salmon, Y^ ft . . . . 

Smoked, new.* 

Pickled,* ft.. 
Rock Cod,* ft.. 
Perch, s water, ft 

Fresh water, ft — 

Lake Big. Trout* — 

Smelts. la'geli*ft — 

Small do 15 

Soles, ¥, tb 30 _ 

Herring, fresh.. 10 un 

Sm'kd, perlOO — "■ 

Tomcod, I* ft.... 35 
Terrapin, ^J* do/..4 00 
Mackerel. p'k,ea 

Fresh, do — 

Sea Bass, ^ ft. . . — 

Halibut — 

Sturgeon,?* ft.. 8 _ 
Oysters, 4* 100... 1 00 @1 25 

Chesp. ^ doz.. — 

Tnrbot — 

Crabs S* doz 1 OO 

Soft Shell _ 

Shrimps 12 

Prawns — 



Tame, do 1 .50 

Teal, If* doz... 
Geese, wild, pair 75 

Tame, ^ pair. 2 50 

Hens, each 75 

Snipe, ^ doe . . 1 50 

English, do 2 50 

Quails, ^ doz ...2 '25 
Pigeons, dom. do3 UO 

Wild, do 1 .50 

Hares, each ... 40 
Rabbits, tame, . .50 

Wild,do, ^dz.l 75 
Squirrel, ^i* pair. 25 
Beef, Und, f! ft. 20 

Corned, |* ft.. 10 

Smoked, t* ft . 15 
Pork, rib, etc., ft 12' 

Chops, do, $ ft 15 
Veal. '^ ft 15 

Cutlet, do 

Mutton chops,* 15 

Leg, « ft 15 

Lamb. 9* ft 

Tonguos. beef.ea 
Tongues, pig, ea 
Bacon, Cat., Ij* ft 18 

Oregon, do 18 
Hams, Cal, "# ft. 18 
* Per lb. + Per dozen. 1 Per gallon. 

Leather Market Report. 

(Corrected weekly by Dolliver k Bro., No. 109 Post st. 
San Feancikco, Thursday, January 4. 

Sole Leaiiher.- The demand is still equal to the supply, 
and prices stilt continue ttrm. 

City Tanned Leather ^ ft 26@29 

Santa Cruz Leather, j* ft 2H@29 

Country Leather, ^ lb 25f.ii28 

The market is "well supplied with French stocks, and 
prices have a downward tendency. Heavy California skins 
are firm, with an upward tendency. 

Jodot, S Kil, per doz *tjfl no@ 

Jodot, II to 19 Kil.. per doz 76 OOltj) 95 00 

Jodot, second choice, 1 1 to 15 Kil. ^ doz 61) OOdfl 80 00 

Lemoine, 16 to 19 Kil ,^ doz 95 OOfiS 

Levin, 12 and 13 Kil.. per doz 68 00(gj 70 00 

Cornt-Uian, 16 Kil., per doz 72 00(0) 

Cornellian, 12 to 14 Kil., per doz 65 OO(ii) 70 00 

Ogerau Cal f , %* doz 54 00® 

Simon, 18 Kil..g doz 65 00 . 

Simon, 20 Kil. ** doz 68 00 

Simon. 24 Kil. t* doz... 
Robert Calf, 7 and 8 Kil 
French Kips, V ft 
Kip " 



Dewey & Co., U. S. and 
Foreign Patent Solicitors 
and Counsellors, Scien- 
tific Press Office. 
Principal Agency 
for the Pacific 
States. Es- 
tablished 
i860. 



California Kip, ^ doz 

French Sh'ep, all colors, It* doz... 
Eastern Calf for Backs, ^ ft 



Sheep Roans for Topping, all colors, ^ doz. 



72 00 

. 35 OO.'^ 40 00 

. I ' 0® 1 30 

65 00 to SO 00 

15 00 

, 1 l.5@ 1 2- 

,, .. 8 00(3)13 00 

Sheep Roans for Linings.^ doz 5 50® 10.50 

California Hussett Sheep Linings 1 "^(^ 5 5il 

Best Jodot Ca f Boot Legs. 1* pair 5 25 

Good French Calf Boot Legs, 1* pair 4 .50@ 5 00 

French Calf Boot Legs, ^ pair 4 00 

Harness Leather, t^ ft 30(^ 37'.;, 

Fair Bridle Leather, » doz 48 00® 72 00 

Skirting Leather. "# ft 34@ 37'i 

Welt Leather, » doz 30 00® 50 00 

Buff Leather, I* foot 17(S 21 

Wax Side Leather, i* foot 18® 20 



Dickey's Ldq.uid Kennet, 

For making Slip, Curds, Whey, Oustard, Etc, and for 
preparing Inf»nt8' Food. 

It is prepared from the lining membrane of the 
stomach of the calf and is invaluable as a corrective to 
render cow's milk digestible when It is found to disa 
greewith the tender infant. Full directions accompany 
each bottle, which is sufficient for eight gallons of milk. 

For sale by all druggists and grocers. Iv3-3m 



Tbjvis i, Waoneb, 41 First St.-Mill Stones, Bolting Cloths 
and general Mill Furnishing, Portable Mills of all sizes from 
Uto26 in. NonesDperior BumTd for tuinen4 nwobfieD. ' 



Go to the Best.— Young and middle-aged men 
should remember that the Pacific Business Colleoe is 
the oldest and mobt popular and successful Business 
Training School on this coast. Upwards of Three 
Thousand Students have attended during the past six 
years, many of whom now hold prominent positions in 
the first banking and mercantile houses of this city. 
This is the model training school fok business on this 
coast, having the greatest corps of Profcssurs and 
Teachers, and the greatest number of students in at- 
tendance, of any institution of the kind. Young men 
flock to this College from all parts of the Pacific State..* 
and Territories, British Cohuubia, Mexico, Sandwich 
Islands and South America. We shall be pleased to 
send our College Circular, giving full information, to 
all who send us their address. When you write, mention 
that you saw this notice in the Pacific Rural Press. 
M. K. LAUDEN, President, San Francisco, Cal. 

UNivEnsrrT of California.— The Preparatory Dcpart- 
jjcnt is under the charge of five Professors of the Uni- 
versity, and six tutors. 

Besides the studies of the public schools. Algebra, 
Geometry, Latin, Greek, German, French, Spanish and 
Book. Keying arc taught. 

Terms: Board and tuition, i weeks, $30. Students re- 
ceived At any time. Ueobqe Tait, Oakland, Master 
Fifth Class. seSbptf 

Ladies T)E8iRiN« to Proiurb a First.Class Sewing 
Machine against easy monthly installments may apply 
to No. 294 Bowery, 167 E. 26th, 477 l«h Ave., New York 
Good work at bigb piicea U deaired. 3lTl-13mbp 




Plate V of Illustrated Mechanical Movements, described 
in Dewey k Go's. 48 page circular of Information for 
Inventors. Sent post paid on receipt of stamp. 

Patent claims for Pacific Coast Inventors 
fully secured in less time than through any 
other agency in the United States, and at less 
cost. If you think you have a valuable in- 
vention, consult none but the best and most 
reliable counsellors. They will obtain a valid 
patent if new, or save you expense, if old, by 
giving you honest and intelligent advice. All 
business relating to patent soliciting transacted 
confidentially and thoroughly. 

OEWKY & CO., 

Pa-tent Ag^enti^. 

Office, No. 338 Montgomery street, diagonally 
opposite Wells, Fargo & Co.'s office, S. F. 




The First Edition of Two Hundred Thousand copies 
just published. It Is ehguiitly priiiti ii on fine tinted 
paper, in Two Colors, and illustrated with over Turks 
Hundred Enouavinos of Flowers and Vegetables, and 

TWO COLORED PLATES. 
The most beantitul and instructive Catalogue and 
Horal Guide in the world— 112 pages, giving thorough 
directions lor the culture! of Flowers and Vegetables, 
ornamenting grounds, making walks, etc. 

A Christmas present for my customers, but forwarded 
to any who apply by mail, for Ten Cents, only one- 
quarter the cost. Address JAMES VICK. 

dec30 3t Rochester, N. Y. 

~ ACTIVE MEN! 

WITH EXPERIENCE IN CANVASSING 

business, can now obtain lucrative and pern aiient em- 
iloynicnt by DEWEY k CO., Patent Agents and Publish- 
ers of the SCIENTIFIC PRESS and the PACIFIC RU- 
RAL PRESS. No. 414 Clay street, S. F. 



NORWAY I ^ST^^'^^ lOATS ! 

land, by one of the proprietors of this journal, can b« 
bad »t tbia oUee, 



u 



p^Qmm, mwa^s iPBSsa 



fjanuary 6, 1872 



MATTESON & WILLIAMSON'S 




& 



•a: 
o 
a: 

UJ 



Took the Pr.-nilum over all at the great Plowint,- 
MHt>-h in Sto.ktou. iu 187U. 

This Plow IN thoruuyhly made by practical men wliti 
have bieii luiii; iu tlie bUHims.s unci know what is re 
quired in tlie iMiistrintion of Gsiiig l>li)ws. It istiuieklv 
a-ljiiHteil. datUcient piny is niveu so tUatthe tout;ue will 
1JUK8 over cradle kuolls without < hau{!iug Ihc woikin;; 
poHitiou of the shares. It i-t so constructed that tin 
wli. lis themselves govern the action of the How ciir 
reclly. It hiis various points of superioriiy. and can In 
leHrd nt><>n ns lint U.^1. auii Must UtmiraUle Oaim Plow 
In the world. Scud lor circul.-ir to 

MAir.Sq.N fc Wir.Ll.AMSON. 

H\<!-3ra ' Stucktbn, Cal. 




FIKST PREMIUM AWARDED at the Stat* Fair of 
1870; also First Premium at Mechanics' Fair, San Fran- 
cisco, 1871; and Silver Medal nnd First Premiiim for 
best Farm Wagon, and First PreUiiuni for the best im- 
proved Thimble Skein at State Fair, 1871. Also State 
Fair GOLD MEDAL for 1871. 



ap23.3m 



E. SOULE, 

Ck>mer Tenth and I streets, 

SACaAMXNIO. Oal. 



JACKSON MICHIGAN WAGONS. 



The large sale of the above WAGONS has induced a 
number of i>ers4>u« to try and sell other Eastern-inade 
Wagons, none of- which have any i.rni.f that they will 
stand in this dry climate. JAC'KS()N W.4.(J0NS have 
the highest ctrtiticates from use U*v ten to fourteen 
years, c n-cquently the buyer runs no risk in purchas- 
ing the Jackson Wagons. All sizes for sale low by 

J. D. ARTHUR & SON, San Francisco. 
M. B.— Warranted for thr«« years. 2lT2-3m 



BAKER & HAMILTON, 
Sacramento niid San Franoisco, 

— UrrOBTEBS OF— 

Farming Implements, 

M-dcliines, !EItc., !EIt<3. 

Ota,ng Flows, 

jt' Sine^le Steel Plows. 

Iron Plows, 

Harrows, 

Cultivators, 

Seed Sowers, 

Orain Drills, 

Etc. Etc. 
18T2-3m 



Gang and Single Plows. 

I am prepjri d to furnish my popular Gang and Single 
plows, of thu liijhtcst draft (best Plow to scour in sticky 
ttoil) . and the most etticieut Plow made My leverage for 
raising the gang has no equal— a thirteen year old boy 
can w<irk it with ease. I make any pattern of mould 
lJe^i^ed, to order. Twenty years experience in plow 
making enables lae to demonstrate all I say, and every 
Plow IB warranted to do all I recommend it to jierform. 

Send your orders early, and or further inforiuaticm 
ftpply • A.. SLLISON, Patentee and Manager, 
_^6v4-2m Marysvillo, Cal. 

SAVE $42! WHY PAY $80? 



Tun 

'-HOME SHUTTLE" SEWING MACHINE, 
Px-ice ^J$«, 

This machine being as good as the best, we have no 
I esitation in r>:commcnding it to our frinnds as a supe 
rior m chine for family u-o. We take pleasure in its 
exhibition, and invite all to call and exrmino it before 
purchasing elsewhere. 

It has a straight needle and makea a Lock Stitch. 
Send for a circular. 

Agents wanted in every county. Each machine war- 
rsutttd tor &ve years. 

E. W. HAINES, Agent. 
17 new Montgomery street, Under Grand Hotel, 

16v2-3ni San Franciaco. 

CO-OPERATIVE MARBLE WORKS. 

JOHN DANIEL & CO., 

Manufacturers of and Dealers in 

Monuments, Headstones, Tombs, 

O ; MANTEL PIECES, ETC., 

tm. Pise street, between Uoutgomery and i 
Kearny, San Fbahcuco, 
21v2-Jy 




Will change gia> hair to Us youthful color with a few 
ajiplicati ns. Suits all shades of color and comp)exi(>n. 
Will neither stain hands, sinlp or clothing. No seili- 
ment: cliar as crj-ntal. Ni sulphur or other lad smell, 
but d( li^'htfuUy permuud. Aft a hair tiressiug it has 
DO equal. It makes th hafr rich in a)>peanince, gloFsy 
and curly; cures dundrutt' mhI all otlier irritations of 
the skin, and preTeut-f the hair from falling out- Lil)- 
eral discimnt allowed dealers. Addn ss oi-,)crs to ,T. F. 
FUG.\ZI, or H C. Kirt ji Co., SacramenU.; ■ Hug & 
Schmidt. Agents. i'M Commeriiul street: Uealhfleld, 
Bogel .S: Co., -106 Battery street, tian Francisco. Sold by 
all I)rui!ei-t*. dPlK-3t 




4l 
Second Si. 



<^c. 



/a. 



rz<:iezine'n 



LELAND STANFORD 

J* rc« I cl o 11 1. 

H. F. HASTINGS, Vice Preaidoni 
JOS. CRACKBON, - Secretarj 

v2 3m 137 Montgomery street, San Francisco. 



WACHHOEST'S TOWN OLOOK 



JET^^ELItY STORE. 




THE LARGEST AND FIXKST STOCK OF GOODS 
AT THE VEKV LOWESl' PitltjES. 

Every article of .Jewelry bought in this establishment 
Warrantf.u strictly as r. presented. 

"Watch««, Jewelry and Clocks Repaired 

BY IHK UK5X WOHKMEN. • 

All order* from the country promptly attended to. 

7v2-3m 



J. BOSS BROWNE, 



TUIi CELEBRATE O 

CHALLENGE FEED MILL. 




For Farm use aud CnBtom work. The only Practical 
Fanu Feeil Mill «ver iavented. Can be used with trotn one 
to etgbt-horbe power, aud wrinds from 'i.'iOlbs. to on« ton of 
barley per hour. Pritf of ililU from V,h to $10o, atcording 
to flize. Adapted to Wiml, Wat-or, Steam, or Honse Powtir. 
The ^rrindint; surface is adjustable, and can be roiilac<'d in 
fUtCfU >uinuti-H at an oxpt-nse of one dolliir to onp dollarand 
a quarter. Over 3,IKH) now in use, Kvt'ry Mill warrant-d to 
give tiAtiBlactiua. For sale by all leailinj< aKricuhural lirms 
on the coa.st. For further particulars send for cireulnr. 
M. S. BOWUISH. Ginerai AReut. 
With Hawtuy X Co.. cor. Cahforoia an i Battery stft., 

13v'>-Hra San Francisco 




mEumm 




A Desirable Hiss.— There is the hiss of ridicule, 
the hiss of s<:orn. tlie hiss of snakes in the grass; but 
the most delightful hiss is that of 

Tirr&nt's EfferTescent Seltzer Aperient 
In the sparkling gi'blet, giving assurance to the Invalid 
that bis thirst will bu delicmusly assuaged: that hi- 
Btomach will be rcfixshcd and purined; that if he is 
feverish, his Iwdy will be coole<l by healthful evapi- 
ration; that if he is constipated, the dltllculty will pass 
• way vrithont a iMng; and that if the condition (f his 
general health is impaired, it will be sjietidily rest n? I. 
uf course he will take care to procure none but 
the genuine. 

SOLD BY ALL DUUGOISTS. 




SELTZER 




THE GIIEA-T 
RETAIL DRUO HOUSE 

OF THE PACIFIC COAST 1 

JAMES G. STEELE & CO., 
Chemists and Apothecaries. 

*/" Import anl noil directly from Eastern and Euro- 
pein Markets. 

KO. {21 MONTGOMEUY STREET, 

San Franciaco. 

Manu(a> turns and Sole Proprietors of 
STEELE'S GLYCERIN? LOTION 

— AKD — 

GRINDELLA LOTfOW, 

For the Cnre of Poison Oak. 
21v2-3m 



SEALERS AND CONSXJUERS 

Are herebj uutiticd that 

THE STANDARD SOAP COMPANY 

Continue to manufacture the following Standard 
Preparations : 

Ditersive, Prize ^Icdal mid Laundry Soaps; 

Kane's Condensed Soaps; 

Thomas' Cool Water Bleaebing Soaps; 

Standard and Eureka Washing Powders; 

Madame Balcear's Washing fluid and Liquid 
Bluing. 

Adamantine Candles, and a general assort- 
nitut of family, Laundry, Fancy and Toilet 
Soaps. 

•9~ Usnufactory, 204 and 2(16 Bkcramento street. Han 
Francisco, 21v2-3m 



B. IRELAND, 

The old Pioneer Broom Factory — EstsbKsbed Au- 
gust, '66. No. 82 J street, between Third and Fourth, 
Sacxamento. All kinds of 

Wood and Willow Ware. 

Jlanufact iirrr of Brooms, Brushes, Baskets, Matches 
and General House Furnishing Ctoode, and sells Nichols 
k Falvy'B Tubbs and Pails. 16T2-Sm 

RIFLES, SHOT-GTJNS, REVOLVERS, Gun 
Mat-^rial. Write (or Price List, to UKEaT WKbT- 
KU.S GU.» WORKS, Pittsburgh, Pa, Army Quns, Re- 
ToivegrB, Etc.biJ/' or tnded for. AgenU Wanltd. 
£v2-t>m 



FACTS LITTLE KNOWN RELATIVE 

— TO— 

LIFE IISSSLXR^VTVCE. 

r.oa^m Paid nn the Pacific Ooaat ukd'^r the M*nacha> 
silts' Law by the .NEW II.NuLA.ND .».L'TL'AL Life Insu- 
rance L'oinrtariy l»f liOvtOTlL 

A. t'. K Aiill'T. Portland. OrcKun, Premium overdue six 
mouths at liuiu ui Oeatli, fh.W). 

-J. W. .It.ia'H. Colusa, California, overdue four mouths at 
tline of diatli. ilO.IHIU. 

J. B. BalUwiii, L'olOEa. flahtornia. overdue three months 
at time of death. s-l.titHj. 

G. I.. Porter. Vircinia (."ity, Nevada. oTtrdue ten days at 
time ol death, %'IJ*>», 

L. ti. Peel, Walnut Creek, California, ovurdoe eleven 
months at time of death, $.VtJ4)t>. 

J. U. Calilrn. I'nnufiun, Culiloraia, overdue four months 
at tin!" ol death, SS.Utlll. 

,1. Levison, B.jlse City, I. T., overdue two months at time 
of ijeatli, tW.mn 

C. W, S.ilter. Hoit's Ranch, California, overdue two 
months at time uf death. S.'),>ll'U. 

C. O. .Stevi ns, D.mville, California, overdue one month at 
time of death. iO.UdU. 

THE MAIN POINT.S OF THr LAW INDER WHICH 
THE ABOVE CLAIMS WERK PAID. 

No In'<uranei- on Life CT-shall bo lorfeiled by non-pa y 
nirnt ot prL-iiiiam...4:3r 

The net laliio of Ih" Policy shall l>c ascertaini'd at the 
time ot the lai»sc i.f tip- |;r'-miuni. and be considered anet 
sinelo I'rcmium of teiiipnmrt- msurance. 

If the tifath of the part.; occurs wituia the term of tem- 
porary' insurance, the Conipany shall bi t(oun<1 to pay the 
whole policy the same as it there had tieen no lapse of pre- 
mium; provided, the Company- shall haNo the ritrht to de- 
duct from the face ot the Policy the amount of premium 
due, with interest, at the date of death. 

THE NEW ENGLAND MTTTTTAL LIFE 
INSURANCE COMPAN'X' 

Was incorporated in \xVi. It has accuumlated assets of 

SllO.OOO.OOO.OO. 

Thii Company charges no more for Premiunui on its insu- 
rance than those companies who have the un.iust clause 
I pay promptly or forfeit) embodied in their potioiet. 

WALLACE KVERSO.V, General Aifent. 
tjttice, Northwe-'t corner of California and Sanaonie Sta. 

Saa Francisco. Cal. 24v'23-lm 




EAL0SS 

BRYANT * STRATTON ^?r1 

INESS COLLEGE^ 

SANFR^sco^S-r, 

THE UNLV TiiiJluHt.li i;L»lXES.S CUl-lJiGE ON 
the CiHst. Its object is to impart a practical aud useful 
education to persons of both sexes and of any age. 
Academic department for those not prepared for Btisi- 
nestCkmrso. Accommodations for 4"0 pupils. Stmlents 
«an c mimnce at any time. For full particulars call at 
the College Office, 24 Post street, or address 

E P. HEALD, 
President Bus inase C oUege, Ban Francisco. 

J. BREUNER & CO., 

Importers, JoblM^rs and Mannfac- 
turers of 

FINE FURNITURE, 

BEDDING, MIRRORS, ETC., AT THE 

■Very Lowest Prices. 

Nog. 166, 168 and 170 E street SACBAUENTO. 

IS-ylJ-Sm 

CHICKERING & SONS' 

PIAIVO FORTES, 

—AMD- 
Mason 8t Hamlin's Cabinet Orgrans. 

L. K. HAMMER Agent. 

Also* Importer of Sheet Music. Music Books and Mu- 
sical Instruments. Finest Violin and Ouitar Strings. 
No 230 J street, S.\.CRAM£NTO. 16v2-3m 



HALLET, DAVIS & CO.'S CELEBRATED 
PI A. TV OS!*. 

■WM, G. BADGER, Sole Agent for this Coast. 

Second-hand Pianos taken In Exchange U^t New. 

Also, Sole Agent for Geo. Woods J: Co.'rs Parlor and 
Vestry Organs, the Finest in the World. 

Warerooms, No. T Sanaome street, S. F. del-Ira 



. — THE— 

Finest and Moat Complete Livery Stable, 
together with the Best Turnouts in the State, are at 
WATSON VILLK, Cal. B1LLING3 It ALEXANDER, 
Proprietors. 

P. 9.— Their new Hofel will be in full blast within 
fifteen days from this date. oc31-3m* 

-^>^ O. KRUIN, 

MAMUFA'TVRIOt OF 

Ollice, SN«l»o«l rnriiitu.i-« 

AND SETTEES, 

And all kinds of Olflce and Cabinet Work to order. 

Othcc, No. Co" Clay street, near Montgomery, San 
Francisco. SILVER .MEDAL awarded lor the best tjall- 
forui.vmade Office and School Furniture, at the Eighth 
Mechanics' Fair, 1871. ieT'2-3m 



SAN JOSE REAL, ESTATE 

FOR SALE. 

Farms from $12 to fliX) jier .icre. 

Garden Land from tliK) to i.HM per acre. 

City Lots in Sati .Jose (*r Santa Clara on easy terms. 

Well Improved Suburban Homesteads anti Desirable 
City Property for sale by 

3. A. CLAYTON. Real Estate Agent. 

Office on Santa Clara street, opposite .\uzeniis House. 

Retits collected. Tax paid, aud Money Invested on 
first-class security. 20v4-3m 



Floral Guide for 1872.- 

ContalniiiR seventy-two pa^es and Two Bcautifal 
Colored Plates nicely illustrated. Riving plain dlrtctious 
for the cultivation ol nearly a thousand vaH£xi>.s of 
Flowers aud Vegetables. Full bound with your name 
in gilt, post paid, 50 cts. Paper cover aud one eolort^d 
plate, 10 cts. 

Address, M. O. RKTNOLDS, 

22T2-6m Bocbester, N. T, 



January 6, 1^7:^.1 



KELSEY'S NURSERIES. 




OAKI.AND. 

Established in 1852. 

CITY JJKPOT, 

317 WaBliiDgtou Street San Fkancisco. 

The Proprietor having; upwards of 
100 ACRES OK NVRSERY GROINDS, 
well stocked with all the le.idinR nnd best varieties of 
Fruit Trees und Fruit Bushes; also Ever^ireen aud De- 
ciduous Trees aud Shrubs, inrluding the rarest of Coni- 
fers, cau till all orders on the most reasonable terms 
and with dispatch. 

Choice Roses and Pot Plants 

of every variety. Trees and Plants securely packed to 

travel any distance. 

FOREST TUBES 

of Australia, Eiirope China and Japan; in fact, we aim 

to have and to get all and everything desirable. 

Parties planting can find in this establishment what 
ever may be wanted, f(jr use and beauty, in furnishing a 
place without being (jbllged lo go Iri-m one Nurtery to 
another. W. F. KELSEY, Proprietor. 
21v2-3m 

Sew York Seed Warehouse, 



C. L. KELLOGG-, 

427 Sansome Street, near Clay, 
SAN FEANCISCO, CAL., 

Importer and Dealer In 

Garden, Field, Fruit, Flower 

AND TREE SEEDS, 
Pure Alfalfa, Mesqiiite Grass, Etc. 

X>UTCtI «Ull.l$OU!S rtOOTS, 

Imported Direct from the 
First Flower Nurseries, in Vozelenzang', 
23v2.3m HAAELEM. 



Seeds! Seeds!; 

New California raised ALFALFA CLOVER SEED, 
sold in quantities at J. P. SWEENEY & CO.'S 

Seed, Tree and Plant Warehouse, 

40y and 411 Davis street, San Francisco. 



Best & Brown's Unrivalled Seed Separator. 

We wish to call the attention of Farmers, Millers and Threshers to the great usefulness of this Machine. 




It makes a perfect separation of Barley, Oats, Abess, Pink Seed, Kale and Mustard Seeds, and other impuri 
ties, from Wheal, rendering the foulest grain (either Wheat, Oats or Barley) perfectly clean and fit for seed at 
Oi.e operation — common hand mills are nowhere. 

We Guaranty Every Machine to do Perfect Work 

at the rate of Thirty to i- ixty Tons a day. They can be conveniently attached to and run in combination with any 
threshing machine, aud driven by the same power. 

We wish it distinctly understood (and we mean all we say) that we clean grain that is too foul for the flouring 
mill separators, at one operation. 

Light Horse Powers, adapted to driving the Separator, f'lrnished to order. 
Slate and County Rights for sale on reasonable terms. 



For further particulars address 
Send for Circular. 



BEST & XJROWN", 

Manufacturers and Sole Proprietors of the Patent, Marysville, Cal. 

(2.'-v23-sa) " P. O. Box 20(1. 



Surprise Oats, 

At $8 per 100 lbs. All kinds of 
Seeds, at Wholesale and Betail, 
Sold by J. P. SWEENEY & CO., 

409 and 411 Davis street, S. F. 



Ramie! 

ROOTED 1?LA.IVT!S4, 

Of the above valuable textile, raised in this State, foi 
sale by the undersigned, In lots to suit, where further 
iuformiition in regard to Soil, Cultivation, etc., will be 

giVi;ll. 



Inquire of 


J. P. SWEENEY & CO., 




Seedsmen, 409 Davis street, S. F.. 


Or of 


JOSEPU GRAHAM, 


22.v2-3m 


Haywards', Alameda Co., Cal. 



Garden Seeds. 

I have on hand and will be conttanfly receiving an 
Assortment of Garden Seeds, 

To which I invite the attention of my customers and 
the public generally. Will also receive orders for 

Trees, Plants, Shrubs, Etc., 

Grown at Oak Shade Nursery Davisvllle. 

ARTHUR FLEMING, 

Apothecary and Druggist, San Leandro, Cal. 
2'2vi 8m 

3ESainie XCootsss fov JsUnlc, 

IN LOTS TO SUIT. 

BY JOHN S. DRURY, 

At C. F. RiCHAHns .V Co.'s Dnig Store, S. W. comer of 
Clay aud Sansome streets, San Francisco., 

And by W. W. DRtJRY, at RAMIE NURSERY, 

On American River, near Central Pacific Railroad Bridge 

south side, Sacramento. 

21v2-;jm 



J. ROCK'S NURSERIES, 

SAIV JOSJE. 

Fruit and Ornamental Trees. 



The attention of every Plimfer, Nur- 
seryman and Dealer is called to our ^ 
large and superior stock of 



Fruit and Ornainental Trees, 

Grape Vines and Small Fruits, 
Shrubs and Plants, Etc., Etc., 

IN LAIiGE QUANTITIES, AT LOWEST RATES. 

Catalogue furnished on npplic.ition. 

21v2.tf JOHN KOCK, San Jose, Cal. 



W. R. STRONG, 
Commission Merchant, 

And Wholesale Dealer in every degeiipHon of 

H K E D ."«« . 

California and Tropical Fruits, Nuts, Honey, 

and Agricultural Produce, 

Nos. 8 and 10 J Street, Saouamento. 

Ordi^rs for all classes of Merchandise filled and for- 
warded with dispatch. 6vi.3m 



Orange Trees ! Orange Trees ! 1 

I now offer to Planters and Dealers a large and splen- 
did stock of OUANGE, LEMON, LIME, and ENGLISH 
WALNUT TREES. Also, a limited amount of 

Grafted Orange on Liemon Stock. 

At Lowest Market Rates. Address P. O. Box 265, Lo 
Angeles, Cal. 



I.'iv2-Um 



THOS. A. GAREY. 



New Seeds and Plants. 

Just received, a prime lot of NEW ALFALFA CLO- 
VER SEED HYACINTH (ILASSKS, DUTCH BULBS, 
Etc. Always on hand a fine assortment of all kinds of 
SEEDS, BULBS, PLANTS. FRUIT TREES, nt the Old 
Stand. E. E. SIOORE, 

Importer of Seeds, Bulbs, Plants, Etc., 
425 WashinKtou street, San Francisco, Ca) , 
Send for a Cataloj^e, 16vi-U 



TREES 

AND PLANTS FOR SALE AT THE 

/liberty nurseries, 

Petaluma, Cal. 

The stock I offer for sale this season is as varied and 
oomplete as can be found at any Nursery on the Pacific 
Const. It consists of 

Apples, Pears, Plums, Peaches, Anricots, Nectarines, 
Figs, Quinces. Cherries, Oranges, Pomgranatea, Mul- 
berries, Grapes, Currants, Gooseberries, Blackberries, 
Raspberries, Strawberries, etc. 

Almonds, Euglish Walnuts. California and Enetrrn 
Black Walnuts Butlernuts, American, Japan and Span- 
ish Chestnuts. 

Locusts, Maples, Elms, Poplars and Willows. 

Evergreen Trees and Shrubs in great variety. 

Deciduous Flowriiig Shrubs in variety, including a 
choice collection of Roses. 

Also a choice collection of Bedding aud Conservator}' 
Plants, selected from the best new varieties (importa- 
tion of 1871). 

For complete list send for Descriptive Catalogue. 

The above stock of Trees and Plants will be sold 

At the Lowest Market Rates 

of the reliable Nnrscrymin. and guaranteed to be true 
to name aud label. 

1^" All orders from unkn'>wn persons must be accom- 
panied with the Cash. 

TREES packed in the best manner and delivered to 
Railroad or Boats in Petaluoia for shipment to all parts. 



Address 
21y2-3m 



W. H. PEPPER, 

PetaluQia, Cal. 



Seed ! Seed ! Seed ! 

Wheat— Algiers, Australian, Sonora, Club Chile 
Oregon. 
Oats— Norway, Oregon, Surprise, Coast, Wild. 
Peas — Cauada, Windsor, Waco. 
Buckwheat-Oregon, Chattield, Humboldt Co. 
Cora— Southern, Eastern. 
Flax Seed— California, Oregon. 
Potatoes— Early, of all kinds. 

IN LOTS TO SrriT, BY 

R. M. CHAMBERLIN & CO., 

N. E. Corner Clay .and Davis streets. Produce Exchange 

Duilding, San Frauciaco. 

«G?" Depot for the Pacific Oil Cako Mea,l. 19v2-;ira 



Genuine Mesquit Grass Seed, 

For sale at low rates in quantities to suit, and will bo 
forwarded bj' Miiil or Expn-ss. 

ORDERS SOLICITED. 

Also, full assortment of GARDEN, FIELD, FLOWER 
AND TREE SEEDS. 
26vMm '' - > 6. D. TOWNE, 

, Petalnina, Cal. 

S!*ii:)h2i> \vn;ti:.vx\ 

THE CflfjEBRATKD E.KCKLSIOR 8EKD WHEAT 
CLUB CHILE, AUSTRALIA A SONORA WHEAT, 

For sale in lots to suit by McNEAR k BRO., 

Iiv2-3m 302 Davis street, San Francltfoo 




CALIFORNIA COTTON GROWERS' 

— AND— 

Manufacturers' Association. 

INCOBPOEATBD APRIL 10, 1871, FOR TWENTY-FIVE 
YEAR.S. 



Capital St)0oki;$500,000, in 
Each. 



Shares of $20 



The Company's Plantation of lO.OOO Acres is situated 
at and surrounding the town of Bakersfi' Id, in Kern 
County. The Association has rec«-utl.v purchased of 
Messrs. Livermore k Chester,' Real and Personal Prop- 
erty to he amount of $'20i),(I0n. The Company's stock, 
independently of the profits of raiding Cotton and Man- 
ufacturing IheBame, is fully secured tiy Real Estate. 
OFFICERS: 

L. H. BONESTELL, Siiu Francisco .President. 

JAJNIES D.JOHNSTON, San Francisco teetretary. 

JULIUS CHESTER. Euln-rsfiild, Kerc County .... . . Vice 

■ President and Resident Director. ., 

BANK OF CALIFORNIA Treajjafer. 

LEONIDAS E. PRATT, San Francisco Law Adviser. 

23v2-tf 



MELON EXTRAORDINARY. 

TURKISH MUSK MELON 

OR BACHIRI, 

The first and only lot ever produced in America; rafsed 
by R. MARCHELLA, of Oroville, Cal., are now ofTered 
for sale in this market by the undersigned at the low 
price of $1.00 each; forwarded to any part of the State 
by Express. ' 

One Melon Contains from 100 to 500 Seeds, 

So that any fanner, fe»libe^riceo{« single Melon, can 
start a patch of his own. This is the BEST TASTED 
MELON IN THE WORLD, and will KEEP TWO 
YEARS. 

For sale by GEO. HUGHES, 

No. 313 and 315 Washington street, San Francisco. 

N. B. — The first 100 Seeds brought to this country enst 
$50. de2J-lm 

HOP ROOTS FOR SALE. 

I have a lot of Choice Hop Roots for sjile at SI 5 per 
thousand. The suckers, instead of being cut oil" iinta 
the stock, were covered with earth, thus pronioliug the 
growth of the " laterals," which are used for planting. 
I can also furnish healthy Lawton Blackberry Plants at 
IfH per thousand. Orders may be addressed throu^',h 
Dewey & Co , of the "Rural Press;" Drake ii: Emkhson, 
5'21 Sansome st , San Francisco; W. R. Stho.nk, 8 and ID 
J St.. Sacramento; or direct to me, 

:i5v'2-3m CALVERT T. BIRD, San Jose, Cal. 



1871- 1871. 

Farmers, Look to Your Interests. 

GRASS, CLOVER AND FIELD SEEDS 

On handj in lots to suit, at lowest market rates. Genuine 
Allalta California grown, Red and Wiiite Clover, Timothy 
Seed (Oi-eKon and Eastern Krown), Genuine Norway Oats. 
Al'^o, clioice vaiieties Seed Potat.cies, Peaa, Beans. Ciib- 
bage. Onion and Melnn Seeds. Address JOHN, C. DALY, 
No. 2.'> Front street, Sacramento. P. O. Box, No. 519. 
I(iv2-3m 



10,000 j^or-es of Lttnd, 

Situated upon 

GRAND ISLAND, 

Twenty miles south of Sacramento, 

I OR LEASE ON SHARES FOR ONE, TWO OR THREE 
YEARS. 



The construction of the levee is now going ahead. 
This land CANNOT BE EXCELLED IN PRODUCTIONS. 

Shipments can he made from any portion of the 
isliiud by all classes of vessels. 

Apply to O. D. ROBERTS, 

401 California street, San Francisco. 

"Orto WM. GWYNN, 

lfiv2-tf Lime Merchant, Sacramento. 



B. K. CUMMINOB. 

1S58. 



J. M. MAXIVKLL 
1871. 



HENRY K. CUMMINGS & CO., 

Wholesale Fruit and Produce Commission 
House, 

ESTABLISHED 1868. 

•115 aud -117 Davis street, cor. of Oregon, San Francisco. 

Our business being exclusively Commission, we have 
no interests that will conflict with those of the producer. 
: ■ 4V2;)-lV 



'^tg^ 



IMPROVED STEAM WATER LIFTER, 

With neither Engine. Piston, or Plunger. 

The most Simple, Durable, and in all 
respects the most E ono.mical of all 
Steam Pumps. TTses the same steam 
twice iusti^nd of once. Any peiBon ciin 
run it. 1 hey are used on the Central 
and VVesteni Pacific R R. fi'om Oakl.'.nd 
to Ogdc n. They are used for Water 
Irrigation, and all other ordinary pump- 
ing. Send for Descriptive Circular and Prlie List. Ad- 
dress ALLKN WILCOX, No. 21 Fremont street, San 
Francisco. 16v2-3m 




Works, .Viiiiing. 



Alderney Bull for Sale 

by W. A. Z. Edwards, three miles north of Sua Jose, on 
the AlTiso rvsd, Santa Claru couutjr, Cal. 1Ct2.3u 



1^ 



^«R»'^BS9 



fjanuary 6, 1872. 




^"^fru/iuraU^ome Jo iit^ 



It ill one of the Larjjest. best Illustrated and most Original 

Aiul Gut«r|>riBiuK Aifriuultural Juurtiala ID America, 

and had no ri\al on t)ie we:*terD side ot tho 

OoutinffUt. ItB circulation is Rapidly 

Increasinir. and it is Very 

Popular with ita 

Patrons. 

A. NEW HU8BA-1VOR.Y, 

as it were, is required on the Paciflc Coast, on account of iti 
peonliar seasons, soil, climate and topography. The new 
discoveries, ideas, and useful hints evolved in its rapid 
projrn'tis. are to be olxHerved with interest, and read, as re- 
ported in the Pacific Ri'R.m,. with profit hy I'ractical and 
iiro«ro<aive agriculturists everj-where. Sample copies of 
the Pbkss. post paid. 10 cts. Subscription. *4 a year. 

SEWJBT & CO., FubUshera, 

No. M8 Hontcomery St., San Francisco, Cal. Nov., 1871 



Xn The Publishcm of the PRPAT 

•U PACIFIC RURAL UntMl 

rUoT- now offer to the Post- INUUbC- 

MASTERS. ?xT"."'aX" MENTS. 

tbroughont thii Pacific States exceedingly liberal terms 
for soliciting Bubscriptions to such a weekly as they 
can with all confidence tecommend with pride, thus 
promoting home Industry: and subscribers will thank 
and honor you for it. Bo cautious of rccomnieuding 
Journals which you are not positive are up to the wants 
of subscribers on tbia coast. Bear in mind, too, tbst a 
monthly Journal of equal size to ours, at $1 a year. Is 
far dearer than the Kural Press st $♦, with Ihirleen 
ISKiies every quarter. Get up clubs for your home paper. 
It h»s a greater vari- ppT IID ("ty of fresh and 
live reading, which UtI Ml can be heartily »!>- 
predated here, than pi 1 1 DC »ny oth>T HOME 
AND FARMING wLUDO. JOURNAL. Its 
popularity with its readers is unsurpassed. Send for 
sample cupi* s and rates to agents. Get up lists this 
year and you can easily renew tbcm next. See sub- 
acriptiou rates on 8th page. Work commenced at unce 
will not be regrettod. DEWEY k CO., Publishers. 



The Scientific Press, 

Established in 1860, is now the Largest, Most 
Original, Best IHuHtratcd and most Ably and 
Carefully Edited Practical Mining Journal on 
the Western Continent. Its contents are made 
up of fresh intelligence in a condensed and inter- 
esting style, easily appropriated by the reader, 
■who finds its columns replete with new facts 
and ideas not obtainable in the books of the 
past or in any one other of the journals of the 
day. 

Varied in its carefully compiled and con- 
veniently arranged departments, representing 
the special and leading industries of the Pacific 
States — Mining, Mechanism, Manufacturing, 
Building, Improvements and Inventions — it 
becomes a weekly informant to all Scientific, 
Mechanical, Manufacturing and Industrial 
Progressionists on the coast, an immense list 
of whom testify to its pleasant, profitable and 
elevating influence. 

The progress of our journal has been steady 
and unvarying. Encouraged by a liberal 
class of readers who exhibit their appreciation 
in a substantial way, we shall, with our in- 
creasing facilities, experience and information, 
make each coming issue superior to its prede- 
cessor. 

Let every friend of Science and Industry on 
this side of the continent take pride, not only 
in sustaining, but accelerating the advancement 
of a faithful representative of its highest inter- 
ests by subscribing for it and urging its patron- 
age by others — now, without delay. 

Subscription §4 a year, in advance. Address 

DEWEY & CO., 

Publishers and Patent Agents, 338 Montgomery 
St., S. E. corner California St., S. F. 



Farmers and others Rpnpu/ who got up clubs 
for the RuBAi. PHtss nCllCYV la^i year, can renew 



Patents for Farm Implements and 
Machinery. 

Our familiar acquaintance with the imple- 
ments and machinery (including patented and 
unpatented devices), in use on this coast, to- 
gether with one long and successful experience 
in obtaining patents for inventors of the Paciflc 
States, enables us to render better advice and 
services to inventors than it is possible for them 
to procure elsewhere. Permanently established, 
our interest is mutual with home inventors, all 
of whom will find us honest, reliable and rea- 
sonable in every transaction. Patent circulars 
sent free. DEWEY & CO., 

U. S. and Foreign Patent Agents and Attorneys, 

No. 338 ^lontgomery St., S. E. comer of Cali- 

lomia, 8. F. 



tbem promptly once 
adding as many new 



Your 



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vewill VIUU^. 



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namos as posHi1>Io. 
renew its smews of 
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one next year. Out baud to the plow will not turn 
backward. We hope Kone of our early friends will 
falter from our army of protrreHKion until entire success 
iH carried and a thorouj^hly defined Hysteiu of improved 
agriculture iu underntood and adopted tlirougbout the 
coatit. Cash up to the man who took your subscription 
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uoighborhuod ou applicaiion. INunuit-nce work, anil 
send for liht at any time. We must help one another. 
Your efforts will not be forgotten by DEWEY & CO. 



. Fine Imported Poiil;ry, 

CONSISTINO OF 

Dark Brahmas, Light Brahmas, Buff 
Cochin, Patridge Cochin, ana Houdans, 

Guaranteed Pure, and bred direct from the finest im- 
ported stock iu .\uierica. 

EGGS 

Of the kbove varieties for sale carefully packed. 
Poultry Yards at San Leandro, Alameda connty, Cftl. 



Address 
]v3-3m 



W. FOBD THOMAS, 

custom Huutie, 
San Fbakcisco. 



J. R. ANDREWS, 

Bl'CCUSOB TO 

IT". »i,v:rif«Eijt. & CO., 

House and Sign Painters, 

412 PINB 8TKEET, SAN FnANCISCO, 
Three doors above Montgomery st. 



F. MANSELL f-till superintends tho Fancy and Om»- 
meutal Sign Work. 



C'«mi»1«-y Oi-<lori>< Attontleil to 

With Punctuality, Cheapness and Dispatch. 
2fiv2a-3m-bp 




Single copy 15 cts.— tL-W per annum. 
Address (J. F. * W. J. YOUNO. Box 1501, San Fran- 
cisco, California.' Iv3-tf 




GRF.ATE3T NOVELTY of 

the ag4t. now on exhibition at 
208 Mi'iilgouiery street — 
WF-KDS I'ATKNT OAliPKT 
SWEiU'KU. Droom and Uust- 
pun combined. A child can 
Kweep a large parlor carpet 
in three niiu jtes without 
ruiHiug any dust. Call and 
examine tbem. Cheapvrthan 
lirouniH at five cents apiece. 
iiOKSEY *: LOWEEY, Ajjcnts 
for Califtirniu, Nevada. Ore- 
Kon and Id«lii>. A«eutK wanted in every county of the 
State. Exclusive rinlit to sell Weed's Sweeper In Oreyon 
for sale. No. 208 Montgimiery street. IvS-cf 




TREES AND PLANTS 

By the 100, 1,000 or 100,0(10, both 
"Wholesale and Retail, at the 
Lowest Market P^tes, at the CAPITAL NUESE- 

RIES, SACRAMESrO, Cul. 

?end for Cstalofnie, Price List and printed directions 

ROBERT WILLIAMSON, Proprietor. 
OCBce a"d Tree Depot at U street, between Fifteenth 
and Sixteenth streets, Sacramenlo. Cal. 212v2-lm 



H. M. BALCH, 

432 Keamy St., 8. E. corner of California st. (up stairs, 
SAN FRANCISCO. 

Repairs and Tunes 

AIX KINDS or 

MUSICAL. INSTRUMENTS, 

Either Brass, Reed or String . 

Special attention given to PIANOS, 
ORGAN-, or MELODEONS. 

Mr. B is a practical workman of twenty- 
five years experience, and employs noue 
but experienced workmen. 

ORDERS from the cotintry attended promptly. 
8v23-3m8a 

McDOTTGAXX Sc MARQUIS, 

Architects, 

;No. 3iiS >l<>«tar<>iiiory Sti'cct, 

Sa» FaANCisco, Cal, 
lv3 3m 




LINFORTH, KELLOGG & CO., 

IMPORTERS OF 
AND 

AGRICULTURAL IMPLEMENTS. 



The attention of Farmers iu respectfully called t« the 
following Superior 



GrA^TSG PLOW.**!, 

WTiich we now offer as the best hitherto made : 

PACIFIC RAILROAD, 

MONITOR, 

EUREKA. 

Ocncral Agents (or the Pacific Coast (or the Celebrated 

WORLD MOWERS AND REAPERS, 
BALL'S OHIO REAPERS, 

TORNADO THRESHERS. 

Rumsey's Lift and Force Pumps, 

WOOLWORTH HANDLE WORKS, 

LEARY RAILROAD LANTERN, 
Kt<-., r:t<'., i=:io. 

IRON PIPE. RUBBER HOSE, RUBBER AND 

LEATHER BELTING, ROPB AND FENiE 

WIRE. ALL AT LOWEST 

MARKET RATES. 

3 and 5 Front Street, San Francisco. 



K'«>tj>"i>T-::r> ii«r im."?*!. 



SEED WAREHOUSE. 




S. W. MOORE & CO., 

l.MPORTERS OF 

Grass, Vegetable, Clover and Flower 
Seeds. 

EXPORTERS OF 

Evergreen and Conifera Seeds. 

Natives of the Paciflc Coast. 
DEALERS Uf ALL KINDS OK 

Seeds, Fruit Trees, Evergreen Trees, 
Shade Trees, Shrubs and Flowers. 

Orders from all parts of the world filled with prompt- 
nchs and dispatch. 

STORE— No. 420 Sansome street, near Washington, 
San FrnnciB<o, Cal. lT3'6t-eow 

200 Davis Street, comer of Sacramento. 

A. If. 'l'<>OT>, 

COMMISSION MERCHANT. 

ijealkr in 

All Kinds of Grain and Produce. 

Has on hand larpe stocks of Wbent. Bar- 
ley. Outs, Com, Bran, Flour, Middliuiiri. 
Potato's, etc. 
SEKD ORAINS. of all kinds, a specialty. 
WHEAT— Choice Seed— Bay ('oust. Aus- 
tralian, Chili, Souora, anH other varieties. 
BARLEY— Coast and Bay, for F«ed and 
Seed 

BALD BARLEY— Superior Seed for Hog Feed or Hay. 
OATS— Norway and other kinds, selected and clean. 
CORN— White and Yellow. Eastern and California. 
In daily receipt of consignments of Hay, Straw. 
Poultry, Eggs, Wool, Hides and Tallow. 

A. H. TaOD, 

Grain Dealer and Commission Merchant, 

200 Davis street, N. E. corner Sacramento, 
lv3.6m-eow SAN FRANCISCO. 




isShell ■Your Corn. 

The LITTLE OlANT shells four bnshcU of com per 
hour, and costs only $1.50. If you ever buy one, 
and it fails to give perfect satisfaction, you can get your 
money back by returning the Sheller. We would recom- 
mend lazy men and women not to buy it, for it is au 
enemy to both. Local or traveling agents will be sup- 
plied with Shellers at low prices, a nd given sole 
agencies to sell in their town or county. 

WIE8TER * CO., 
17 New Montgomery street, San Francisco. 



GEO. F. *«iIIL.Vl!>*Xl32R, 

SEEDSMAN, 

Importer and Dealer in all kinds of 

Vegetable, Flower, Field, Fruit and 
Tree Seeds, 

GARDEN TOOLS, PLANTS, TREES, 

California Tree and Flower Sseds, Etc . 

No- 317 Washington Street, 

B«twcen B»tter and Front SAN FRANCISCO . 

6v2-ly«p 



GEO. B. BAYLEY,, 

Comer Sixteenth and Castro Streets, OAKLAND. 




Importer and Breeder of 
CMOICli: I'OULTKY. 

Every variety of Fancy Poultry constantly on han d 
and for sale. 
Address, with stamp, P. O. Box C59, San Francisco. 



TREES FOR SILK ! SL 

>£ 111 tie a 11 lis, 

1 year old, $20 per Thousand. 

Do. 2, 3 and 4 years, $23, $35 and $4(). 

ALBA AND MORETTO, 2, 3 and i years, $40, $50, $<'0. 

CUTTINGS of all kinds $2.50 per thousand. 

TREES FOR SHADE! 

Finest and Cheapest in the State. 

White aud .BlaoU M:nll»«ri-y 

From 1)« to » inches diameter, and ^^ to 20 feet high — 
from $25 to $aO » hundred, or 30 to 50 cents each. 



FRUITING MULBERRY ! 

From 50 cents to $1.50 each. 

Silkworm Eggs and Silk Manual. 
Liberal discount to the traile. 



2CT2-3ra-lf>p 



I. N. HOAG. 

Sacrsmanto, Cal. 



WILLCOX & GIBBS 

IIUPROV-EO NOISELESS 

family Sewing Machine 

IS THE BEST IN THE MARKET. 

It is the Uost Simple, 
Easy to run (a child can operate it) , not liable to get out 
of order, sews the heaviest or lightest goods, and 
Is remarkable tor the great variety. perfec- 
tion and durability of its work. 

It is the only Machine 

Making the triple-threaded Keani, with the twisted loop 

s'itch, tho strongest and most elasti<: made. 

The "Willcox & Gibbs 
Received the only honorable mention and iitrong recom- 
mendation at (he last Stockton .Vgricultural Fair. 

Its Work Received the First Premium 
At th* San Fraiuiwo Mechanics' Institute Fair, 1871. 

Don't Fail to Exa-inino.- 

as- PERFECT SATISFACTION GUARANTEED. 
Other Machines taken in part payment. 
Call on or address 

WILLCOX & GIBBS S. M. CO., 

113 Post Street, S. F. 

22v-2.9m 



JOHN J. NEWSOM, 

Architect, 
No. 430 Montgomery street, over the U.S. Treasury, 
2Cv2-6m 8am Feancwoo. 




Volume III.] 



SAN FRANCISCO, SATURDAY, JANUARY 13, 1872. 



[Number 2. 



V/hite Leghorn Fowls. 

Our cut is a portrait of a pair ofWhite Leg- 
horn fowls, owned by Mr. G. B. Bayley of 
Oakland, a gentleman who has had great 
success with the breed. This class of 
fowls is highly prized by breeders for 
their many good qualities. They are bred 
of nearly all colors, except black; the 
white, however, being preferred. This 
variety is similar to the Spanish in size 
and ajjpearance, except in the plumage, 
which is white, with neck and saddle feath- 
ers slightly tinged with gold. They are 
very hardy birds, suffering from severe 
and sudden changes much less than the 
Spanish, with which many deem them 
closely allied. They are extremely good 



Our Wool Product. 

An important export of California is its 
annual wool clip, and whatever interests the 
buyers of our wools, is of equal interest to 
the producers. 

McLennan, Wholan & Grisar's Wool 
Circular contains some very interesting 
matter to all connected with the wool 
trade on this coast. We learn from it 
that the receipts of California fleece for 
the year 1871 were 74,037 bales, or. 22,- 
187,188 lt)s, and the total receipts from all 
quarters were 79,791 bales, or 22,473,649 
lbs. The wool was generally of short 
staple, and in many instances tender. 
With the exception of the Southern clip, 
which contained much less burr than in 
former years, it did not come up to the 
standard of 1870, though some extra 
choice lots were received. The Ch-cular 
says that owing to a combination of 




LEGHORN FOWLS, 



layers, and seldom desire to set; the eggs j causes the spring clip of this year was 
are large and white, resembling 
those of the Black Spanish variety. 

Mr. Bayley's experience with 
the breed is that they mature more 
rapidly than any other fowl; at 
three months they are perfect epit- 
omes of the old ones, and begin 
to lay at five months. In his 
opinion they are very well adapted 
to the wants of the farmers on 
this coast, owing to their hardi- 
ness, as they are not affected by 
the wet weather and cold winds 
which kill the Black Spanish. Ho 
has never had any difficulty with 
them on this score. The young 
are easy to rear; they feather ii]- 
soon and when two months old 
are as sprightly as many chicks 
at four months of age. The hens 
are considered excellent winter 
layers, and will lay as large a 
number of eggs in a year as any 
fowls known, not excepting the 
Polands or Hamburghs. They are a me- 
dium-sized fowl of a quiet and docile dis- 
position. 

In some flocks occasional colored leath- 
ers will appear, but these fowls should at 
once be discarded if it is desired to breed 
the pure white bird. The legs and skin 
should be yellow. The cocks have large 
single combs which should stand perfectly 
erect; full wattles and large cream -colored 
or white ear-lobes, extending sometimes 
upon their face. The carriage of both 
cock and hen is proud and dignified. The 
hens have large combs usually, which fre- 
quently lap over like the Spanish. Mr. 
Bayley has sent a few lots to Australia and 
quite a number to Honolulu; they stood 
the sea voyage well. The fact of this 
breed being somewhat cheaper than 
other fancy fowls will assist in com- 
mending them to farmers who wish to 
keep them for profit. We will take occa- 
sion in some future issue to give an illus- 
tration of some of the other breeds of fowls 
raised by Mr. Bayley. 

Pecan Nuts in Texas.— The pecan trees in 
San Antonio county, Texas, were reported 
as breaking down with fruit. The crop 
in that immediate section, it was thought, 
would bring over one million of dollars; 
the nuts selling at $2.50 per bushel. The 
crop in Louisiana is reported at 25 per 
pent, oyer that of last year. 



good as in former years; some lots being 
of tender staple and poor texture. For- 
merly, says the Circular, Oregon wool was 
characterized by freedom from burrs, seed 
and tags; it was lustrous and well 
adajjted for combing purposes. Since 
then the nature of this wool has com- 
pletely changed, and with the exception of 
a few privileged counties, where the 
breeding has been better attended to, it 
does not any longer yield any combing or 
delaines. 

Comparison with Former Years. 

The receipts of California wool for the 
four years last past has been as follows: — 
for 1808,-12,987,527 pounds; for 1869,— 
13,677,720 pounds; for 1870,-19,472,660 
pounds; for 1871,-22,187,188 pounds. 
Receipts from Oregon for the same period 
have been:— 421,460; 1,039,460; 1,403,970; 
921,000. 

Frauds. 

The Circular complains of frauds cora- 









bought immediately on its arrival, and 
passed directly into the hands of consum- 
ers, represented in this market either by 
owners or agents of Eastern manufacto- 
ries. 

The Prices 
Obtained were very high, the market 
having been considerably excited at the 
immediate opening of the season — an ex- 
citement which continued without inter- 
mission until its close, prices having 
steadily advanced from day to day. 

The following facts will undeniably ac- 
count for the great demand and rapid ad- 
vance in the i^rice of wools: 

First — The great scarcity of medium 
wools in the Eastern market, as well in 
the hands of dealers as manufacturers; 
consequently, California being the first 
source of supply open to fill the require- 
ment, the buyers were eager to avail them- 
sellves of it. 

Second — The wool markets all over the 
world have considerably advanced the 
prices for that article, as a necessary con- 
sequence the price of manufactured avooI- 
en goods has likewise increased. 

The total value of the receipts of 1871 
is set down at $6,605,132. The average 
price of spring wool is set down at 29c. per 
It) ;fall wool at 25c. ; Oregon wool at 40c. and 
Foreign wool at 45c. The latter amounted 
to only $164,475 of the total amount of 
value. 

The Receipts from Oregon, Elc, 

Are set down at 921,000 pounds and from 
foreign ports 365,461. The condition of 
Oregon shipmenta are reported not as 



mitted by shippers, such as corral dirt 
hidden in the middle of the fleeces, sand 
thrown in between layers of wool and wet 
fleeces packed among dry ones. 
A Suggestion. 
The Circular appeals to the good sense 
of our farmers to add a few head of sheep 
to their general farming stock, as is done in 
Canada. These sheeji will be a benefit to 
their farm in eating the grass which other 
stock do not consume, and giving the best 
manure in return. These small herds can 
be better cared for than large ones, they 
are more easily kept clean, and their wool 
will always command a higher price than 
others. Long-wooled sheep especially 
prosper well in small bands. 

The State Lands. — Of late years it has 
been very difficult for the people generally 
to learn much about the lands belonging to 
the State — including the agricultural and 
swamp and overflowed lands. But we per- 
ceive by the proceedings of the Legislature 
last week that Mr. Days has introduced 
a resolution, which was promptly adopted, 
calling for a detailed statement from the 
Surveyor-General of the condition, loca- 
tion, etc., of these lands. The informa- 
tion will be very welcome and important 
to settlers and the public generally. 

FoHEST Destbdction. — It is estimated that at 
the present rate of destruction that not one of 
the forest pines will remaiii in either Wisconsin 
or Michigan in 30 years from this time. 



The Last Storm. 

We have been visited, since our last 
issue, by another storm, which set in on 
Sunday night and continued with very 
little intermission for about fthirty-six 
liours. A large amount of water fell dur- 
ing that time, and the rain was very gen- 
eral throughout the State, as far south as 
Visalia. We append the total of rainfall 
in several localities, the excess of which, 
over our last week's report, shows the 
amount received during this storm: 

Napa, to December 2'Jth 2G.99 

Vallejo, to January 8th 1'J.30 

San Kafael, to •' 9th 38.35 

Stockton, to " 8th 1,5.17 

Saci'imiento, to " 8th 14.33 

San I'rancisco, to Jan. yth 24.60 

Shasta, to Jan. 5th 50.14 

Oakland, to " 9th 23.18 

WootUaud, to" 9th 20.10 

Petaluma, to " 9th 23.45 

Visalia, to " 9th 6.15 

The rainfall at San Rafael was 5.72 in. 
during the last storm. We have no report 
from Napa since Dec. 29, but judging from 
what has fallen there up to that time, that, 
as well as San Rafael, must be rather wet 
places at this time. The Biitte Slough, the 
cutting of which we noticed last week is a 
very heavy work, being 80 feet wide at the 
base, 14 at the top and 25 feet high. A 
contract has been let to close the breach at 
seventy- five cents per yard. It is hoped 
that by the time it is repaired there will 
be a law upon the statute book, which will 
make the cutting of any such work a State 
prison offence instead of a mere misde- 
meanor, at present. The damage to the 
Sherman Island levee and the cause of 
the same is noticed in ahother column. 

This storm in the mountains has also 
been unusually severe and attended with a 
very large amount of rainfall. Lake Ta- 
hoe has risen 22 inches notwithstanding 
its large outlet. The average depth of 
snow on the eastern Summit of the Sierras 
is said to be about seven feet, and about 
one foot on the western slope. Some con- 
siderable damage has been done to dams 
and ditches in the mountains ; but not so 
much as might have been expected. 

How Things Look in the Sacramento Valley. 

One of our reporters having just re- 
turned from Sacramento reports as follows 
of the state of the weather: — Things look 
rather damp around the capital city. 
Monday morning the rain came down, for 
a change, very briskly, and the river lift- 
ed itself accordingly. All along the Sacra- 
mento River, for miles after leaving Rio 
Vista, the country is literally in a bath; 
orchard trees stand two and three feet 
deep in water, and as far as the eye could 
reach, thefields were all submerged. The 
Vallejo Railroad track beyond Davisville 
lies under several feet of water at some 
places. During our visit a small steam- 
boat was running daily between Davis- 
ville and Washington, carrying mails and 
passengers — thus forming a connecting 
link with the California Railroad, over the 
line of its submerged track. Commend us to 
the Californian for the means of getting 
over the country, despite floods and water- 
covered railroads. As long as steam can 
be made, and paddles made to obey, it 
can rain all winter, for all the Yoloites 
care. Sacramento City is, so far, well pro- 
tected by the levee, but if the storm should 
commence again it will have only three 
feet to fill in before rolling over the levee, 



18 



[January 13, 1872. 



kORRESPONDENCE. 



Notes of Travel in Alameda and Contra 
Costa Counties. — Continued. 

[Bt OCR Own Thaveleb.) 

Mills' Seminary. 
The above-named institution, one of the 
finest on the Pacific Coast, is situated three 
miles east of Brooklyn, Alameda coiinty, 
near the foothills. The building is lOOx 
218 with a -wing 100x136, cost §100,000, 
and -was completed August 1st, 1K71. The 
laundry and skating rink adjoin the main 
structure and are com[)lete in every de- 
partment. The former is run by a small 
steam engiue, which also furnishes steam 
for heating the main building. The rink 
is 40x70 feet and is the principal resort of 
the young ladies during their leisure mo- 
ments. The entire institution is furnished 
in the most complete manner, and lit 
throughout with maxim gas manufactured 
on the premises. 

The Principals and Teachers. 
The Eev. D. C. T. Mills and his wife are 
well known to the public as experienced 
and highly successful educators. Their 
school at Benicia, from which they have 
brought to Mill's Seminary all the pupils 
who had not completed the course, with a 
few exceptions, was founded in the sum- 
mer of 1852, and was the first young 
ladies school, we believe, in California. It 
passed from a Board of Trustees to Miss 
Mary Atkins and was by her transferred to 
Dr. and Mrs. Mills. There are 21 teachers 
in addition to the principals, who are 
am ing the most able instructors on the 
coast. 

The Institution 
Will accommodate from 180 to 190 pupils, 
and 80 numerous have been the api)lica- 
tions for admission that numbers have 
been declined by its principals. Some 80 
acres of land belonging to the seminary 
surround the same and are beautifully laid 
out with trees, llowers, and gravel walks. 
About 100 of the wealthiest citizens of San 
Francisco and a number in other parts of 
the State, whose names you have not space 
to give, have contributed their means to 
make this institution what it is. On a 
clear day the city of San Francisco and 
the towns that surround the Bay may be 
seen from the tojj of the building, making 
as beautiful a bird's-eye view as one would 
wish to see. 

Safety Fuse Manufactory. 
It may nut be generally known that a 
factory of this kind exists in this State. 
There are now three such establishments. 
It may not be generally known that a 
manufactory of tins kind exists in this 
State. Our correspondent, L. P. Mc. 
furnishes us with the following: There 
are three such establishments in the State, 
the principal one of which is situated two 
miles soutlieast of Alameda, and about 
twelve miles from Sun Francisco, and is 
known as the branch works of Toy, Bick- 
ford & Co.. the original worka being at 
Hartford, Connecticut, and were started 
thirty-five years ago. The works near 
Alameda are run by an engine of 35 horse 
power, and were started five years ago. 
The greater part of the fuse used on this 
Coast is now manufactured at this estab- 
lishment, and their capacity is sufficient 
to supply the entire demand. Twelve men 
ara regularly employed. 

Doughertys Station. 
Or what is sometimes called Dublin, is on 
the edge of Livermoro Valley, about 18 
miles east of the county seat of Alameda, 
San Leandro, and contains nearly 150 in- 
habitants. It has two stores, the principal 
one of which is owned by S. Wertheimber, 
one blacksmith shop and two hotels ; 
Green's Hotel is presided over by \Vm. 
Tehan. J. W. Dougherty for whom the 
town was named, is one of the principal 
laud owners of the section, possessing some 
of the finest land in the valley. 
Contra Costa County. 
This county derives its name from the 
central range of the coast mountains, whicli 
cover a large portion of its surface. It is 
about 40 miles in length from east to west 
and 20 or 25 miles wide. It has a very 
irregular boundary formed on the north 



by San Pablo and Suisuu bays and the 
San Joaquin river, and by the western 
channel of that river on the east ; by Ala- 
meda county on the south and the Bay of 
San Francisco on the west. It has an area 
of over half a million acres, one-third of 
which is good arable land nearly all under 
a high state of cultivation. One-half of 
the county is hills and mountains includ- 
ing Mount Diablo, which contains the 
most important coal mines in the State. 
The balance is nearly all swamp and over- 
flowed lands. 

Danville and Limerick. 
The former village is situated on the 
western edge of the county and about 35 
miles from your city, and contains some 300 
inhabitants. There are a number of stores, 
several blaeksuiith, wagon, saddle and har- 
ness makers' shops, etc., and one good 
country hotel kept by H. W.Harris. Three 
miles south of Dauville is a small town 
existing under the euphonious title of 
Limerick, containing about 100 inhabi- 
tants but without a postollice, the mails 
being obtained from Danville. Small as 
it is there are two hotels in' the place, the 
principal one of which is kept by P. Luiten. 
C S. Mills A: Co. are its most prominent 
merchants, and do a stirring business for 
the size of the town. Surrounding the vil- 
lage are some of the most thrifty farms in 
the county. l. p. mc. 



Healdsburg Correspondeoce. 

Why Fruit Don't Pay. 

Editoks Peess: — I noticed in a late 
number of your excellent journal the fol- 
lowing: "Farmers write for your pa- 
paper." As it rains to-day, I have leisure 
for the same, although it seems to me that 
every subject has been talked up, reiJorted 
upon or ably handled by the press. Some 
time since I saw an article on the subject 
of saving the fruits of the orchard. The 
writer seemed to convey the idea that there 
was too much waste of fruit, and conse- 
quently, what did arrive in the market 
was so high in price that the poor classes 
must go without, not being able to pay 
the prices charged; but the writer did not 
tell us who was to blame for the high 
prices. 

Now it seems to me it certainly is not the 
producers fault, and I will just give you a 
copy of a small bill of return sales, just 
to show the matter up. 

Account of sales 

Oct. 11th, 1 box apples $ 1.00 

Oct. ISth, 12 boxes apples at 75 cents. . . $ U.UO 

Oct. 19th, 3 boxs apples at 65 cents f 1.95 

Oct. 20th, aO boxes apples at 75 cents. ..$15.00 



$2U.95 
Contra. 

Freight and drayage $ 8.00 

Commissions - $ 2.15 — $10.15 

Net proceeds $16.80 

This return sale is from one of the com- 
mission houses in San Francisco; I sup- 
pose it to be as correct and honest as 
any, and I suppose as well as could be 
done at that time. 

My apples were the best of Bellflowers, 
and Khode Island Greenings. As the pro- 
ducer, I get for 45 boxes of good apples 
5510.80, and that is about the average of 
sales for the season, and my neighbors 
realize about the same. As producers 
we do not feel that we can supply the 
market with good fruit any cheaper. The 
commission merchant visits us, and tells 
us how to prei^are the fruit for market, 
and we do as we are bid, the lagest and 
best to show first on opening the box, 
which I can hardly realize as right. 

Our orchards must be pruned and culti- 
vated, the fruit gathered, boxes bought 
and the fruit hauled to the depot all in 
good order. We send ofl' our best fruit on 
consignment, and do the best we can with 
what is left, drying and disposing of it in 
various ways, the pigs of course have to 
put up with the refuse. Now the fact is 
the fruit has to jiass through too many 
hands before the consumer gets hold of it. 
The railroads and steamers must have their 
hirjh charges, drayage and wharfage must 
be paid, the commission merchant takes 
his per cent, and the huckster must have a 
living, so by the time the apple is ready to 
be eaten it must,ta.ste pretty strong of the 
hands it has gone through since it left the 
orchard. 

Now I am of opinion there is more 
fruit goes to waste after it leaves the 
orchard, than before. I often see notices 
of fruit being dumped into the bay; I sup- 
pose there is an over-supply for the market 
at the price it is held at, and so it is kept 



on hand, gets old or rots and is lost to 
the producer. As we pay the expense of 
getting it to market, why is it not given 
to the poor in behalf of the producer, and 
give him the credit of it, and that before 
it is entirely spoiled. I think thereshonld 
be a call and a meeting of fruit growers, 
to agree upon making an average appear- 
ance of the fruit, on the opening of the box 
or basket, and then the consumer would 
know just what he was getting, and it would 
be far less trouble to the packer. We should 
also insist upon quicker sales and more of 
them, and that every transaction should be 
plain and on the square. 

I chanced the other day to hear the re- 
mark that "the business men of California 
are all swindlers." The thought struck 
me, is it so '? the answer in my own mind 
is, no; but then the query came, who does 
the gentleman call, the business men of 
California"? He seems to have nothing to 
do but smoke his pipe and look around; 
he may be a good judge, but I doubt it. 
Now I am not willing to allow that the 
producers, the workers of the soil are all 
dishonest; and yet they compose the larger 
number of the business men of this State; 
so, brother fruit-raisers, let us be honest 
in packing our fruit, so that we shall not 
come under the head of swindlers; and let 
us have honest commission merchants that 
will sell our fruit on fair commissions, 
even at low rates if needs be, but not dump 
it into the bay to keep up prices. I would 
like to have a good chat with you on this 
subject. A. c. 

Our correspondent is evidently clear- 
headed, on the suliject he writes upon. -[Ed. 

Railroad Items. 

The surveying and locating of the Walla 
Walla and Columbia River Railroad has 
been completed. A considerable amount 
of the grading will be done this winter. 
It is expected that the road will be in run- 
ning order within a year. 

The surveying party under Capt. Max- 
well has been ordered to Pend'Oreilee 
Lake, to make surveys during the winter. 

Gen. Sprague, T. B. Monis and E. S. 
Smith have gone to Puget Sound, and the 
Kalama Beacon says their visit is supposed 
to bo connected with the location of the 
terminus, between Olympia and Steila- 
coom. 

The track is laid and construction trains 
are running on the line nearly eighteen 
miles, extending five miles and a half be- 
yond Kidder's Camp, up the Cowlitz. A 
side track has been put down opposite 
Freeport. The material for the Toutle 
river bridge is being transported up the 
Cowlitz by steamer; and as every part of 
the bridge is ready to be put together, its 
completion is but the work of a few days. 

The Oregon and California Railroad has 
been graded to a point GO miles above 
Eugene City, in the Umpqua Valley. The 
track is laid but 14 miles above Eugene, 
and cannot be extended further until a new 
supply of iron arrives. 

The Burgess party, who have been sur- 
veying a route for the Northern Pacific 
Railroad through the Pipestone Pass, state 
that tliis route will be some 50 miles shorter 
than that by the Deer Lodge Pass. 

A suit is in progress at Omaha between 
the Union Pacific Company and T. C. Du- 
rant, to compel the latter to deliver to the 
railroad company about one million dol- 
lars' worth of property deeded to him by 
individuals in trust for the railroad com- 
pany in 1803 and 1864. 

Work on the western division of the 
Colorado Central is progressing rapidly. 
The road-bed is graded ready for the iron 
to station 275, at Huntsman's Ranch, and 
it is in a forward state of completion to 
station 375. The large force now employed 
between station 335 and Elk Meadow, at 
Elk creek, brings the working parties 
within four and a half miles of the Forks, 
where they will commence operations on 
or about the first of Febriiary. 

The work of pushing the Atlantic and 
Pacific Railroad westward is progressing 
at a rate hardly surpassed by the opera- 
tions which characterized the building of 
the Union Pacific, a few years ago. Al- 
ready the line is complett d to Vinitc, 35 
miles west of the Missouri line. 

The final survey has been.miideon the 
Iowa Pacific Railroad, and the route is 
better in all respects than that surveyed 
before. The work will probably be com- 
pleted on the road in Ida county this year, 
and east of Fort Dodge it is progressing so 
rapidly that the whole line from Wells to 
Fort Dodge will be graded by spring. 

At a recent special election, Gonzales 
county, Texas, voted to take S200,000, and 
Caldwell county, $159,000, in bonds of the 
Western Texas and Pacific Bailroad. 



Ice Cured Pork. 

The Cincinnati Price Cui-rent, under the 
heading of "Provision Trade Revolution," 
gives some interesting information con- 
cerning the growth of a new industry — 
the ice-curing of pork in the summer time 
— which it says is making "great breaches" 
in tlie old packing trade. According to 
this trade journal it may almost bo said 
that it is no longer necessary to pack and 
lay aside meat in winter at all, any more 
than at any other season ; there being, how- 
ever, a few weeks in the heated term of 
summer when it is not deairable nor neces- 
sary to handle or use much meat. Swine 
are fattened more conviently and more 
economically in fall weather, and then 
transportation can be done twenty per 
cent, cheaper. Fresh ice-cured meat is 
brighter, sweeter and sells higher for sev- 
eral of the leading qualities than the dry, 
highly salted winter-cured. Ice houses 
have been constructed at many western 
points where packing continues constantly 
and safely all summer. The extra cost of 
cold air from ice is being rapidly reduced, 
and is already counting less than the expense 
of holding meat over from winter to sum- 
mer. This state of affairs has completely 
upset the old business by which the wealth 
of the pork packing business has been ac- 
quired. And the article concludes with 
the remark that the 'last winter's packing 
has lately been selling at a loss of some 
forty per cent. 

Scribnee's Monthly. — The January number 
is a rare publication, and its numerous en- 
gravings are finely executed. The publishers 
apparently aim to raise the reputation of 
American magazines for beautiful wood en- 
gravings, in which effort they are eminently 
successful. Printed on superior paper with 
artful impressions, pleasing and attractive de- 
lineations form pictures indelible iu the memo- 
ries of the most cultivated readers. Scribner's 
views of the Yellowstone, in volume second, 
and Yosemite iu the present number we have 
never seen excelled. No one will be disap- 
pointed who reads this new and first dass 
monthly. We append a smumary of the table 
of contents for January: 

The Orphan's Christmas-Tree — Poem — Il- 
lustrated; The Wonders of the West — No. 1; 
The Big Trees and the Yosemite — Illustrated; 
Song — I'oeui; A Christmas Carol — Poem — Il- 
lustrated; Stephen Skarridge's Christmas — 
Illustrated; A Christmas Symphony — Poem — 
Illustrated; The Last Man of Mexican Camp; 
The two Jlrs. Scudamores — Concluded ; Christ- 
mas — Poem; Hunting Adventures in India — 
Illustrated; The Oak Tree's Christmas Gift; 
The Great Sea-Serpent; A Day of Scottish 
Games; Some Kinds of .Spiritual Quackery; 
Wilfrid Cumbermede; Assault of Antinous upon 
Ulysses; At His Gates— Chapters I. -Ill— Illus- 
trated; Topics of the Time; The Old Cabi- 
net; Home and Society; Culture and Pro- 
gress .\.broad; Culture and Progress at Home; 
Etchings — Christmas in Ole Virginny. 

Published by Chas. Scribner, 654 Broadway, 
$4 per annum. Bound volumes from its co'i- 
meiicemcnt, July 1, 1H70, can be obtained, and 
will be highly prized by those who desire an 
excellent magazine. 

Clakifting Ligi'iDs.— In many indus- 
tries, the clarification of liquids, or, in 
other words, the removal of opaque im- 
purities which make turbid the same, is of 
prime importance. To secnre this, re- 
course is had to the troublesome and costly 
process of filtration, and to the quite diflfer- 
ent method of adding, after heating the 
liquid, some substance like blood, con- 
taining albumen, which coagulating by 
the heat, mechanically gathers the impuri- 
ties and sinks with them to the bottom. 
To these may be added the plan used only 
on a small scale in clearing coflfee for 
drinking, of suddenly dashing cold water 
into the hot liquid, which sinking, induces 
currents that carry the extraneous matter 
downward to the bottom of the vessel. It 
is a matter of passing interest and curiosi- 
ty to note the projected application of this 
simple plan to an industry no less impor- 
tant than that of salt manufacture, in which 
it is proposed to employ it for the purifica- 
tion of brine. The brine is first heated, 
and cold water is suddenly showered upon 
it, which it is claimed, eft'ectually deposits 
or precipitates the impurities. — American 
Arlizan. 



The Tube Rose. — This is one of the most 
fragrant blossoming plants of all the 
species of Bulb or Tuberous plants grown, 
its perfume is equal to the Oiange flower, 
or Daphne Odora, and the perfume re- 
mains with the flower as long as its life 
lasts; it is the true type of Love and De?o« 
tioQ. 



January 13, 1^72.] 



m^ 



ECHANICAL 



0ROGRESS. 



The Durability of Timber. 

A late edition of Tredgold on carpentry 
furnishes the following interesting and 
useful facts with regard to the durability 
of different kinds of timber: 

In regard to the durability of different 
woods, tlie most odoriferous kinds are gen- 
erally considered to be the most durable; 
also woods of a close and compact texture 
are generally more durable than those that 
are open and porous, but there are excep- 
tions, as the wood of the evergreen oak is 
more compact than that of the common 
oak, but not nearly so durable. 

Sir H. Davy has observed that, "in gen- 
eral, the quantity of charcoal afforded by 
woods offers a tolerable accurate indica- 
tion of their durability; those most abun- 
dant in charcoal and earthy matter are 
most permanent; and those that contain 
the largest proportion of gaseous elements 
are the most destructible. "Amongst our 
own trees," he adds, "the chestnut and the 
oak are pre-eminent as to durability, and 
the chestnut affords rather more carbon- 
aceous matter than the oak. But we know 
from experience, that red or yellow fir is as 
durable as the oak in most situations, 
though it produces less charcoal by the or- 
dinary process. The following table of 
the quantity of charcoal afforded by ]00 
j)arts of different woods is added, for the 
information of the reader: 



Oak, dry 22.6 

Clitstnut 23.2 

Maliogany iii.i 

Walnut 20.6 

Kim 19.5 

Beech 19.i) 



Fir. 



Pine 20.0 

Scotch Pine 16.4 

Ash 17.U 

Norway Pine 19 .2 

Sallow 18.4 

Birch 17.4 



.15.6 I Sycamore 19.7 



But it does not appear that the propor- 
tion of charcoal is a satisfactory criterion 
of the durability. 

An experiment to determine the compar- 
ative durability of different woods is re- 
lated in Young's "Annals of Agriculture," 
which will be more satisfactory than any 
speculative oijinion; and it is much to be 
regretted that such experiments have not 
been oftener made. 

"Inch and half planks of trees from 
thirty to forty-five years' growth, after ten 
years' standing in the weather, were exam- 
amined and found to be in the following 
state and condition: 

Cedar, perfectly sound; larch, the heart 
sound, but sap quite decayed; spruce fir, 
sound; silver fir, in decay; Scotch fir, 
much decayed; pinaster, quite rotten; 
chestnut, perfectly sound; abele, sound; 
walnut, in decay; sycamore, much de- 
cayed; beech, sound; birch, quite rotten. 

This shows at once the kinds that are 
best adapted to resist the weather; but 
even in the same kind of wood there is 
much difference in the durability, and the 
observation is as old as Pliny, tliat "the 
timber of those trees which grow in moist 
and shady places is not so good as that 
which comes from a more exposed situa- 
tion, nor is it so close, substantial, and 
durable;" and Vitruvius has made similar 
observations. 

Also split timber is more durable than 
sawed timber, for the fissure in sjjlitting 
follows the grain, and leaves it whole, 
whereas the saw divides the fibers ^.nd 
moisture finds more ready access to the 
internal parts of the wood. Split timber 
is also stronger than sawed timber be- 
cause the fibers, being continuous, resist 
by means of their longitudinal strength; 
but when divided by the saw, the resist- 
ance often depends on the lateral cohesion 
of the fibers, which is in some woods only 
one twentieth of the direct cohesion of the 
same fibers. For the same reason whole 
trees are stronger than specimens, unless 
the si^ecimens be selected of a straight 
grain, but the difTerenco in large scant- 
ling is so small as not to be deserving of 
notice in practice. 

Of the durability of timber in a wet 
state, the piles of the bridge, built by the 
Emperor Trajan across the Danube, are 
an example. One of these piles was taken 
up, and found to be petrified to the depth 
of three fourths of an inch; but the rest 
of the wood was little different from its 
ordinary state, though it had been driven 
more thon sixteen centuries. 

The piles under the piers of old London 
Bridge had been driven about 600 years, 
and, from Mr. Dance's observations in 
1746, it did not appear that they were ma- 
terially decayed; indeed they were found 
to the last to be sufficiently, sound to sup 
port the massy suiierstructure. They 
were chiefly of elm. 

Also, in digging away the foundation of 
old Savoy Palace, London, built nearly 
700 years ago, the whole of the piles, con- 



sisting of oak, elm, beech, and chestnut, 
were found in a state of perfect sound- 
ness; as also was the planking which cov- 
ered the pile heads. 

On opening one of the tombs at Thebes, 
M. Belzoni discovered two statues of wood, 
in good preservation; the only decayed 
parts being the sockets to receive the eyes. 
The wood of these statues is probably the 
oldest in existence that bears the traces of 
human labor. 



Mechanical Progress in the United 
States. 

There is nothing which brings the ma- 
terial progress of the United States into 
more jirominent light than a retrospec- 
tive view of the condition of afi'airs forty 
years ago, in regard to the capacities of 
our mechanics to produce machinery. In 
1828, the first locomotive was imported 
from England, to draw the coal-cars on 
the Carbondale and Honesdale Railroad, 
Pa. ; the second in 1830, to run passen- 
ger-cars on the Mohawk and Hudson 
Railroad. The first American locomotive 
was built in 1830, in the United States 
Foundry, at West Point, for the South 
Carolina Railroad, and tlie third in 1831, 
for the Mohawk and Hudson Railroad, 
which road was soon abandoned and bro- 
ken up for want of i^atronage. 

In the same year Baldwin, of Philadel- 
phia, made a miniature locomotive, which 
could draw two little cars with four per- 
sons; he exhibited it in Peale's Museum, 
in Philadelphia, and this exhibition laid 
the foundation for his fortune, and the 
large machine shop in that city, still 
bearing his name. In the following year, 
he received an order from the German- 
town Railroad Comi^auy to build a large 
locomotive. It would have frightened any 
other man of less pluck, as in the whole 
city there were only five men who were 
a^le to help him, and no proper tools at 
all. He therefore commenced at once to 
make tools and . patterns, and, incredible 
as it seems, in six months the locomotive 
was ready. It appears to have been a 
very delicate affair, as the advertisements 
in the Philadelphia papers of that day 
prove. They say, "Passengers to Ger- 
mantown will go with a train of cars 
drawn by the new engine, when the 
weather is fair; when it rains, the horses 
will draw the cars." 

Notwithstanding this, Baldwin's reputa- 
tion was settled; before the end of 1834, 
he had finished five locomotives. He was 
then able to finish two small ones in a 
year; now the same shop finishes one of 
large size, with tender, etc., every day. 
The first small locomotives could run Avith 
a velocity of Ten miles an hour, and draw 
one or two tons; the present locomotives 
have a speed of 40 miles per hour, and 
draw ]„000 tons. 

A business commenced in 1831, with 
five men, without proper tools, in a small 
shoiJ, (which still stands,) has increased 
in 1871 to a large manufactory grown 
around it, occupying a quarter of a mill- 
ion square feet, employing 2,000 men, and 
manufacturing four million dollars worth 
of locomotives per year, which are sent 
to California, Canada, South America, 
Europe, etc., in spite of European com- 
petition, of cheap labor, and cheap ma- 
terial. — Manufacturer and Builder. 

Experiments with Lubricators. 

A very elaborate series of experiments 
were recently made in New York to test the 
relative value of different lubricators. 
The experiments were continued during a 
period of fourteen mouths. The following 
were the general results and inferences: 
The consumption of oil varies with its tem- 
perature when ajoplied. 

Winter sperm oil, sustained the heaviest 
pressure, and was taken as the initial of 
comparison for all others, and their per 
cent, of lubricating value determined by 
it. The tests of mineral oils and mixtures 
01 animal and fish oils with them would 
not sustain an equal pressure with the 
sperm, when equal quantities of the oil 
were ajjplied, without rapidly increasing 
the temperature of the journals, and pro- 
ducing an abrasion of their surfaces. 

When the pressure on the bearings were 
made equal with winter sperm, it required 
from 100 to 400 per cent, increase of oil, to 
keep the temperature of the journals below 
100° Fahr. 

Experiments were made at varied veloc- 
ites, with the same oils! The results proved 
that as the velocity was reduced the pres- 
sure could bo increased, and the relative 
consumption of oil, ajiplied at equal tem- 
peratures, was decreased in almost equal 
ratio. 



iCIENTiFIC ilROGRESS. 



Meteorites— Their Orbits, Etc. 

Much attention has of late years been 
given to that erratic class of heavenly 
bodies known as meteors, or, as they are 
sometimes called, shooling stars. In rare 
instances these bodies reach tlie earth, and 
when they do, they are usually called 
aerolites, or meteoric stones, from the 
character of their composition. Those 
which reach the earth are not supposed to 
be in any way different from those which 
merely blaze out for an instant, or shoot 
across a portion of the heavens, leaving a 
bright train of light behind. 

When they fall to the earth, their direc- 
tion is such as to lead to an unavoidable 
collision; those which become visible, for 
a moment only, and do not fall, enter into 
and pass through the upper and more rari- 
fied portions of the atmosjihere. If their 
direction is such that they enter deeply 
into the atmosphere, but not pointed 
directly to the earth's surface, their motion 
is so much retarded by the friction of the 
air, that their direction is sufficiently 
changed by gravitation to bring them to 
the earth, and thus end their existence as 
sei)arate and distinct bodies in space. 

Meteors are of all sizes, from those of a 
few grains in weight to those of many 
pounds or even tuns. The former, on en- 
tering deeply into the atmosphere, are 
rapidly dissipated by the great heat which 
is created by their friction, and the con- 
suming effect of the oxygen with which 
they come in contact. The larger ones are 
usually fractured by the great heat pro- 
duced upon their surface, and fall in frag- 
ments to the earth. Their fracture is usu- 
ally attended by concussion, which often 
sounds like the report of distant cannon. 
Tiie continued, subdued roaring which is 
often heard during their flight across the 
heavens in their approach to the earth, is 
produced by the rushing past them, later- 
ally, of the air, which falls rapidly in 
behind them, to fill the partial vacuum 
caused by their motion. 

It has been calculated that not less than 
an average of seven millions of meteors 
might be seen from all parts of the earth, 
every twenty-four hours, provided the 
earth should move during that time 
through a clear sky, without any light 
from the sun or moon. If all the meteors 
which so pass the earth within the time 
specified could be brought into the field of 
a telescope, it is calculated, on reliable 
authority, that the number would reach 
fully four hundred millions! 

All these bodies move around the sun, 
and late observations have established the 
fact that many, if not most of them, move 
in approximately concentrated orbits, 
like the asteroids; but unlike the aster- 
oids, in extremely elliptical orbits, like 
comets. The path of the "November 
meteors" has its aphelion just beyond the 
orbit of Uranus, and its perhelion at or 
near the earth's orbit, and inclined about 
17 degrees to that of the earth. 

Careful observations have led to the sup- 
position that there are at least fifty differ- 
ent rings of meteors, such as the Novem- 
ber ring, of which, h9wever, that is by 
far the most extensive. ' Chemical analysis 
has revealed the presence of at least twen- 
ty-three different elements in these me- 
teors, out of the whole number of sixty 
five thus far discovered as composing the 
earth's substance. The names of these 
elements are as follows : Oxygen , hydrogen , 
nitrogen, sulphur, phosphorus, carbon, 
silicon, nickel, chromium, tin, aluminum, 
magnesium, calcium, potassium, sodium, 
cobalt, manganese, iron, copper, titanium, 
lead, lithium and strontium. The pres- 
ence of these elements, found also in the 
earth, suggests a common origin. 

The asteroids probably compose a " ring" 
very similar to the November meteors; but 
its great distance from the earth will not 
admit of any except its larger component 
parts being ceen, even by the telescope. 
No doubt a closer view would reveal an 
almost illimitable number, even down to 
bodies not greater than the larger aster- 
oids. These bodies are supposed to be 
either the fragments of an exploded planet, 
or a planetary body thrown off from the 
sun in the fdfm of a ring, and aggregated 
into a great number of small bodies, in- 
stead of into one large body, like the earth 
and other planets. 

From the eccentrity of the orbits of the 



meteorites, we might perhaps suppose them 
to be fragmentary portions of a cometary 
body, widely scattered in space, instead of 
being concentrated into a single body, as 
are the bodies known as comets. 

The spectrum, that wonderful instrument 
of comparatively recent discovery, which 
is just beginning to be employed in the 
observation of comets, appears to indii-.ite 
that these erratic bodies are composed of 
gases at a very elevated temperature. A 
careful microscopic study of many of the 
asteroids which have fallon to- the earth, 
shows most conclusively that these bodies 
have at some time been in a state of vapor 
— as the comets now are — and that proxi- 
mately they are made up of small rounded 
globules, which have accumulated and 
been more or less fractured by mutual im- 
pact, and finally consolidated. These sup- 
posed facts would seem to indicate a com- 
mon origin for comets and meteors. 

Action of Sulphurous Acid on Phos- 
phates. — B. W. Gerland has been making 
some imijortant experiments on the action 
of aqueous sulphurous acid upon phos- 
phates, which have developed some points 
of great practical importance, especially 
in their bearing on the manufacture of ar- 
tificial composts and soluble phosphates. 
He finds that aqueous sulphurous acid 
does not, like the strong acids, wholly de- 
compose the phosphates, but transforms 
them into soluble modifications. The or- 
dinary bone phosphate, called tribasic, is 
easily soluble in sulphurous acid, and if 
the solution be hastily boiled and evapor- 
ated in open vessels, a crystalline double 
salt, a mixture of tribasic phosphate with 
a sulphate of lime, will separate. This 
new and remarkable body is said to be 
quite permanent, and in reference to its 
use as a disinfectant, and upon farm land 
it is certainly deserving of special notice. 
If we can by means of sulphurous acid de- 
compose the phosphates, we shall avoid 
the expense of sulphuric acid, which must 
first be made from sulphurous acid, and ob- 
tain a product not so difficult to handle, 
and capable of a greater variety of uses 
than the superphosphates made in the old 
way. Mr. G. has studied the behavior of 
sulphurous acid towards other phosphates, 
the results of which, however, being j)urely 
theoretical we omit them. 



Bromide of Potassium. — The increasing 
use of.bromide of potassium, another of 
chemistry's contributions, would have 
been impossible, were it not for the extra- 
ordinary discovery of an apparently evap- 
orated sea water bed in Germany. The 
amount of bromide consumed in medicine 
is now enormous, and most of it is derived 
from this source. The same mines have 
also completely changed our sources of 
Ijotash; they produce far more than all 
the other sources of England and France 
put together, and have so reduced the 
price that carbonate of potash is now 
largely made in England at a price 
which competes most favorably with Amer- 
ican pearlash, and will ultimately drive 
it out of that market. Bromide of potas- 
sium is an instance of a substance long 
used in medicine before its valuable ijro^j- 
erties were discovered. 



Inhalation of Dust by Workmen. — 
The injurious effect of exposure to the 
dust of various manufacturing establish- 
ments has not unfrequently been dwelt 
upon with more or less force; but we are 
hardly prepared for the result of certain 
specific investigations on this subject. It 
has long been a disputed point whether 
the particles of iron, silica, etc., merely 
lodge within the air-cells of the lungs, or 
penetrate through their walls into the 
tissue between them. But Professor Zen- 
ker informs us that, on examining the 
lungs of a woman who had been exposed 
to the dust of iron oxide, used in prepar- 
ing books of gold-leaf, he found the pow- 
der in the tissue between the air-cells and 
in their walls, as well as in their cavities. 
From less than two ounces of this lung 
over twelve grains of iron oxide were ob- 
tained by chemical methods; so that, if 
equally distributed through both lungs, 
there must have been at least three quar- 
ters of an ounce inhaled. In another 
case — that of a workman exposed to the 
dust of a mixture used in preparing ultra- 
marine substances— he found a quantity 
estimated at fully an ounce.— i/a);per's 
Magazine. 

M. Devergik, a French chemist, finds 
that water containing only one four thou- 
sandth of its weight of carbolic acid suf- 
ficed for the disinfection of the Morgue in 
Paris during the hottest weather, when it 
contained six or seven bodies. 



20 



[January 13, iSyii. 



Ho^T'c^^'-T'^^A.^" 



Sea Kale— (Crumba Maritima.) 

[Written for the PnEss, by E. J. Hoopeb.] 

This vegetable was formerly much more 
useil, I think, in England and Europe than 
it is at the present time, better, more 
highly flavored and finer vegetables, espe- 
cially asparagus which it somewhat resem- 
bles, having now taken its place in a great 
measure. My own liking for it, is derived 
from eating it served up on buttered and 
toasted bread when a boy. At that ago we 
probablj' relish every edible more than we 
do at a later ago. lint, at any rate, I be- 
lieve it is a pleasant and delicate culinary 
vegetable. In England and Franco, and 
in similar latitudes it has to be raised un- 
der glass in a hot bed with plenty of ma- 
nure to protect it from frosts and to have 
it ready for the table early in the spring. 
In California it would only need protection 
with some kind of substance, such as 
leaves and long stable manure. 
Were Found Wild. 

Sea Kale is found wild upon seashores 
in many parts of England, where the in- 
habitants gather it in the spring to eat, as 
the Americans do the sprouts of sev- 
eral young plants, preferring it to any 
of the cabbage tribe, as it generally 
grows upon the gravelly shore, where 
the tide flows over it, and the searchers 
observe where the gravel is thrust up by 
the roots of the ijlant; they open the soil, 
and cut the shoots before they come out, 
and exposed to the open air, whereby the 
shoots appear as if they were blanched ; 
and when they are cut so young they are 
very tender and sweet, but if they are 
allowed to grow till they are green, they 
become tough and bitter. The gatherers 
of it call it sea cabbage. This wild sort is 
perhaps an annual. The cultivated garden 
species is a perennial, with some other va- 
rieties, as Crumba Suecica and Crumba Ori- 
entalis. 

How Propagated. 

This plant [cmmha marithnn) may be 
propagated in a garden by sowing the seed 
soon after it is ripe in a sandy or gravelly 
soil, where it will thrive very well, and in- 
crease gre.atly in its creeping roots, which 
will soon overspread a large space of 
ground, if encouraged; but the heads will 
not be fit to cut until tlie plants grow; 
should about November be covered over 
with sand or gravel about 4 or 5 inches 
thick which will allow a proper depth for 
the shoots to be cut before they appear 
above ground ; and if this is rejjeated every 
autumn, in the same manner as is prac- 
ticed in earthing asparagus beds, the 
plants will require no other culture in this 
climate, except, as I before observed, 
throwing some kind of litter over them 
when sprouts apjiear. 

The French call this vegetable le chou 
marbi. There can be no difficulty in its 
cultivation in California. 

How Cultivated in South Carolina. 

In South Carolina, the climate of which 
state is not much unlike California, this 
plant is now being cultivated in a few 
places. It is managed there as follows, 
and as the mode adopted is minutely de- 
scribed, I will hero give an account of it: 

Sea Kale flourishes best in a sandy soil, 
well enriched and decomposed vegetable 
manure, and a top dressing of salt as for 
asparagus. Sow the seed in February, wa- 
tering the bed freely if the weather be dry. 
Thin out the plants gradually to 2 or 3 
inches ^apart, keeping the bed free from 
weeds by freciuent hoeing. In November 
cover the crowns of the plants with a few 
inches of earth. In the spring, prepare 
beds as for asparagus, and remove your 
plants in a similar manner, setting them 
about two feet apart, 2 or 'A inches deep. 
Water occasionally, if the season be dry, 
and hoe frequently; allow no jjlants to go 
to seed. Early in November give the beds 
two inches of well-rotted manure, forking 
it over lightly at the same time. Now 
cover the crowns of the plants with 3 or 4 
inches of light soil, or with pure sand if 
you can readily procure it. The bed be- 
ing thus finished, cover the crowns 
of the plants with large pots or boxes, 
sinking them one or two inches in the 



ground, and carefully stopping any holes 
in them. Then procure a quantity of 
leaves from the woods, mix with the 
same quantity of warm stable manure, and 
cover the ground and boxes to the depth 
of 20 inches. lu severe weather throw 
over this some dry litter or boards. The 
materials will come to a heat in two or 
three weeks, and in three or four weeks 
more it will be time to examine a i)ot or 
two, and when the plants are found to have 
sprouts from six to eight inches long, 
they may be cut for use. llemove a por- 
tion of the earth and cut close to the 
crown, and then replace the box or pot, 
and the other materials, and other shoots 
will soon appear. The plants will con- 
tinue in a vigorous state of growth for two 
months, giving you a supply for the table 
nearly the whole winter; and having your 
bed once formed, the forcing process just 
described may be repeated every year for 
14 or 15 years. In the spring remove the 
covering gradually, digging in a few inches 
of the decayed material to strengthen the 
plants for a future crop. 

Protection from Frost. 

To have Sea Kale without freezing, 
cover the plants early in the spring with 
eight or ten inches of sand, or fine, light 
earth. They will produce strong shoots, 
which, on clearing the ground around 
them, will be found to be of a clear, white 
color; or they niaj' be blanched by cover- 
ing them deeply with oat or wheat straw. 
They are useless unless well blanched. 
The shoots are cooked in the same way as 
asparagus. 

San Francisco, Jan. 7th, 1862. 



The Best Varieties of Grapes. 

At the meeting of the Grape Growers' 
Association, held at Napa, on the 16th ult., 
a paper was read by Dr. Lockwood, from 
the Committe on vines, on the best varie- 
ties for vineyard planting. The varieties 
recommended by the Committee were pure 
black grapes, Zenfridel and Black Mal- 
voise ; pure white grapes, the Golden Ar- 
apelas and Boyer ; pure musk grapes, the 
Pihenish Muscat. These were commended 
for their productiveness, although Ries- 
lings would be entitled to the first place, 
if their good bearing qualities were satis- 
factorily established. 

In response to an inquiry, Mr. Baufeton 
stated his Grey Eieslings averaged 15 
pounds to the vine. 

Dr. Crane has found that Rieslings were 
abundant bearers when trained high. 
Without high training they were shy 
bearers. The weight of fruit on a single 
vine — an exception, of course — thus train- 
ed, has by careful estimate been placed at 
70 pounds. Not only is the Riesling a 
good beai-er, but the superior quality of 
its product gives it special value. He had 
found, in the East, no difficulty in selling 
Riesling wine, when that from Mission 
grapes was neglected. 

Mr. Krug would confine his selection to 
a very limited variety, naming as his fav 
orites the Rieslings (Schaumberg and 
Frankling), the Zenfridel and Muscatel. 
He was aware that these would not suit all 
localities. Thus Rieslings did not pros- 
per in Sonoma. Mr. Craig confirmed Mr. 
K's st itement of the unsuitableuess of 
Rieslings to Sonoma. His Riesling vines, 
trained on stakes, suffered from wind-blast 
and yielded badly. Col. Walton had no 
success with his Rieslings while he pur- 
sued the practice of low training and 
short spurs. He now reserves thi-ee canes 
to be tied together at the upper extremi- 
ties. The increase over his former treat- 
ment is 600 per cent. He trains some 
other vai-ioties (Chepelas, Muscats, etc.) 
in the same way. 

Mr. Harazthy deprecated the especial 
attention paid to varieties without any 
consideration of the different qualities of 
soil. Planting should bo done with refer- 
ence to the adaptation of soils, to produce 
the qualities of wine desii-ed. At Stock- 
ton, wines partook of the character of Port 
and Madeira. At St. Helena, Claret was 
indicated by depth of color. 

A Trespass Law Wanted. 

The following resolution was adoj)ted 
by the Convention : 

Resolved, Tliat this Association earnestly 
recommend the immediate attention of 
the Legislature to the Trespass law, al- 
ready memoralized for, and that the Asso- 
ciation invite their special attention to the 
remedy necessary to carry into effect the 
proposed law ; tliat the remedy by action 
in the courts of justice of this State is not 
satisfactory, and that a sj^stem of pounds, 
and the impounding of estrays should be 
established in each county, dividing the 
same into districts. 



fWf Hif*Ts. 



Sacramento Farmers' Club. 

This club met on Saturday last, at 2 p.m. 
A good number of farmers were in attend- 
ance. The subject for consideration was 
the planting of trees, and the varieties 
best for growing hard timber for manu- 
facturing purposes. 

E. F. Aiken opened the subject. The 
black locust and California black walnut 
he thought among the best hard wood 
trees for artificial cultivation — both rapid 
growers, the timber useful for manufac- 
tures, and the latter well adapted to growing 
on overflowed lands. To start locust seed ho 
l)ours boiling water on them and allows 
them to stand in the water to cool off, and in 
twenty-four hours a large portion of the 
seeds will be swollen and i-ise to the top. 
These are removed and planted and the 
balance treated in the same manner. He 
imports many varieties of forest trees 
from the East by mail. Those of one sum- 
mer's growth cost there SB per thousand. 

Wm. M. Haynie tliought that in trans- 
planting trees the tap root ought not to be 
cut off. In case of fruit trees, cutting off 
the tap root insures a better spreading of 
the side roots, but it rendered shade trees 
more liable to be blown over. If practi 
cal, shade and forest trees had bettor be 
planted where the trees were to remain. 

R. Williamson viewed the subject as one 
of great importance. Every interest in 
the State was more or loss affected by trees. 
Trees affect the climate favoral)ly, are con- 
ducive to public health and a full pocket. 
We want trees for timber and wood, which 
are becoming scarce. We want forests and 
belts of trees on the plains, and every- 
where to protect growing crops from the 
efl'ects of the winds. He had noticed this 
want especially on Sherman Island. He 
would name as good kinds to grow for 
timber the black walnut, black and honey 
locust, the black and white mulberry, and 
the blue gum or eucalyptus, a native of 
Australia. Thinks the latter one of the 
best trees for cultivation in the State. It 
does well on dry land or on moist land, 
but is a hard tree to transplant; should be 
grown in pots from seed, or be planted 
where it can remain. This tree should 
not be stripped of the side branches. If 
trimmed in this way it will grow crooked 
and lop over. The eucalyptus is an ever- 
green. 

J. S. Harbison said the locust should be 
pruned but little. Many locust trees in 
the city had been killed bji too much 
prunning, and their dying attributed to 
too much moisture. If allowed to grow 
naturally they would grow much more 
symmetrically and thriftily. The Eastern 
black walnut did well here, though not so 
rapid a grower as the California walnut. 
Thinks timber will be equally as good 
here as in the East. The wild cherry or 
timber cherry did well here ; it requires a 
moist soil ; has them growing rapidly. 
The Lombardy poplar is a very rapid 
grower and valuable for belts and wind- 
breaks. Trees do not do well gin orally 
in alkali soil. The Eastern mulberry does 
well here, is a rapid grower, and the tim- 
ber is very v.aluable. The fruit is good 
for eating or cooking purposes ; not so 
rapid a grower as the white and moretti 
varieties grown in California for feeding 
worms. 

E. F. Aiken thought there was an excep- 
tion as to alkali soil. The silver-leafed 
popular did well in this soil, and it is a 
very fine shade tree anywhere. 

E. Soale had along experience in use of 
timber in manfacturing. Among the va- 
rieties grown in California the osage 
orange was very valuable for uSo in wag- 
ons. Made excellent hul)s, and is good 
for most any part of a wagon. Had re- 
paired wagons made in Texas and Arkansas 
with osage hubs and found the hubs among 
the best he had eveT seen. In those coun- 
tries this timber was considered the very 
best. Had used California grown black 
locust and found it equal to the very best 
timber grown in the Eastern States. It 
was a mistaken impression that California 
was not a good country to grow good hard 
timber. The impression had ai'isen from 
the native timber being poor varieties. 

The white oaks grown here are not the 
same as the valulable kind of the Eastern 
States. Eastern good varieties grown 
here would be as good as if grown there. 
There is a locust post standing in the 
ground in front of his house that has been 
there now eleven years, and is as sound 
now as when first set there. In planting 
trees for timber the best timber kinds eliould 



be selected and then go ahead, and it will 
pay better than any other agricultural 
production. More timber can be grown 
on an acre of land in California in twenty- 
five years time than in the Eastern States 
In seventy-five years. Plenty of locust 
trees here fourteen years old are ten inches 
in diameter. The hickory, elm and rock- 
elm are very valuable for wagon purposes 
and both grow well here. 

The subject of trees and tree planting 
was continued for discussion at the next 
meeting, and J.S. Harbison was appointed 
to prepare an essay on the subject. E. F. 
Aiken will read an essay on evergreen 
trees and their cultivation in this State. 
The club have rented the lilirary room in 
Odd Fellows' building, corner of Ninth 
and K. streets, and the next meeting will 
be held there on Saturday next at 1 p. m. 
All agriculturists and others interested in 
the jjrosperity of the State are invited to 
attend and join the club. The ladies, also, 
will be especially welcome. 

New Vegetables, Etc. 

The Early Shipping Tomato. — This is 
a new and valuable variety, raised by Mr. 
Turner, of Norwich, and is a hybrid be- 
tween "Keye's Prolific" and "Crimson 
Cluster." It has qualities which will ren- 
der it extremely valuable for Bermuda or 
our own southern latitudes, as it is as early 
as the earliest and enormously produc- 
tive — having from 20 to 30 medium-sized 
fruits in a cluster. Above all, its solid, 
seedless character enables it to endure 
shipping much better than the larger sorts. 
— A mericmi Ayricultitrist. 

This Tomato is undoubtedly worthy of 
trial in California, for the good qualities 
above named. 

New French Pear. — k contributor to 
the London Jownal of Hortknlture thus 
speaks of a new Pear, called liuerre de I' 
AMumption: "I have to-day (Septeml)er 
25th) eaten one of the finest pears of the 
month. It is large, and in color mucli like 
the Brockworth Park. Tiie habit of the 
tree is robust, much like William's Bon 
Chretien, of which I should think it a seed- 
ling, and it is marvellously prolific. There 
is none of the William's musk in its ria-vK)r, 
but a rich, pleasant, vinous, sugary taste." 

New Roses. — The Gardener's Monthly 
mentions twelve among new varieties of 
roses which have been originated the past 
season in Paris, as especially worthy of 
cultivation. One of these varieties is a 
yellow, changing to salmon, another is a 
white changing to yellow, and a third is 
termed "a rosy salmon," of a new shade. 

A Dwarf Horse Chestnut is also de- 
scribed in the Gardener's Mnnthlti, as a i)ic- 
turesque shrub producing flowers of much 
beauty. It is a native of the Southern 
States and is but little known. It is said 
to bear some resemblance to the California 
Buckeye and is perfectly hardy, and easily 
propagated by suckers or from seed. 

Peacli Trees for Firewood. 

The Farmer recommends that those land- 
owners who have lands they esteem of but 
little value, wild, hilly, side-slopes, of 
gravelly or sandy and decomposed rocky 
materials, should plant thereon peach 
trees for fuel, any one who will plant out 
50, 100 or 1,000 acres of such land this 
autum with peach pits, and permit these 
to grow five years, would have a fortune 
in proportion to the aci-es planted, using 
the trees as firewood only; it is one of the 
best materials for firewood known. 

This would be a good speculation for 
any person for firewood only; it would 
pay splendidly, the peaches could be 
gathered for drying, or sold, or for large 
droves of swine, using peaches to fatten 
them. We hope this enterprise may be 
tried. 



Half Acre G.\RDEN WiXiii Pay. — A cor- 
respondent in the Germantown Telegraph 
thus sets forth the blessings of a well cul- 
tivated garden: Half an acre of land in a 
well cultivated garden will produce as 
much towards subsisting a farmer's family 
as any three acres on the farm, beside the 
advantage in the cultivation of which 
would gratify a diversity of tastes, and 
contribute much to secure the blessings of 
health, the labor of which can be shared 
by the too young or too old to toil in the 
heavier operations of the field, and occa- 
sionally by the female inmates of the 
house, or the plowman from the field, by 
way of relaxation from toil, without any 
material impediment to other labors. Ev- 
ery farmer will promote his intt-rest by 
bestowing on the garden a due share of 
attention. 



January 13, 1872."! 



21 



iCUL 



@7is. 



CALIFORNIA. 

FRESNO COUNTy.-The grass, says the 
Expositor, is up sufficiently for stock to 
graze upon it very nicely now, but owing 
to the soft condition of the ground they 
can't move very much. By the end of an- 
other week it will be sufficiently advanced 
to fatten cattle. 

LOS AJSfGELES-Ja.n 4: Silk Cul- 
ture. — Mr. Romolo Bonhomme the silk 
culturist who lately arrived here from 
Europe for the purpose of investiga- 
ting the resources of California, and es- 
pecially Los Angeles county as to its 
adajjtability for tlio culture of the silk- 
worm, his just completed his visit to all 
the localities where the white mulberry 
tree grows. He reports very favorably of 
the trees, and says that they grow easily 
in that climate. At all places visited by 
him he found the trees planted too close 
together — otherwise he found no fault. 

Mr. B. is of the opinion that California 
will, in the course of a few years, be the 
silk-producing country of the world; and 
that he has seen a finer specimen of the 
silkworm in California than ever in 
Japan. 

About ton million dollars is annually 
expended for the silk eggs by Italian and 
French merchants. Last year an Italian 
silk culturist alone bought five hundred 
thousand ounces of silk eggs, and paid 
two million dollars for them. All this 
money goes into Japanese pockets; but 
could be partly brought to California in 
course of a few years by cultivating the 
silkworm as an article of export. Our 
climate possesses every requisite for the 
successful production of this source of 
revenue. — Los Angeles Star. 

Ripe strawberries were presented to the 
editor of the Los Angeles News, on the 22d 
ult. 

PLACER.— Tl\\e hills around Auburn, 
Placer county, are green with the new 
grass and vegetation, and in protected 
spots there is now pasturnge enough to 
keep stock in fair condition from starving. 

MONTEREY.— 1\xQ immediate benefits 
of the late warm rains, says the Castroville 
Aiyifs of December 30th, one may see in 
the rapidly growing grass, which, to stock 
interests that were languishing, must prove 
most timely. 

NAPA Reporter: Alfalfa. — A corres- 
pondent traveling up through our valley, 
writes from Oakvilleas follows : " During 
the past week I have visited the ranch of 
Capt. M. G. Richie, whose farm lies di- 
rectly on the opposite side of the creek 
from Oakville. This gentleman's ranch is 
devoted largely to stock-raising and gi-ain 
growing. Among the varied productions 
which I saw there, I make mention of one 
of the finest crops of alfalfa I have seen in 
the State. At the present writing (Jan 1st.) 
it is about a foot high and standing very 
thick upon the ground. The Captain in- 
forms me that he makes from two to three 
crops a year, the first cutting commencing 
in May and the .second in July. He says 
it turns ofi' about three tons to the acre, 
and makes one of the very best of feeds for 
horses and cattle. It was first imported 
from Germany to Chili — hence it is often 
called Chili clover. From Chili it has 
been brought to our country. The time 
for sewing this seed is March. It will 
thrive upon any soil where there is no 
'hard-pan' or bed-rock between it and 
water. The roots have been known to go 
down thirty feet to water ! As this grass 
orcloverisso valuable a food for horses 
and cattle, I should like to see many of 
our farmers introduce it upon their soil. 
Capt. Richie has kept from 400 to 500 
head of cattle upon his alfalfa — two to the 
acre — and their looking sleek and fat 
proves its great nutritive power. It is 
also an evergreen, and looks beautiful 
when sown in door-yards and around jjub- 
lic walks. Lot the rich soil of our valleys 
smile with its verdure and our formerly 
oat-covered hills teem with its abundance." 

The value of grain in Napa warehouses 
is estimated at $'290,000. 

SAC RAMENTO—^TiVT-E, Agricultural 
Society. — This society is unaer the man- 
agement of a State Board of Agriculture, 
consistng of a President and nine Direct- 
ors. 

The present Board consists of Chai-les 
r. Reed, of Yolo, President; Edgar Mills, 
Robert Hamilton, C. T. Wheeler and W. 
P. Coleman, of Sacramento; R. S. Cary, 
of Yolo; E. J. Lewis, of Tehama; Coleman 
Y'^oungerof San Jose, and Wm. Blandingand 
H. R. Cooney, of San Francisco, Directors. 
The officers of the Board arc: R. T. 



Brown, Sacramento, Treasurer; Robt. 
Beck, of Sacramento, Rec. Sec; and I. N. 
Hoag, of Yolo, Corresponding Secretary. 
The next annual meeting for election of a 
President and three members of the Board 
will be held on the 24th of the present 
month. The next annual Fair will com- 
mence on the 12th of September and con- 
tinue ten days. The exhibitions of this 
society ai-e among the most important 
events of the year, and embrace samples of 
the products of all the industries of the 
entire State. At the last exhibition some 
twenty Atlantic States, China, Japan and 
Australia were also rej)resented by their 
products. 

The biennial reports of the society are 
justly classed with the most valuable pub- 
lic documents published by order of the 
Legislature, and are eageidy sought for 
in all portions of the world for the reliable 
information they contain respecting the 
industries of the State. The society are 
now the owners in fee of one-half and vir- 
tually, so fai", of all the ground they occu- 
py in this city as stock grounds, known as 
Agricultural Park. The Park is leased 
for the present year for the sum of .'^5,000. 
The receipts of the society during the past 
year are $44,349,37; expenditures to date, 
|44,.378. A considerable of the expendi- 
tures have been for permanent improve- 
ments. The rooms of the society are in 
the Pavilion, corner of M and Sixth 
streets. 

Record: Wine-Making Business. — L. 
A. M. Pascal, afewmilesfrom Sacramento, 
has succeeded in making tlie best of claret 
wine from California grapes. He thinks 
that there is not a better climate upon 
the face of the earth than this State for 
making wine. He proposes to make clar- 
et wine here far superior than the so-called 
French claret, imported from Europe. He 
has made some this year much stronger, 
and a better flavored article, than any wine 
imported from France or elsewhere. Mr. 
Pascal has tried the experiment in the 
Eastern States and found the climate too 
cold in the spring, with too much rain in 
the summer. Mr. Pascal says that the 
wine manufactured in France never 
reaches this continent without adultera- 
tion. 

SnERMAN Island, — This last storm has 
has proved what a good and strong levee 
will stand when properly made, and many, 
no doubt have had their attention called 
to see how far we, the people of this Island, 
have suffered. This is probably the first 
time in the history of man that this Island 
has escaped a flood, and many told me, 
that lived upon the river above us, that 
our levee could not stand the pressure that 
would be brought to bear upon ua; but 
the very parties to day would like to 
change positions with us, as they at this 
time are under water. 

The Strength of the Levee. 

Our levee is 8 ft. high at this time, with 
a base of 24 feet, built in the dry season, so 
that by the time the rain came it was well 
settled in every respect. The Trustees 
showed good forsight in commencing this 
early, for no doubt had the building of it 
been put ofi" until last fall, the result would 
have been that we would have been under 
water. Much complaint was made by some 
of the owners of land because the assess- 
ments were so large, and at an early date. 
It is true it came hard with two dry years 
together, but just think of the good that 
has resulted from it. Contrast our lot to 
what it has formerly been; as soon as the 
heavy rains come on, and they feared a 
flood. Stock had to be taken off at a great 
expense to the owners, besides having 
losses in various other ways. The water 
has been as high at Sacramento this week 
as it was in 1852. To-day, at high water, 
the water stood only sixteen inches in my 
front, and when the tide is out, my whole 
front on the river is perfectly dry. The 
tide falls four feet at my house. How 
much better are we i^laced than those 
above us on the river. 

Loose Stock Roaming About. 
Of all curses that ever befell man, is 
the practice of letting stock run loose to 
prey upon their neighbors, and certainly 
no man in this place has suffered more 
than myself. My entire stock of roots for 
seed and feed for the coming year has been 
destroyed. Not a vestige left ; and this 
by sheep, during the winter and fall. 
Bands of horses at night have stripjied my 
corn-fleld of corn, and the sheei) have 
trampled the balance under foot, so that 
at this time the crows hold daily a soiree 
on the debris. It is at night, when we are 
asleep, that most of the damage is done. 
I hope that some action will be taken by 
the Legislature to i)ass a bill that will pro- 
tect the innocent. It costs too much to 
fence, and I contend that no man should 



have any more stock than what he can 
properly take care of and feed. — Cor. Bul- 
letin. 

Since the above was in type the Sherman 
Island levee has been broken by the flood. 
Mr. Walker, Supt. of the tide Land 
Reclamation Company, returned to this 
city after an inspection of the broken 
levee at Sherman Island, and the leevees 
at Grand Island and other neighboring 
localities. He says that the break in the 
Sherman Island levee is only seventy-five 
feet in extent, and will soon be stopped. 
It occurred in the old levee, which has the 
ditch upon the inside instead of upon the 
outside of the embankment. This of 
course weakens the embankment consider- 
ably. The new levees are all constructed 
with the ditch upon the outside. Mr. 
Walker says that the whole cost of the 
repairs rendered necessary upon the com- 
pany's lands and works by the recent 
storm, will not exceed .f 1,000. — Alta. 

SANTA BARBARA. — Some apple, 
peach and almond trees in Santa Bar- 
bara county, still retain their leaves, 
awaiting weather cold enough to check 
their growth. 

SANTA CLARA.— Hhe financial condi- 
tion of the Agricultural Society is sound. 
The expenses of 1871 were .$8,340.85; re- 
ceipts were .$10,729.90; balance on hand 
January 1st, 1872, $2,373.95. 

SAN JOAQUIN— John Olive of this 
city, says the Stockton Independent of the 
6th, handed us a sample yesterday of this 
season's growth on his premises. The 
straw is about thirty inches long, and the 
heads are large and the grain fully devel- 
oped. He likewise handed us a sample of 
wheat about two thirds grown. The straw 
is of strong growth, and is about thirty- 
two inches in length and just about ready 
to head out. 

Vallejo Chronicle, Jan. 6: Grass. — 
The hills are assuming a verdant hue, the 
warm rains starting the grass vigorously. 
All the old herbage is worthless for feed, 
the rains rendering it innutritions, and 
the cattle who have nothing else to feed 
upon are in a very feeble condition. If 
the warm weather continues, the new 
grass will afford feed in a couple of weeks. 
High Water. — The great volume of 
water coming down the Sacramento and 
San Joaquin rivers, keeps Carquinez 
straits full to high tide level. The waters 
in Vallejo Bay, into which the back waters 
press, also remains about stationary at 
nearly high tide level. The Bay is now 
filled with fresh water. 

Frost.— Last night was very cold, the 
wind having shifted to the north, and 
this morning the ground was nicely cov- 
ered with frost like a New Y'ear's cake. 
After so much rain, a cold spell does very 
well for a variety. 

Argus, Jan. fi: But little traveling is 
done by the people on account of the ex- 
tremely soft condition of the roads, and 
hence times are very dull. Farmers are 
rejoicing over their prospects for crops 
the coming harvest, and all are anxious 
for fair weather, to enable them to plow 
and plant their lands in grain. All fears 
of a drouth have vanished, as the ground 
appears to be thoroughly saturated, and 
water is -standing in holes and ponds all 
over the flats. 

SAN IM TWO. —Warm weather will in- 
sure an abundance of feed in San Mateo. 

YUBA — Appeal, December 30 : More 
Losses. — Those flooded in the slough 
lands, whose farms are in alfalfa, will lose 
nothing except fences, and the loss of these 
will be more than made up in the destruc- 
tion of the gophers and squirrels which in- 
fest the.se lands. But those whose lands 
were not in this situation will loose heavily. 
Dr. Teegarden, who is one of the heaviest 
losers, will suffer the loss of his fine nur- 
sery and orchard, as the water is sweeping 
completely over it. This land was soft, 
well cultivated, and could offer no resist- 
ance to the flood. His loss will probably 
reach $5,000. 

COLORADO. 

Greeley Tribune, Doc 18 ; Wintering 
Cattle. — We had another snow last Sat- 
urday night and Sunday, falling on the 
old snow, which was crusted. Snow fell 
at Liverpool fifteen inches deep, and we 
understand all along the foothills. Pre- 
viously the ground was bare, and thous- 
ands of cattle had been driven thither 
from the plains and valleys. What is to 
be the fate of the immense number of 
cattle in the ranges down the Platte and 
iilong the mountain remains to be seen. 
It is c(!rtain that if cattle keep through 
this snow and cold without any considera- 
ble Mlnrtality, Colorado will be proved 
better than supposed for stock. Should 
many cattle die, legitimate farming will 
be entered ux)on more generally. 



Land Sales. — Since the National i. 
Co. o23ened its office in Denver, it has sold 
for the Denver Pacific Railway Co. 72,- 
719 acres. Since the Kansas Pacific 
Railway lands were ready for sale — just 
ten months — its sales to Dec. 1st, aggre- 
gate $458,000. 

IDAHO. 
Idaho Statesman, Dec. 10 : Catile. — 
Something like 2,500 head of cattle are now 
on Snake river, to the west of us, where 
they will winter. The range is unlimited 
and the grass excellent. 

MONTANA. 
Helena Herald, Dec. 21: Hay. — Hay is 
coming into market in good quantities, 
but commands $25 per ton. Ranchmen 
will reap a harvest this season, inasmuch 
as .$1G per ton has been considered a fair 
price during the past three seasons. 

Avant Courier, Dec 14 : District Fair. 
A meeting of the stockholders of this As- 
sociation is called at Gallatin City. We 
understand that a contract has been let 
to complete all the buildings necessary for 
the holding of a first-class Fair. 

Deer Lodge Independent, Dec. 18 : A 
ranchman living near Deer Lodge, having 
a sick horse, ai)pealed, a few days since, to 
a veterinary surgeon of the place for ad- 
vice. He instructed him to give the ani- 
mal linseed oil. The ranchman forthwith 
gave the horse about three i^ints. He 
lived about twenty minutes. 

Major Davenport succeeded in getting 
his flock of sheep over the range, only 
losing 23 head. 

Fine Region. —From Reed's ranch 
north, the country is generally open, and, 
like the Prickly Pear Valley, possesses 
natural advantages for agricultural pur- 
suits. Water and timber are plenty, while 
the valleys are wide and the soil rich. 
Snow scarcely ever falls to a depth of over 
2 or 3 inches, and the pine-covered moun- 
tains are easily accessible to those who 
desire building material. 

The route to Roberts' new Trading Post 
can be readily followed with wagons. The 
original trail, made by the Indians, runs 
through the loveliest of rich valleys, the 
grandest of sublime caiions and over the 
most magnificent rolling country in the 
world, the Post has been located on Elk 
Creek, 6 miles above the Judith Gap, and 
in a neat ba3in about a mile deep, and 
about one-fourth of a mile in width. The 
hill sides are covered with a heavy growth 
of pine and fir trees; springs of clear, cold 
water are abundant; grass, even at this 
season, is plentiful, and affords sustenance 
to both stock and game. Of the latter 
their is an abundance. Great herds of 
buffalo roam the plains outside the mouth 
of the basin ; bands of from 50 to 500 elk 
are often seen upon the bald hills, and 
flocks of blacktail and antelope are 
hourly seen, crossing the bottoms or graz- 
ing on the mountain sides. 

Willow Creek Valley. — Among results 
obtained by Mr. Paul from his farm the 
past season, are mentioned 2,000 bushels 
of grain, fiOO bushels of potatoes, 500 
bushels of turnips, 4,000 head of cabbage, 
3,000 pounds of f)ork, and 150 tons of hay. 
Important improvements are observable in 
all parts of the valley. The neighborhood 
the passed season has materially increased 
in numbers; neat homes have been carved 
out by courageous immigrants; a flouring 
mill lias been decided upon and will be 
built at some point on the creek another 
summer. Willow Creek Valley is thus 
coming to the front as an imi^ortant agri- 
cultural region. 

OREGON. 

Jacksonville Sentinel: A Large Vine- 
yard.— We learn that Mr. Charley Bennett 
has purchased of Mr. J. N. T. Miller the 
field lying opposite to his residence, con- 
taining about 12 acres, for $500. This is 
a splendid piece of land, and Mr. Bennett 
will put it all in vines this spring. Grapes 
and wine will yet be among the chief pro- 
ductions of this valley. 

Severe Weather in Eastern Oregon.— 
The Dalles Mountain Messenger, referring 
to the storms of December, pronounces 
them the severest exrerienced in tho.so 
parts by white men. It snowed, rained or 
hailed constantly for twenti/ dayx. The 
conductor of a government freight train 
on its way from Eugene (Jity to Fort Klam- 
ath, was obliged to leave his wagons and 
goods on the road and got in with only 
five out of twenty-nine mules; twenty-four 
perished on the road, and those which got 
in were not expected to survive many 
days. 

Ice in the Columbia. — Navigation 
above the cascade, on the Columbia river, 
has lately been very much impeded by ice. 
In case of a freeze-up on the river the 
mails will be carried by boat. 



22 



[January 13, 1872. 



Notes on Sherman Island. 

The Press has been to Sherman Island, 
not only to it, btit all over it, and having 
returned in safety, we propose to give 
some of our experience in that famous isle. 
Taking the little stern-wheeler Pilot, at 
San Francisco, we left the wharf about 
11 o'clock A. M., and steamed up the bay, 
enjoying a fine view of the surrounding 
hills that were trying to look green after 
thefirstrain of the season. Passing through 
the Straits of Carquinez, the Pilot made 
short stops at Benicia, Martinez and Long 
Island. It looked very strange to see 
among the freight, mutton for Benicia, and 
potatoes, grain and hay for Martinez and 
Antioch. The country and not the city 
usually produce these necessary articles. 
but here the ca.se seemed reversed. Of 
course the dry season is in a great measure 
responsible for the anom.aly but it seems 
almost impossible for an article to pass 
from the ])rouncer to the consumer with- 
out its being handled by one or more com- 
mission merchants, even if that takes it 
fifty or a liundred miles out of the shortest 
route between the two. 

Long Island 
Is owned by Dr. Ryer, who has this year 
surrounded it with a dike and erected 
buildings, preparatory to cultivating what 
has heretofore been nearly usjless marsh 
land. Being on the Suisun Bay the island 
will not be so liable to overflow from 
freshets as those lands further iip the 
river, where the waters are more confined. 
On the other hand there is some difTictilty 
in obtaining water that is not lu-aekish in 
the latter part of the drj- season, when the 
rivers are low. Artesian wells may, as is 
hoped, overcome this last inconvenience. 

Antioch 
Was reached a little after dark, and here 
the Pilot tied up for the night, but was 
early next morning on her way up the San 
Joaquin, with the fog whistle blowing al- 
most incessantly. About twenty minutes 
brought us to Bogg's Landing on Sherman 
Island. The landing is as yet quite primi- 
tive in its character, but it will doubtless 
be improved as the travel and freight by 
this route increase. The owner of the 
landing, and about 600 acres of land ad- 
joining, is Mr. P. H. Bogg's, a native of 
Maine, who, we take it, finds the tule 
lands as profitable for farming as the gran- 
ite hills of his native state. Mr. Bogg's 
had a large part of his farm in grain last 
season, and the result was so favoralile. 
that he is now employing all the men and 
horses he can spare to break up the sod on 
the remainder. For this work he em- 
jdoys four horses to each plow. The turf 
is allowed to lie in the furrow until spring 
when the drying north winds soon fit it 
for burning. The im[)rovements being 
made in building, indicate that Mr. 
Bogg's intends to hold his own whether 
there are floods or not. That success may 
attend his efforts is the wish of the Press. 
which is indebted to him for many kind 
acts of hospitality. 

The Area of the Island, 
According to the government survey, is 
about 14,000 acres, of which the levees con- 
tain in the neighborhood of 13,000. For 
about 12 years efforts have been made to 
cultivate portions of the island, wath vary- 
ing success. Until the past year the 
amount of capital and labor exjjended on 
the levees was not enough to make them 
of sufficient size to keep out unusually 
high tides or freshets. Usually each man 
attempted to reclaim his land indepen- 
dently of his neighbors, and of course the 
cost per acre was much greater for a given 
size of levee, than it would have been if 
large tracts had been included by the same. 

Union is Strength, 
As the old motto says, and the settlers at 
last became convinced of this, and com- 
bined their capital and labor in the build- 
ing of one continuous levee, high enough, 
and strong enough to keep out the high- 
est tides in ordinary stages of the river, 
and some think during the floods also. 
Tlie experience of the past year certainly 
indicates that the heavy expense was justi- 
fiable. Tiie crops of hay and grain have 
been the finest in the State, and the price 
of land has greatly advanced. We heard 
of but two pieces of land for sale ou the 
island, one of which is almost without im- 
provements, and covered for the most part 
with the original swamp growth is held 
at §40 per acre; the other can be all 
cropped next year, and some stock and im- 
provements, and is held at §00. These 
figures may seem high to some of the uplaud 
farmers, aud to those M'hose experience 



among the tule lands has been confined to 
such as were not properly reclaimed ; but 
of course the actual productiveness of land 
is what regulates its price. Some of these 
lands which were rented last year at 3* 
of the crop, and were cultivated in grain, 
gave their owners a return of S15 to the 
acre, or 'i.'i per cent, on §00. Few safe in- 
vestments will pay better than that, even 
in California. Mr. Joseph Upham sold 
this season one piece without improve- 
ments at . S 50, and another with buildings, or- 
chard, etc. at .SOO per acre. He has about 
2,000 acres remaining, but none for sale. 

Land to Rent 
Has been in great demand; many of the 
upland farmers being attracted by tho 
certainty of bounteous crops. Of course 
l)ut a limited number could be accommo- 
dated, and many w-ent away disappoint- 
ed. Probably the recent rains will do 
much to console such for the present, and 
next year they can try their fortunes, if 
they wish, on the lands which are being re- 
claimed by the lieclamation Company, 
and others. 

We were informed at Emmaton that the 
population of the island numbered about 
700, but of course it varies much at dif- 
ferent seasons of the year, like that of 
most of our agricultural districts. 
Sinking of the Land. 

All of the old settlers agree that the tule 
land, which has been reclaimed and 
worked, has sunk from its former 
level from one to two feet. This corres- 
ponds with the experience of those occu- 
pying similar districts in other parts of 
tlie world, and is the natural result of 
several causes. First, most of the land 
is burnt ofl' to remove the tough, thii^k 
sod which covers it. The water being drain- 
ed olf, the air i)enetrates the soil and 
causes the decay of the vegetable matter 
which it c<uitaius, and thus decreases its 
volume. The tramijing of animals also 
plays an important part in comjmcting 
the light soil. 

Clearing the Land of the Sod 
Is the first step towards putting the land 
into cultivation after draining, and fire is 
the agent which must be used in almost 
every case. We saw a • few small jneces 
of land which had been covered with the 
finer marsh grasses, which, after being 
tramped by cattle for several years, had 
become compacted and rotted sufficiently to 
lie brought into cultivation by means of 
the plow and harrow. Usually, however, 
when the sod is broken uj) by the plow, it 
becomes so dry and tough that it hinders 
cultivation until it is burned off. Fortu- 
nately this is easily done after one of our 
drying northers. It is needless to say that 
plowing up the virgin tule sod is severe 
and expensive work, but if once well done 
it need not be repeated, and the farmer 
has his reward in the richest soil in Cal- 
ifornia, with an unlimited supply of water 
at his command. This plowing before 
burning is necessary only in particular 
cases. Hundreds of acres of land on Sher- 
man and other islands needed no plowing 
until after the first, and in some cases the 
second and third crops had been taken 
off. 

Time to Burn. 

The great cause of trouble has been the 
want of experience in this peculiar kind 
of farming. It is now known that the sod 
should be burned off as soon as possilole 
after draining the land. If the dikeing is 
done in the winter, or early spring, the 
land should be dry enough to burn the 
next autumn; that is to say, the portion 
nearest the dikes. The land Ij'ing far 
back from the main water-courses is found 
to be a little lower than the rest, and usu- 
ally takes a season longer to dry sufficiently 
for burning. When the sod is in just the 
right condition it can sometimes be 
burned off from a very large area by sim- 
ply touching a match to the grass in one 
or two places. If unburned spots, is- 
lands as they are called, are left, they 
.should be re-fired and burned out clean 
the first season if possible; when left, they 
often prove a source or great annoyance in 
harvesting, and have to be plowed out at 
some future time. 

Small Cost of Putting in a Crop. 

When the ground is burned without 
plowing and the grain trampled in by sheep 
there is probably no land in the State that 
can be so cheaply seeded. 

The Messrs. Prather & Minor have been 
the most extensive experimenters, and as 
far as we can learn, the most successful, in 
this method of putting in grain crops. 
They burned off what was sulficiently dry 
of Twitchell Island in the fall of 1870, the 
fire taking a broad strip all around the 
outer edge. About 1,000 acres were thus 
cleared of sod and covered with ashes. Of 
this area the proprietors cropped about 



600 acres, the remainder being let out. As 
near as can be estimated from the books 
kept by Mr. Geo. Prather, the cost of pre- 
paring the land, sowing the seed and 
tramping it in, and the seed itself, was 
about one dollar per acre. The seed used 
being from 25 to 30 lbs per acre. The har- 
vest, as many of our readers know, was 
highly satisfactory, being by actual meas- 
urement on a portion of the land as high 
as 80 bushels to the acre, and altogether 
the enterprise paid a handsome profit. 
That portion of the land which was too 
wet to burn last year has this season been 
in first-rate condition, and the burning 
has progressed finely. Burning 1,500 
acres cost §75, according to Mr. Prathers. 
Twitchell Island we take to be only a fair 
example of what may be done with this 
sort of land, in the hands of thorough, 
practical farmers, who study carefully the 
experience of others, and avoid their mis- 
takes. On Sherman Island much of the 
land lay in a partially reclaimed state for 
several years, and the settling and decay- 
ing progressed far enough to interfere ser- 
iously with burning, while it did not go 
far enough to fit the land for cultivation 
by simple plowing and harrowing. Such 
land must be plowed before the sod can be 
burned ofl' clean. 

The Tule Lands as Pastures. 
Pasturing cattle on new tule land is 
usually a serious impediment to its after 
cultivation, the softer portions being 
tramped down, while the rest is left in the 
form of tussocks, standing above the gen- 
eral level, and very troublesome to get rid 
of. The marsh grasses are at best very 
poor when compared with such as can be 
raised in perfection on the land after a year 
or two of cultivation. Mr. Biglow, wiio 
with his brother owns a farm of 487 acres 
on the Sacramento side of the island, gave 
us some interesting figures on this point, 
which we were careful to set down at the 
time, as he said that some mistakes in re- 
gard to his crops had got into the papers. 
During the past season he had a piece of 
land in barley and alfalfa together. The 
barley was cut for hay, yielding from two 
to three tons to the acre. The alfalfa was 
cut three times giving about 1'/^ tons each 
time. The second season the alfalfa should 
yield more than the first, but most farmers 
would think Mr. Biglow's four crops a 
good return for a dry year. Six acres of 
volunteer barley were plowed in August, 
1870, and sowed with Timothy the next 
February. The volunteer barley was pas- 
tured all winter, and allowed to ripen in 
the spring, giving 75 bushels to the acre 
Some of the grass died OTit, but a portion 
that was irrigated gave a good stand. 
Another piece was seeded in February last 
with wheat and alfalfa. It gave 45 bush- 
els of grain to the acre, 1 ],i tons of hay, and 
pasturage for a long time. 

The Character of the Dikes. 

As the first and last thing to be done in 
the reclamation of tide lands is to keep out 
superfluous water, the size and quality of 
the dikes is of course of the greatest im- 
portance. The dikes now favored by our 
tule farmers are much superior to those 
which they formerly supposed would be 
sufficient, but we think great improve- 
ments will still be made in their construc- 
tion. That which'surrounds Sherman Isl- 
and is by no means uniform in its quality. 
Some portions areifirm and compact, with a 
broad base, and a hight of six or seven 
feet, while in other places it is much lower 
and so narrow that it has dried out, and 
cracked badly. This cracking is one of 
the most serious diificulties to overcome 
in building dikes of peat, especially in our 
dry climate, but we think it can be over- 
come where the builders endeavor to pack 
the material firmly, rather than lo gain 
the greatest hight at the least expense. 
We heard of one case where the dike was 
made much firmer by turning cattle on it 
immediately after its constructioii and 
keeping them there until they had tramped 
it well together. On the north coast of 
Europe it is customary to build the dikes 
broad enough for roadways, and as they 
are compacted and settle from the travel 
on them, fresh material is added to bring 
them up to the required level. There can 
be no doubt that when the true value of 
our tide lands is appreciated much larger 
sums win be expended in their reclamation 
than have heretofore been considered war- 
rantable. 

Some Difficulties of Cultivation. 

It could hardly be expected that the 
magnificent crops of these lands could be 
secured without some difficulties not met 
with by the ujiland farmers. We had heard 
that tiie horses on Sherman Island had 
to be provided with broad wooden shoes, 
to keep them from sinking up to their 
bodies in the boggy soil, but we did not 



see a single animal thus provided, although 
there were some of the shoes lying about. 
Doubtless they are sometimes used, but on 
most of the land a horse does much better 
without them. 

Cracking of the soil often occurs on 
grain land to such an extent as to intefere 
seriously with harvesting, but from our 
observations we think that iu most cases 
this could be avoided by a reasonable 
amount of care. Some have already 
learned to do so by digging plenty of 
ditches and keeping them nearly full of 
water. Wo understand that the same 
remedy is used on the shores of the North 
Sea, in Europe. The potato patches, and 
such ground as is much tramped over, as 
pastures and roads, are not troubled with 
cracking, which would indicate that thor- 
ough cultivation is one of the best reme- 
dies. 

Wharves and Ferry. 

There are two substantial wharves on 
the Sacramento side ot the island, one at 
Emmaton where the regular steamer stops, 
and another a short distance above, owned 
l>y Mr. Cathers, and patronized by the 
opposition Ijoats. The inhabitants of the 
island thus have frecpient communication 
with San Francisco and Sacramento, as 
well as the various points on the route be- 
tween these two places. Most of the pro- 
duce is sent to San Francisco in schooners, 
at a cost of about one dollar per ton. 
About one-half or three-quarters of a mile 
below Emmaton, a flat-boat ferry, owned 
by Mr. Beasley, connects the island with 
the Solano Co. shore, and is a great con- 
venience to travelers and stock drivers. 

D. L. Perkins, the Veteran Seedsman, 

Has a farm of 100 acres between Emmaton, 
aud Cathers'. Wo are sorry to say that he 
does not find the location well suited to 
his business, on account of the high 
winds, which waste some of the lighter 
seeds. This season he has leased 75 acres 
of his farm, and will put in the remainder 
ingrain. Mr. Perkins, many friends will 
regret this change of business by one wlio 
has won so many honors in his favorite 
pursuit, and wish him good fortune in his 
new venture. 

Dr. D. G. Perry 

Owns 170 acres next above the Biglows', 
all of which is iu cultivation, with the ex- 
ception of two or three acres. The year 
past he had 70 acres of wheat which aver- 
aged 42/j bushels to the acre. About 
half ot it was considered light, while a 
part of it was very heavy. A piece that 
was harvested about the 1st of July was ir- 
rigated afterward, aud at the time of our 
visit, the middle of December, was h«uid- 
ing out for the second crop, which would 
make good hay. Some was plowed later 
and irrigated, and gave more good feed 
than the Doctor's stock could dispose of. 
A small pasture of clover, on ground 
which had also given a good croj) of bar- 
ley haj' the past season, wa.s doing well. 

The Doctor makes a speciality of tine 
seed potatoes, of which he has sex'eral va- 
rieties, including the Early Rose, Climax, 
Excelsior, Brezee's Prolific, etc. 

Blackberries and various kinds of fruit 
are also doing finely on the place. 

Too Many Potatoes. 

Many of the island farmers find that 
they have made a mistake in planting 
large quantities of potatoes. They took 
it for granted that the drouth would cut 
off the crop iu the greater part of the 
State, but now find that they were mis- 
taken, as the foothills, and several of the 
coast counties had enough rain to produce 
a good yield. An unusually early frost 
also added to their misfortune by killing 
the vines while many of the tubers were 
still small. 

Although the potatoes are hardly paying 
for digging, some of the farmers intend to 
try the same crop next year, as they say 
that the majority will be disgusted with 
the low prices, and plant none for the 
market, so that it will not be likely tD be 
glutted. 

Fine Varieties. 

Those who took pains to secure fine va- 
rieties for planting, now reap their reward 
in selling them for seed at an extra price. 
Mr. Edwdard Date rents land from Mr. 
Upham on the upper end of the island, and 
had 150 acres in potatoes, mostly Early 
Rose and English Flukes. He already 
has offers much above the prices given for 
the common Humboldts. Good.stock pays 
best, in potatoes, as well as cattle and 
horses. 

We are glad to say that prosperity has 
not hardened the hearts of the Sherman 
Islanders, and that their hospitality is as 
generous as their grain crops. May their 
shadows never be less. 



January 13, 1872.! 



23 



IsefiJl 



Advantages OF Cbying.— A French phy- 
sician is out in a long dissertation on the 
advantages of crying and groaning in 
general, and esi^ecially during surgical op- 
erations. He contends that groaning and 
crying are two grand operations by which 
nature allays anguish; and those patients 
-who give way to their natural feelings 
njore speedily recover from accidents and 
operations than those who suppose it un- 
worthy a man to betray such symptoms of 
cowardice as either to groan or cry. He 
tells of a man who reduced his pulse from 
one hundred and twenty-six to sixty, in 
the course of a few hours, by giving full 
vent to his emotions. If jjeople are at all 
unhappy about anything, let them go into 
their rooms and comfort themselves with 
a loud boo hoo, and they will feel a hun- 
dred jser cent, better afterward. 

In accordance with the above, the cry- 
ing of children should not be too greaily 
discouraged. If it is .systematically re- 
pressed, the result may be St. Vitus' dance, 
epileptic fits, or some other disease of the 
nervous system. What is natural is use- 
ful; and nothing can be more natural than 
the crying of children when anything oc- 
curs to give them either physical or men- 
tal pain. 

Eating Without an Appetite. — It is 
wrong to eat without an appetite, for it 
shows that there is no gastric juice in the 
stomach, and that nature does not need 
food; and not needing it, thex-e being no 
fluid to receive and act upon it, it remains 
there only to putrify, the very tliought of 
which should be sufficient to deter any 
man from eating without an appetite for 
the remainder of his life. If a tonic is 
taken to whet the appetite, it is a mistaken 
course, for its only result is to cause one 
to eat more when already an amount has 
been eaten beyond what the gastric juice 
supply is able to prepare. 

The object to be attained is a larger sup- 
ply of gastric juice, not a larger supply of 
food, and whatever fails to accomplish that 
essential object, fails to have any efficiency 
toward the cure of dyspeptic diseases. The 
formation of gastric juice is directly pro- 
portioned to the wear and tear of the sys- 
tem, which is to be the means of supjaly- 
ing, and this wear and tear can only take 
place as the result of exercise. The ef- 
ficient remedy for dyspepsia is work— out- 
door work— beneficial and successful in 
direct proportion as it is agreeable, inter- 
esting and profitable. — Hall's Journal of 
Health. 

Bad Effect of Hair Kbstokers. — A 
correspondent of the Country Gentleman 
says that he has under his care two inva- 
lid ladies. "One has been paralyzed on 
the right side for nearly three years, and 
has been utterly helpless most of that 
time. Her vision has been very imperfect; 
her knowledge of past events has utterly 
departed from her; recently she appears 
to be recovering her recollection, and can 
count with tolerable accuracy as high as 
twenty." He attributes her prostration 
entirely to the use of a popular hair re- 
storer. "The other case is not so bad, but 
bad enough. For the past year her eyes 
have been an occasion of constant torture. 
The retina has become so sensitive to the 
light as to make a dark room indispensable. 
Wheels of burning flame revolve con- 
stantly before her eyes, attended by light- 
ning-like flashes, which are terrible to 
bear. She is another victim to the poison- 
ous lead contained in the same popular 
hair-restorer." 

Chemical Expehiments. — Most persons 
have an idea that it requires a great deal 
of expensive apparatus to show or perform 
chemical experiments. Such, however, is 
not the case; a great many pleasing and 
instructive experiments can be shown with- 
out any more ajjparatus than can gener- 
ally be found in every dwelling. And with 
the addition of a few glass tubes of vari- 
ous diameters, a dozen or two test-tubes, 
a pint flask or two, and an assortment 
of ordinary glass bottles and corks, there 
is scarcely an experiment that may not ba 
attempted with fair prospect of success. 
In order to make bell glasses it is only 
necessary to cut the bottom out of bottles, 
aod grind the surface of the incision. 

Curious Facts. ^A curious observer has 
discovered that men and boys invariably 
run the heels of their boots and shoes over 
outwardly, while women and girls always 
run theirs over inwardly. Out of one hun- 
dred and forty-seven men and boys that 
passed the observer at a given point, this 
fact was true in every instance; out of 
sixty-seven women that passed, it was true 
in every instance hxii one. 




Deterioration in Milk in Feeding 
Bottles. — Prof. Gunning, the Govern- 
ment Analyst at Amsterdam, writes: I ob- 
ject to the infants' bottles in all instances 
where any part of them is composed of 
caoutchouc or india-rubber, or any like 
material. There is nothing so ill suited to 
the constitution of the human body as the 
material in question. When, in conse- 
quence of suction, the pores of the caout- 
chouc are enlarged, some portion of the 
milk always remains behind in them, 
which cannot, or at least cannot without 
great difficulty, be moved. This milk 
quickly becomes bad, and spoils the fresh 
milk with which it comes in contact. The 
caoutchouc material in question is made 
up of several ingredients. White zinc, or 
white lead, is very commonly employed, 
which is very poisonous. My objections 
are not founded exclusively ui^on ajiriori 
conclusions. In this country many fatal 
cases have happened among infants, which 
on solid grounds may be ascribed to the 
use of these bottles." 

If some enterprising inventor will give 
the world a substitute for rubber, he will 
confer a great favor and make money be- 
side. 



Throat Diseases are so prevalent 
at this time that we commend to our 
friends a new remedy which is fully de- 
scribed in a late number of the Pacific 
Medical Journal. It is bisulphite of soda, 
in large and continuous doses. Dipthe- 
ria, inflammation of the tonsils, and quinsy 
through local exhibitions, have their 
source in poisonous fermentations of the 
blood, the same as scarlet fever and other 
zymotic diseases. It is held that the 
salt prescribed enters into the circulation 
and retards putrefactive fermentation. 
Dr. Tyrell failed of success when he ad- 
ministered it in small doses and in three- 
hour intervals; but when he gave thirty- 
grain doses every hour, day and night, so 
as to saturate the system with the salt, he 
was almost invariably successful in re- 
moving all the severe symptoms in twenty- 
four hours. The object of publication is 
to induce physicians to give this medicine 
a trial, that the curative efl'ects may have 
more extended proofs. 



Keeping Fruit in our Booms. — We 
should be chary of keeping ripe fruit in 
our sitting-rooms, and especially beware 
of laying it about a sick chamber for any 
length of time. That complaint which 
some people make about a faint sensation 
in the presence of fruit, is not fanciful — 
they may be really affected by it; for two 
continental chemists have shown that 
from the moment of plucking, apples, 
cherries, currants, and other fruits, are 
subject to incessant transformation. At 
first, they absorb oxygen, thus robbing 
tlie surrounding air of its vital element. 
Then they evolve carbonic acid, and this 
in far greater volume than the purer gas is 
absorbed, so that we have poison given 
us in the jilace of pure air, with com- 
pound interest. Temperature afiects the 
rate of changes, warmth accelerating it. — 
Good Health. 



Pumpkins fob Inflammatory Rheuma- 
tism. — At a recent meeting of the New 
York Farmer's Club, a correspondent 
wrote of the virtues of pumpkin, giving 
the following instance of its value for in- 
flammatory rheumatism: A woman's arm 
was swelled to an enormous size and pain- 
fully inflamed. A poultice was made of 
stewed pumpkins, which was renewed 
every fifteen minutes, and in a short time 
produced a perfect cure. The fever 
drawn out by the poultice made them ex- 
tremely offensive, as they were taken off. 
I know a man cured of inflammation of 
the bowels by the same kind of applica- 
tion. 

How TO Treat a Sty. — The sty is a 
small boil protruding from the eyelid. It 
will usually pass away of itself, but its 
cure may be hastened by applying a warm 
poultice of bread and water in a small 
linen bag. Apply three or four times a 
day, and each time foment the eye with 
warm milk and water. 



Drinking at Meals. — In the use of 
liquids as of solid food, desire is the best 
guide. We should drink when wo are 
thirsty, and as we are usually thirsty at 
meals, especially when our food contains 
little water, we.should drink with freedom, 
and usually to the full extent of the desire. 



The Succession of Seasons. 

Editors Press: — Following is the rain- 
fall in this locality for December, 1871. 
With the exception of a shower on the 2d, 
the month continued so dry until the night 
of Sunday, 17th, that many and grave 
were the predictions of ' ' another dry year." 

Since then, we have had our share of the 
abundant rains which have fallen through- 
out our State, to make glad the hearts of 
our people. The heavy rains commenced 
between 7 and 8 p. m. the 17th. The re- 
sult for the month is as follows: 

DATE. INCHES. 

Dec. 2 — Showers between 5 and 9 a. m 0.04 

" 18— To 7 A. M '2.0(; 

" 19— To 7 A. M 1.93 

" 20— To 7 a. M 0.58 

" 21— To noon 0.12 

" 23— To 8 p. M, 0.54 

" 24— Showers to 7 a. m 0.02 

" 27 — Between 7 and 12 a. m 0.17 

" 28— To 7 A. M 0.11 

" 29— To 8 p. M 0.44 

" 30— To 8 A. M 0.11 

" 31— To midnight 0.47 

Total for December, '71 7.19 

Add for October and November, '71 1.33 

Total to date for the season 8.52 

This makes an inch and a quarter more 
than fell all last season; the entire amount 
then being 7.24 inches. In December, 
alone, we have had almost as much as fell 
in the season of '70 and '71. 

If those who have a complete copy of 
Dr. Logan's Rain Table giving the rain 
for each month, at Sacramento, since '49, 
will compare the amount- of fain this De- 
cember, with the number of inches each 
December succeeding a dry year, they will 
find another remarkable agreement that 
tends to confirm the principle of a regular 
succession in our seasons, which was 
pointed out in the Bubal Press for No- 
vember 11th. Attention has already been 
called to the fact that as far as past ob- 
servations go, the Sacramento rain-table 
answers very well for our valley. 

That table gives for Dec, 1851 7.07 inches 

" " 1«.57 C.G3 " 

" " 18G4 nyv, " 

Now we have for Dec, 1871 7.19 " 

That is, for each December immediately 
after a dry year, our valley has had a 
little more or less than 7 inches of rain. 
Is this not a striking corresi^ondence in 
seasons, to say the least? 

It is very easy to say, " It just happened 
so." But does it not look as if there is a 
princii^le of succession here that has its 
origin in the laws of nature which produce 
the seasons in our valley? And does it not 
tend to confirm the inference that we may 
confidently expect a rainfall this winter 
ranging at least from 17 to 22 inches? 

While speaking of these agreements, 
notice another, though not an important 
one, between the seasons of '04 and '71. 
Whole rain at Sacramento in winter 

of 63 and '64 7.86 inches 

Whole rain at Sacramento, Dec, '64. 7.86 " 
Whole rain here,wiuter of '70 and '71.7.24 " 
Whole rain here, Dec, '71 7.19 " 

Close race that, between these Decem- 
ber rains and the preceding seasons. 

J. w. A. w. 
Turlock, Stanislaus Co., Jan. 1, 1872. 

Unfermented Juice of the Grape. 

Editors Press: — In your " Notes of 
Travel in Santa Clara County," published 
in the Bubal Peess of Dec. IGth, under 
the head of " Unfermented Juice of the 
Grape," it is stated that Dr. B. F. Headen 
has invented a process by which the juice 
of the grape may be preserved sweet or 
without fermentation any length of time. 
What the invention consists of I do not 
know. 

I will give you, however, and the read- 
ers of the Press our mode of preserving 
the juice of the grape, or the juice of any 
other fruit, free from fermentation for any 
length of time. The process, as i)racticed 
by my wife, is original with her. She haf 
so preserved the juice of the gra2)e for the 
last ten or twelve years. That is to say, 
she has put up more or less of it every 
year for that length of time. It has not 
kept so long, however, because it is too 
good to keep. She has it now two years 
old, and I think some that is three. 

You, and more particularly those "mak- 
ing incjuiries as to wliore tjiis unfermented 
juice is manufactured," will perhaps bo a 
little surprised to learn that the process is 
idenncal with the one practiced by almost 
every housekeeper in the land in the pres- 
ervation of fruit in tin cans, glass jars, 



bottles — that and nothing more. Boi 
pend for success on the same principi 
the exclusion of the air. 

Any one who can put up, and preserve, 
without fermentation, a bottle of grapes, 
hulls, seeds and all, can, in the same way, 
preserve the juice without the hulls and 
seeds. Why not? It is a temperance 
drink, jiure and wholesome, and contains 
not a particle of alcohol. 

That none may fail who desire to try it, 
I give the mode in detail:— Gather clean, 
ripe grapes; strip them from the stems; 
put them into a stew kettle and bring to 
the boil; turn them into a sack, press out 
the juice; put the juice back into the 
kettle and bring it again to the boiling 
point; then set it off and with a funnel, fill 
it into bottles — champagne bottles are 
best —till they are full. My wife's mode 
of sealing is as follows: — Have some strong 
muslin cut into pieces two inches square, 
as many as there are bottles to be filled ; 
then melt some resin in a convenient ves- 
sel ; add thereto sufficient tallow to render it 
slightly elastic, so that it will not break or 
crack in cooling and admit air. With this 
melted resin cover one side of the two- 
inch square cloth; lay it over the mouth of 
the bottle and ^'ith the hand press it down 
around the neck of the bottle; tie a little 
string around it, then put a little more 
resin over the top. If the work is prop- 
erly done I will guarantee it to keep from 
one to a thousand years — if not sooner 
drank. Hibam Pomeroy. 

Milpitas, Deo. 25, 1871. 

Reproduction of Forest Trees, Etc. 

Editors Press:-- I noticed sometime 
since an article in your paper in regard to 
the reproductiveness of certain native 
timber. I have been a resident of this 
State twenty-two years, during which time 
I have had ample opportunity for observ- 
ing the growth and reproductive qualities 
of our different forest trees. 

Redwood — Which is the principal mate- 
rial u.sed for nearly all ordinary building 
purposes in this State, and which is being 
so rapidly used for the purposes men- 
tioned, that the day is not far distant when 
it will be among the scarcest of our tim- 
ber trees, reproduces itself by suckering, 
which process is so slow that it can only 
become beneficial to generations in the 
very distant future. 

In proof of this I will mention a stump 
from which the tree was cut 18 years ago. 
This stump is six feet in diameter, and has 
put forth three suckers or shoots — the 
largest of which has attained a hight of 
about twenty fee,t, and is ten inches in 
diameter at the base. Now, if we cut this 
eighteen-year old sapling down, we will 
discover that the solid wood part is only 
about one-fourth the thickness of the 
whole tree, and the balance, owing to its 
spongy nature, is unfit for any use, and 
will decay a short time after being cut. 

The Oaks — Of which wo have several va- 
rieties, including what is known as white 
oak, black oak, red oak, live oak, and tan- 
bark or chestnut oak, are all, with one ex- 
ception (white oak) , reproductive by suck- 
ering; but none of which thus far — owing 
perhaps to climatic influences — have to 
any great extent been utilized, except for 
fuel and for tanning purposes. 

The chestnut oak, is a very beautiful 
evergreen, much resembling the Euro- 
pean chestnut in foliage. It is a rapid 
grower and can easily be raised from the 
acorns which are found scattered in abund- 
ance beneath the trees, in the months of 
September and October. I think when 
this tree becomes better known it will take 
the place of many other sorts now planted 
for shade and ornamental purposes. 

The California Laurels also sends up 
shoots from the stump when the old tree 
is destroyed. Of this tree too much can 
not be said to encourage its propagation 
among husbandmen throughout the Sta.te. 
It is well known that the wood of no tree 
in the world takes a finer polish, and none 
that can be converted into more beautiful 
articles of cabinet work than this laurel. 
It is bound to become one of our most 
valuable forest trees. 

This tree is also easily grown from the 
nut, which can be procured in any quantity 
from the old trees in the fall of the year. 

The laurel flourishes best in moist 
places, though often seen on high ground. 
It is most frequently met with along the 
banks of all the jjcrennial brooks of our 
State, where it rejoices in the fullness of its 
glory, its sweet, aromatic fragrance re- 
minding ns of its presence before we be- 
hold its glossy beauty. 

Clbmilius Kamp. 

San Jose, Jan. 3, 1872. 



24 



W&OtWm 3a*Gr^A& IPB^BS. 



[January 13, 1872. 




'^'^ t^Ufl^ 




PHBLISHED bY 

DE:\Ar3Ei"sr a go. 

A. T. DEWEV. W B. EWEB. O. H. STKONO. J. L. EOONE. 

Principal Editor W. B. F.WF.R.A. M. 

Ahbociate Editor I. K. HOAG, (Sacramento.) 

OXKICE, No. 3.38 Montgompry street, S. E. corner of 
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Inserted at special rates. 

SAN IFRANCISCO: 

Saturday, Jan. 13, 1872. 



Our Weekly Crop. 

A good farmer should be mindful even of the 
most unimportant matters pertaining to his call- 
ing. Keeping this fact in mind wo have deter- 
mined to improve the eharacler of our stock 
of poviltry, and to that end have secured a fine 
pair of "White Leghorns," with which wo pro- 
pose to stock our ])oultry yard anew. With the 
view of carrying our ideas of improvement into 
other branches of small stock, our head far- 
mer has prepared some interesting and sug- 
gestive data A\-ith regard to "The Wool Pro- 
duct" of the State. These arrangements hav- 
ing been comiileted, we take a few notes of "The 
Ijast.Storm," in accomplishing which, we call 
to our aid "Notes of Travel in Alameda 
and Contra Costa," and "Our Healdsburg Cor- 
respondence." This done, we find leisure for 
a few reflections on the curious phenomena of 
"Meteors," and the "Progress of Mechanical 
Industry." 

Eeturning to our farm we listen to some 
suggestions about the value of "Sea Kale" and 
"The Best Varieties of Grapes" forculture. We 
next pay a visit to "The Sacramento Farmers' 
Club," where we obtain many useful hints 
about growing Fruit and Shade Trees. Our 
general farm notes are very full, and include 
many interesting particulars of farm operations 
on "Sherman Island." Our "Useful Informa- 
tion" and Good Health" notes are followed by 
some suggestions on "The Succession of Sea- 
sons;" preserving the "ITnfermented Juice of 
the Grape" and the natural "Reproduction of 
Forest Trees." 

Our lawgivers at Sacramento will find some 
important hints on "The No-Fence Law" prop- 
osition; while the more geneial reader will be 
interested in the description of "Elephant 
Hunting," a new and elegant addition which 
we have just hung up in our picture gallery. 

The late bad weather has kept the mem- 
bers of the "Home Circle" in pretty close quar- 
ters during the week, but we find them making 
the most of the situation by having a lively 
discussion on the best means to improve their 
condition and add to the general happiness of 
the members ; " The Way to Spoil Girls," and 
" Parental Folly " is freely discused ; the best 
mode to secure " Success in Life " is also con- 
sidered, and many other things of interest to 
both old and young Going into the kitchen 
we are told "How to make a Coal Fire," 
and how to render our "Boot Soles Water- 
Proof "—both very necessary items of infor- 
mation " about these day's, " as the old alma- 
nac makers used to say. With a few receipts 
for the housekeeper; Some practical " Mechan- 
ical Hints " and our usual column of " Life 
Thoughts," we bid our readers adieu for the 
week, hoping that the abundance of rain with 
which we have been blessed may be followed by 
the genial sunshine which is so necessary to 
projierly utilize such generous pluvial favors. 



Walnut Trees. — It is said that during the 
first two years of our late civil war, 28,000 wal- 
nut trees were felled to supply one European 
actory with material for gunstocks! 



The No-Fence Law. 

There is, perhaps, no one subject upon which 
the press of the State is so universally agreed as 
that the present Legislature ought, in obedience 
to the will of the people, repeal all laws regu- 
lating the building of fences, and instead 
thereof, pass a general trespass law. 

There are many reasons in^favor of such leg- 
islation. 

1st. Such legislation will be in accordance 
with the natural rights of property, or the law 
of Nature as applied to individual ownership. 
By this law whatever one man reduces to pos- 
session, no other man, either by himself, his 
servant, agent or active property has a right to 
disturb or destroy. To the point, if one man 
owns a piece of land with grain or any other 
crop upon it, no other man has the natural right 
to destroy or appropriate that crop either di- 
rectly for his own use, or indirectly for the use 
and sustenance of his servant, agent or prop- 
erty. 

And consequently, if any other man owns a 
baud of cattle he is bound by all principles of 
right and equity to keep his cattle from his 
neighbor's grain for the simple reason that the 
cattle are aggressive, and if not restrained, will 
destroy the grain, while the grain itself is pas- 
sive and cannot seek the grain to injure or de- 
stroy it. 

2d. Such legislation would be in accordance 
with the great fundamental princijole that should 
be the foundation of all good governments — "the 
greatest good to the greatest number." It may 
not be necessary for us here to produce any 
argument to prove the correctness of this jirop- 
osition, yet it may be well, at this time, to put 
on record some facts bearing on the cjuestion 
as a convenient reference for those who are 
called upon by legislative action to change a 
long settled policy of the State touching her 
most valuable and important industries— those 
industries upon which her present prosperity 
rests and her future prosperity depends. 
Unjust Taxation. 

We have before us the report of the State 
Surveyor-General for the j'ears 1870 and 1871, 
and from a tabulated statement of the returns 
of the County assessors we find the whole agri- 
cultural products of the State for 1870, includ- 
ing grains of all kinds, roots and wine, exclud- 
ing fruits and berries, to be in round numbers, 
equal in money values to $00,000,000. The 
value of the first crop is not estimated because 
the quantity produced is not returned, but as 
by the present laws the orchards and vineyards 
are rc(iuired to be fenced by their owners, to 
protect them from destruction by stock, it is 
but fair that they should be brought into our 
reckoning. We find the total number of fruit 
trees in the State to be 30,910,046. If we set 
these down at the nominal value of one dollar 
each, which is nothing like half and not oven a 
quarter of their real present value — we have in 
round numbers $40,000,000. This makes the 
aggregate value of the growing crops and fruit 
trees of the State, to jtrotect which fences have 
to be built and^ maintained by their owners — 
$100,000,000. 

Now taking the whole number of horses, cat- 
tle, sheep, and goats in the State as stated by 
the same reports and reckoning their value by 
their present market prices and we have in 
round numbers §30,000,000, or less than one- 
third the value of the other agricultural prod- 
ucts. 

Taking these values into consideration, and 
according to the ordinary rules or equities as 
applied to the rights of property, it may well 
be asked, if it is right or equitable that the 
owners of the $100,000,000 worth of property 
should be compelled to pay the expense of 
herding the $30,000,000 worth of cattle, or in 
other words of fencing their their own jiroperty 
to protect it from the ravages of the cattle — 
which are but the servants in cne sense — the 
aggressive property of_other owners. 

In all associations of property as such, for 
the mutual benefit and interest of its owners — 
incorporated companies, for instance, — the 
greater number of shares, or the greater value 
controls the lesser, and claims and exercises 
the right of managing the whole in the interest 
of the greater number of shares, and no one 
ever questions the correctness of this business 
rule. 

Why should not the same rule be enforced 
by the State, which so far as the management 
of the property of its citizens is concerned, is 
but an extensive corporation formed for the 



purpose of enforcing the rights of property ? 
Cost of Fences. 

According to the report we are taking as au- 
thority, the number of acres under fence in the 
State, is 4,982,942. This fence has not cost less 
than three dollars per acre for every acre en- 
closed — or a sum of $14,946,826— a trifle less 
than half the value of all the stock in the State! 
The annual interest on this sum at one and one 
fourth per cent, per month is $2,042,023. The 
annual expense for repairs and the deprecia- 
tion of the fences beyond the probabiUty of re- 
pair in our destructive and flooding country 
can hardly be less than twenty per cent, on the 
original cost — a sum equal to $2,989,365, mak- 
ing an annual tax on the agricultural industries 
of the State of $5,031,388 to keep up the fences. 
If this tax was laid exclusively on the stock, 
for whoSe benefit, under the present system, it 
is made necessary, it would ^he an annual tax 
of nearly seventeen per cent, and would efi'ect- 
ually cripple that important industry in the 
State. The stock owners would then be the 
first and loudest in demanding the abandon- 
ment of a custom at once so expensive and so 
unnecessary. Is it any less expensive or un- 
necessary because the other industries are com- 
pelled to bear its burdens ? 

It is really a burden to the other industries of 
over five per cent, per annum, and to them is 
so much actual loss . 

Scarcity of Timber. 

One of the greatest drawbacks to our State is 
the great scarcity and high price of timber, 
lumber and wood with which to carry on the 
necessary internal improvements — constructing 
wharves, bridges, railroads, etc., building 
houses and barns, and siipplying the necessary 
wood for domestic and manufacturing pur- 
poses. In view of these facts alone, the 
plainest principles of political economy would 
dictate such legislation as will dispense with all 
unnecessary use, and destruction of this tim- 
ber, lumber and wood, and no better place can 
be found to commence this legislation than 
upon this fence question. Dispensing with 
the unnecessarj' use and destruction of the tim- 
ber of the State is equivalent to stimulating its 
production. While we consider the latter 
among the most important and necessary ob- 
jects for the action of the Legislature, and in- 
voke for it a careful investigation and effective 
action, the former is its twin sister and none 
the less important and necessary. 
Early Action Important. 

From all tho indications upon which men 
may base their calculations for the- future, the 
coming season bids fair to be one of the most 
favorable to the agricultural interests of the 
State ever known. 

Let the action of the Legislature upon this 
subject be jirompt and effectual and it will add 
millions to the wealth of the country by stimu- 
lating the energies of our farmers in the pro- 
duction, rather than in the unnecessary pro- 
tection of their crops. Now that so much of 
the fences have been swept away by the floods, 
the time is most opportune to sweep away all 
laws that would, if they remain in force, com- 
pel the reVjuilding of these fences at great and 
unnecessary expense. 

Oar Tule Land Levees. 

A difiference of opinion exists in regard to 
the stability of the levees now finishecf or in 
course of construction around the delta islands 
of the Sacramento and San Joaquin rivers. Of 
course everything depends upon the hight and 
strength of such levees; mere hight, without 
sufficient width of both base and top, will not 
afiford the security desired. Nor under certain 
ciicumstances will both of these suffice. 

Unless these levees are secured against im- 
pinging waters, caused by the natural, rapid 
flow of the rivers, or the washings of the waves 
from passing steamers, their endurance is yet 
problematical. At the present season of high 
water the rivers are more than bank full, with 
the backing up of the tides, the steamer wave 
passing freely over that portion of land between 
the river bank and levee is doing considerable 
damage to a portion of the levee on the east of 
Grand Island by washing away its base. 

This might be almost entirely prevented by 
setting out and growing a thick copse of wil- 
lows on the strip of land between the river 
bank and the levee. If more laiid was given to 
such border by building the levee further back 
from the river, it would afford far greater secur- 
ity, at the same time that the land could be 
made to pay a good per cent, upon its value, in 



the simple production of willows or other 
woods for fuel. If the yellow or golden willow 
of the Eastern States is not already introduced 
here, it should be at once, being the most valu- 
able willow for river bank protection in the 
world. 



CuriDg Olives. 

Editors Press: — Can you inform me of a pro- 
cess by which the bitterness common to olives 
can be extracted. I have punctured the fruit 
and thus extracted the bitter with the aid of a 
weak lye, and have succeeded in making a good 
pickled olive. My i)rocess is slow and expen- 
sive, besides, breaking the skin should be avoid- 
ed if possible. 

My orchard of 400 trees bears freely this sea- 
sou, and should with proper management be a 
source of profit. m. o. e. 

Mission, San Jose, Dec. 20, 1871. 

AVe know of no other way for preserving 
ohves than by first soaking them in a weak lyo 
and then placing them in a salt pickle. In the 
localities whence the chief supply of olives is 
derived, the general practice is to gather the 
fruit before it is qtiitc ripe, and place it in a 
weak lyo made with one part of quicklime to 
six of ashes. The ashes should be of the best 
quality, and arc better if made from young, hard 
wood, and carefully sifted before being placed 
iu the leach-tub. The fruit, immediately after 
being gathered, is iilaced in the lye so made, whore 
it should remain from 6 to 8 hours. Aftf-r being 
removed from this bath it should be thorough- 
ly washed with fresh water. We are not aware 
that the fruit is punctured before being put 
into the lye, which, as our conespondtmt sug- 
gests, is a tedious operation, especially if j)er- 
formed by hand, after being thoroughly washed, 
the fruit is placed in a brine of common salt, 
to which some aromatic iiigrrdicnt is added'. 
After remaining in this picklw for a short time 
it is ready for the table or market. We will 
endeavor at an early daj', to make a more ex- 
tended reference to the cultivation of the olive 
for its oil. 



Second-Growth Pears. 

We have received from Mrs. liev. Wm. Tay- 
lor, of Alameda, a i>car of the second growth 
or crop of ' the s>ason; also an account of the 
blossoming of cherry and apple trees iu Novem- 
ber last. This iuclin.ition to a second growth 
is not uncommon to California, and doubtless 
is the resulting effect of our peculiar climate 
upon many of the introduced fruits and trees 
of other climes, whilst native fruits and plants 
seldom present this anomaly. In almost every 
case of the kind it seems to follow a season of 
prolonged wannth, attended with ample mois- 
ture about the roots of the tree or plant. 

Excessive irrigation under a warm sunshine 
is another cause and a potent one; but under 
no circumstances is it desirable, as it tends to 
bring out the fruit-bearing energies of the tree 
or plant at a season when it is next to impossi- 
ble that it can perfect its fruit; the effort, there- 
fore, is simply exhaustive and injurious, and 
nothing should be done to promote it. The pear 
presented us, is a singularly interesting speci- 
men of what Nature sometimes does, when it 
attempts to do a little more than it well can, 
and do it justice. 

That Dry Season. 

Our Turlock correspondent " J. A. W.," in 
answer to " New Subscriber, " in our i.ssue of 
Dec. ICth, s-iys: — " He makes out one of the 
dry years 1850-7, it was 1855-6." I do not re- 
ceive the correction. Following Dr. Logan's 
rain table as a guide, and in the sense in which 
the term dry year was used in the discussion, I 
contend that 1850-7 was a dry year. And yet I 
can see how " New Subscriber " was right in 
his intention. 

We should remember the expression di-y year 
may be used in two senses. It may allude to 
the amount of rain through the season, or to 
the effect produced bj' a bad distribution of 
rains, that is, light crops. 

In the discussion, I used it in the former 
sense, while "New Subscriber " pjrobably al- 
luded to its latter. 



Tick's Floral Guide for 1872 has been re- 
ceived. The present number is even more ele- 
gantly printed than any of its predecessors. It is 
printed on tinted paper, of two colors, and illus- 
trated with some 300 engranngs of flowers, 
vegetables, etc., including two beautifully col- 
ored plates. These annual publications form 
exceedingly beautiful and instructive catalogues 
and floral guides, giving minute direction for 
cultivating flowers and vegetables, ornamenting 
grounds, laying out and jireparing walks, etc. 
It comprises a small octavo of 112 pages, and is 
forwarded by mail to any one enclosing 10 cts., 
of currency — worth a dollar. Address, Jame 
Yick, Rochester, N. Y. 



January 13, 1872.] 



fMMMWE 



^(A)fe Ir '(Ifi S 8''< 



!)® 



25 



Elephant Huntiiig. 

In this country when we wish to hunt for 
large game, the buffalo is supposed to fill the 
requirement; but in this respect African hunt- 
ers have the advantage of us by being able to 
make an expedition against that giant of the 
forest, the elephant. Many of our readers 
have no doubt seen this huge beast in a menag- 
erie or a circus, where they are tame and docile 
and trained to perform various tricks ; but all 
this is quite a different thing from meeting one 
in his native wilds, especially if in the situation 
of the man shown in our illustration; who, in 
addition to the danger from the proximity of 
the evidently enraged animal, has a baulky 
or frightened horse, which just at a critical mo- 
ment, refuses to stir. 

The elephant, even in a wild state, is one of 
the most wary of animals; in strength the 
mammoth of modern days, and most averse to 
human intrusion in habit. It is a reflecting, 
contemplative animal with strongly developed 
tastes for solitude and peace. "When they are 
wounded or cornered, however, 
they charge their assailants with 
great fury, and the approach and 
attack requires considerable cour- 
age and presence of mind. When 
the hunters find an elephant they 
approach very carefully, and ob- 
serve certain precautionary rules 
which only experience in the 
habits of the animal would cause 
to be followed. For instance, 
Du Chaillu informs us that the 
natives say you must never ap- 
]n-oach an elephant but from be- 
hind, as he cannot turn very fast, 
and you have time to escape after 
firing. Great care must also be 
taken that the vines which are so 
fatal to the' elephant do not also 
catch the hunters. When they 
charge, the person who wears 
bright clothing will l)e likely to 
get more than his share of the 
fun, unless in a place of safety. 

The natives of Africa hunt them 
in several ways. The forests in 
some places are full of strong 
climbing plants, running to the 
tops of the trees, and the natives 
twist and weave them together 
ingeniously in such a manner as 
to make a huge fence or obstruc- 
tion not sufficient to hold the ele- 
phant, but quite strong enough 
to check him in his flight and en- 
tangle him in the meshes till the 
hunters can have time to kill him. 
Once caught they surround him and put 
an end to his existence by discharges of 
spears, etc. The first motion of the animal 
on seeing an ehemy is flight. He rushes ahead 
blindly, but is brought up by the barriers of 
vines, which enrages and terrifies him, and he 
tears up everything within reach, but in vain; 
for the tough vines, nowhere fastened, give 
way to his blows, and the more he labors the 
more closely he is held. 

Anojher jjlan is to construct a nghal or inclo- 
sure, surrounded by a low fence, which, how- 
ever, is sufficient to keeji the elephants within, 
for even when enraged by a wound they hesi- 
tate to charge an assailant across an intervening 
ridge, but will hurry along to seek an opening. 
They are entrapped or driven into this enclo- 
sure and then caught. It seems strange that 
so intelligent an animal, will, with the utmost 
calmness, walk into this trap and remain con- 
fined within a fence not strong enongh to resist 
a calf; but it is nevertheless true. 



Sorgiiuin or Chinese Sugar Cane. 

This sugar yielding plant which in many 
sections of the "great west," has become a 
positive staple product, does not seem to meet 
with as much favor with California culturists. 

In what are termed the Western States — ac- 
cording to agricultural reports — millions of 
gallons of very good syrup for family use are 
annually made from sorghum, and the sugar 
product from the same source is very consider- 
able. 

But in California where similar attempts 
have been made, with all the advantages of 
climate supposed to be in our favor, nothing 
worth noticing has resulted from it, if we ex- 
cept perhaps San Bernardino valley. 

In the middle and south of France, with a 
climate in some respects similar to ours, it is 
one of the most valuable of their annual field 
crops, as a sugar yielding and forage plant. 
There they find no difiioulty in making an ex- 
cellent sugar as well as syrup from it. But 
their way of arriving at a successful result in 



thus rendering it extremely liable to be injured 
by early autumnal frosts, which, if they do 
occur before the sorghum is fully ripe, greatly 
injures and reduces the quantity of sugar. 
Hints to Experimenters. 

There are, however, many localities, perhaps 
more elevated than the lower valleys, where 
the season is more marked by change from 
summer to autumn, where the plant would 
conform to the climate in its growth, and ripen 
sufficiently before frost. 

If such can be found within the borders of 
our State anywhere, by making it a subject of 
experiment for two or three years, and then 
if proving successful, there is probably no 
other branch of agricultural industry that would 
l^ay better, at the same time that it presents a 
diversity of pursuit to the farmer, in itself a 
guaranty of increased thrift. 

AVe learn that in the vicinity of Los Angeles, 
the sorghum not only ripens its cane beautiful- 
ly, biTt yields abundantly, considered either in 
respect to its juice, or fodder for cattle and 



Beet Sugar Production. 










/^'^>%.!L«l 



ELEPHANT HUNTING. 



Pacific Journal op Health. — This excellent 
magazine published by Carrie T. & Wm. J. 
Young, and known as the "Woman's Pacific 
Coast Journal," heretofore, comes to us with a 
change of name, and an addition of a beauti- 
fully illustrated cover, designed and engraved 
by ladies. The Journal is a sensible pajier and 
should be read in every family; its original arti 
cles areevidently above the average of newspaper 
articles. Only $1.50 a year is cheap enough 
for a publication like the Journal. 

The Five Peb-Cent. Law.— In the Senate, 
Jan. 9th, the bill to repeal this obnoxious law 
came up, and without debate was passed by 
the following vote: Ayes, 30; Noes, 7. Senator 
Duffy gave notice that he should move for a re- 
consideration, but it will be quite useless. The 
voice of the people through the press, has re- 
moved tho. odious law from our statutes. 



sorghum sugar making is sodifferent from ours, 
as to plainly indicate the reason of both their 
success and our failure. 

Probable Cause of Failure Here. 
Here, it would seem, everybody supposes 
that by boiling down the sorghum juice in open 
pans over a slow fire, with constant skimming, 
they ought to make good sugar. In France no 
one supposes any such thing; because right be- 
fore their eyes they see in every beet sugar 
factory the necessity not only of a complete def- 
ecation and filtration of the beet juices before 
boiling, but the still greater necessity of con- 
centrating the juice] to the consistency of 
syrup and eventually to sugar, as rapidly as 
possible, — not in open pans or rboilers, but in 
the best constructed vacuum pans, where the 
evaporation can be carried on under a much 
lower pressure than the natural atmosphere, 
requiring therefor far less heat, and conse- 
quently with no fear of burning. 

Applying the same principle to the concen- 
tration of their sorghum juices, they obtain 
equally good and certain results, as with beet 
juice; and why not ? In California where open 
air evaporation has so signally failed, may we 
not too, by taking a look into our beet sugar 
factories, and seeing the necessity of a different 
method of procedure, profit by their introduc- 
tion here, and then, being governed by the 
right princij^le, yet find that sugar can be made 
here from sorghum, of excellent quality and at 
a large profit over cost ? 

It has been said that the habit of growth of 
the sorghum in California is widely different 
from that in France or the Eastern States, inas- 
much as that here, the stalks seem never to fully 
mature; but keep on gi'owing in the fall of the 
year, long after it has attained sufficient size; 



other animals, or for seed, of which fowls eat 
with avidity. 

Who will give it a further trial ? Perhaps 
some one in the vicinity of one of our beet 
sugar factories, where the aid of a vacuum 
pan can be secured at trifling cost, will make 
the experiment another year and report the re- 
sult. 



Sacramento Red Lands for Vineyards. 

There is a description of lands in Sacramento 
county, that though decidedly of the low valley 
stamp, are, nevertheless, excellent vineyard 
lands. They are known as the red lands, be- 
cause the prevailing soil of the district to a con- 
siderable depth from the surface is of this 
color. These lands lie in a southeasterly di- 
rection from the city of Sacramento, commenc- 
ing within one mile of the city and extending 
nearly to the limit oi the county in the direc- 
tion named. They seem to possess all the 
good qualities of the foothill lands for giving 
high flavor to their product, with the advantage 
of a longer season of growth to the vine, which 
not only secures early maturity for table grapes 
but greatly prolongs the season of the vintage. 

In the production of grapes for raisins, these 
lands are admirably situated, bringing early 
maturity, u highly concentrated saccharine 
quality, and in a warm, drying atmosphere in 
which the grape never mildews, and with al- 
most perfect immunity from early autumn 
frosts. Add to these advantages, that of easy 
and cheap transportation to market, and it will 
be difficult to find better lands, even among 
the foothills, for general vineyard purposes. 

An unTisually long Editorial on Sherman 
Island will be found on p^-ge 22. 



The Commissioner 9f Agriculture in his 
late Annual Report, speaks favorably of 
the condition of the Beet Sugar industry 
of the United States. He says that, after 
a series of preliminary disappointments 
and failures, such as embarrass almost ev- 
ery improvement, the economic difficulties 
of the beet sugar industry seem to have 
been "measurably overcome." He says that 

Three Establishments arc Manufacturing 

A good quality of sugar, with sufficient 
success to render future eff'orts promising, 
viz: One at Chatsworth III. ; one at Alva- 
rado, Cal.; and the third in Sauk City, 
Wis. Other enterprises have been pro- 
jected. At Chatsworth, in 1866, 4,000 tons 
of beets were raised on 400 acres, at an es- 
timated cost of i$4 iier ton. Since that 
time the cost has been reduced by the in- 
troduction of machinery to $2.70 per ton. 
The seed used is the "White Imperial." 
In order to decrease the size of the beets 
tlie seed is sown very thickly; the beets do 
not by this means exceed one and a half 
or two pounds each, and a 
greater percentage of sugar is 
the reby obtained from them. 
^^ "On the Pacific Coast," 

=j^^ Says the Commissioner, "great 

^^ 'i confidence is felt in the final 

ja^ success of the beet-sugar in- 
_ "-■ dustry." He describes its use 
and progress in California, and 
the mode of manuf^ cture. He 
says: — "Tlie difficulties that 
embarrass the enterprise seem 
' to be in the beet culture of the 
iipigliV>orhood, iiud in the low 
percentage of sugar s( c ired. 
The exijerience of tlie proprie- 
tors leads them to conclusions 
very different from those of 
European beet-growers. The 
latter obtain the maximum of 
saccharine matter in the latest 
growth prior to autumnal 
frosts. The beets grown here 
lost half their sugar dui iug the 
last six weeks of their growth. 
Perhaps in the adjustment of 
this diffici.l y the beet culture 
here may find its final ojJen- 
ing to success." 

In Colorado 
Sugar-beet culture has been 
commenced with very promis- 
ingresults. Says the Commis- 
sioner: "Eeports of enormous 
yields are received, two cul- 
tivators having secured over 
seventy tons per acre. Farm- 
ers were sanguine as to their 
ability to raisean average of 
forty tons. Their quality is 
now being tested at Chats- 
worth. Efforts are being made 
establish a factory inColorado." 
The Value of the Industry 
May be partially inferred from the enor- 
mous importations of foreign sugar, which 
for the year ending, June 30th, 1370, 
amounted to 580,330 tons raw sugar; 75 
tons refined; 18,080 tons sugar cane syr- 
rup; 56,374,547 gallons of molasses and 
55,820 pounds of confectionery. The total 
value of these imports was .$69, 827, 884. 
The value of our domestic sugars— cane, 
maple and sorghum did not reach one- 
eighth of this amount. 

Our beet sugar interest starts in under 
peculiarly favorable circumstances. The 
great sugar producing regions of the world 
are mostly in a rudimentery or disor- 
ganized condition. The Kebellion in Cuba 
has desolated the finest portions of that 
Island, and totally destroyed a large num- 
ber of the plantations, and the emancipated 
labor still works to disadvantage in our 
own cane-producing districts. Into this 
breach, then, the beet-sugar industry of 
the United States should at once be thrown, 
and the best use be made out of its excel- 
lent opi)ortunity. 



•^ 



to 



Mammoth Cucumbek. — The mammoth 
Chinese Cucumber, six feet long and nine 
and one-half inches in circumference, ex- 
hibited at the Montana Fair and recently 
illustrated by us was raised by D. W. 
Curtiss, one of the most enterprising seeds- 
men of Helena, M. T. These cucumbers, 
it is claimed, are much superior to the 
ordinary variety in quality, as well as in 
size, and make an excellent pickle. Those 
of our readers who so desire can procure 
seeds of this remarkable production, by 
addressing Mr. Curtiss, as per advertise- 
ment. 



26 



SP^GJ^inG ^^^^ 






[January 13, 1872. 



.•^ ..fer>>^- 



n 




The Way To Spoil Girls. 

Be always telling her, from her earliest 
childhood, what a beautiful creature she 
is. It is a capital w;iy of inflating the 
vanity of a little girl, to be constantly 
exclaiming, " llow pretty!" Children un- 
derstand such flattorj' even when in the 
nurse's arms, and the evil is done to the 
character in its earliest formation. 

Begin, as soon as slie can toddle, to 
dress her out in fashionable clothes and 
rich dresses. Put a hooj) ujjou her at 
once, with all the artificial adornment of 
flounces and feathers and curls. Fond- 
ness for dress will thus become a promi- 
nent characteristic, and will usurp the 
whole attention of the young mortal, and 
be a long step towards sj)oiling her. 

Let her visit so mucli that she tinds no 
happiness at home, and therefore will not 
be apt to stay there and learn home du- 
ties. It is a capital thing for a spoiled 
daughter to seek all her happiness in visit- 
ing and change of place and associates. 
She will thus grow as useful as modern 
parents desire that their daughters should. 

Be sure that her education gives her a 
smattering of all the accomplishments, 
without the slightest knowledge of the 
thint^s really useful in life. If her mind 
and time are occupied in modern accom- 
plishments, there will bo no thought of 
tlie necessity and virtue of being of some 
real use to somebody pervading her heart, 
and she will soon be ready as a si^oiled 
daughter. 

Asa consequence, keep her in profound 
ignorance of all the useful arts of house- 
keeping, impressing on her mind it is 
vulgar to do anything for herself, or 
learn how anything is done. A spoiled 
daughter should never be taught the 
mysteries of the kitchen; such things a 
lady always leaves to the servants. It 
would be vulgar for her to know how to 
di-ess a salad or make a pudding. 

To complete the hapi)iness of your 
spoiled daughter, marry her to a bearded 
youth with soft hands, who knows as lit- 
tle how to earn money as she does to save 
it. Her happiness will then be finished 
for her lifetime. — Pioneer. 

Parental Folly. 

To compel a child to eat an article of 
food for which he has no appetite, nay, 
may have a positive disgust at the very 
thought of swallowing the hated mouth- 
ful. Parents do this from the very 
best of motives, thinking that it would 
add to their children's health or com- 
fort in after life to have learned to eat 
the article in question. It is just as great 
an outrage to compel a man to eat a piece 
of fried snake as to compel a child to eat a 
piece of fat meat when its stomach revolts 
against it ; the inhumanity of it is greater, 
because the child, unresisting and help- 
less, is made to comply by the one he 
loves best in the world. 

The instincts of childhood should be 
held, in a measure, sao-ed to them ; and it 
may be safe to say what Nature craves, the 
body has use for ; what Nature abhors, the 
same body has no use for. Every man is 
at liberty to ride any hobby to death ho 
chooses ; if he wants to ride it to his own 
undoing, he may have the right to do it, 
with some restrictions; but to " have a 
theory," and kill his child in the attempt 
to carry it out, to make it practical, is not 
to be applauded. 

If a man wishes to teach his child to rel- 
ish any article of food which he does not 
like now, a safe method of bringing it 
about is to take a long walk or ride, far 
from any human habitation, and after the 
child has been some time complaining of 
being hungry, present the article iu ques- 
tion to him, and let him taste it if lie will, 
and in a little while taste it again ; in this 
way he may be taught to love it in a very 
short time. The conclusion of the whole 
matter is this : to compel the swallowing 
of a mouthful of food against the ajjpetite 
or inclination for it, is certainly a wicked 
waste of that much ; it gives no healthful 
nourishment to the body, ia a viokiiice to 
nature, a shock to tlie system, and invites 
loathsome, painful, and even fatal mala- 
dies. 



l>iscBETiox is the perfection of reason. 



Tell Your Wife. 

If you are in trouble, or a quandary tell 
your wife, that is you have one, all about it 
at once. Ten to one her invention will 
solve your difficulty sooner than all your 
logic. The wit of a woman has been 
praised, but her in.stincts are quicker and 
keener than her reason. Counsel with 
your wife, or mother, or sister, and be as- 
sured light will Hash upon your darkness. 
Women are too commonly adjudged as ver- 
dant in all but purely womanly affairs. 
No philosophical student of tlie sex thus 
judges them. Their intuitions or insights, 
lire subtle, and if they cannot see a cat in 
the meal there is no cat there. In coun- 
seling a man to tell his trouble to his wife, 
we would go further and advise him to 
keep none of his affairs secret from her. 
Many a home has been hapjiily saved and 
many a fortune retrieved, by man's full 
confidence in his "better half." Woman 
is far more a seer and prophet than man, 
if she have a fair chance. As a general 
rule, wives confide the minutest of their 
plans and thoughts to their husbands, hav- 
ing no involvements to screen from them, 
why not reciprocate, if but for the plea- 
sure of meeting confidence with confidence? 
We are certain that no man succeeds so 
well in ths world as he who, taking a part- 
ner for life, makes her the partner for all 
his purposes and hopes. What is wrong 
of his impulse or judgment, she will check 
and set right with her almost universally 
right instincts. "Helpmeet" was no in- 
significant title as applied to man's com- 
panion. She is a meet help to him in 
every darkness, difiiculty and sorrow of 
life. And what she most craves and de- 
serves, is confidence — without which love 
is never free from shadow. — Joiunial of the 
Farm. 



Success in Life. 

The great evil upon which we have fall- 
en in these days of rapid fortunes and ex- 
travagant living will be appreciated if we 
ask ourselves what meaning is attached 
to the word success. What are our 
young people taught as compassing true 
succes in life? What class of men are 
held up as the true tyi)e of manhood, and 
as worthy of emulation ? When Mr. 
Greeley talks of "self-made men," who 
are the bright examples he holds up to 
view, and whom he asks our young 

i men to pattern after — the men of ideas, of 
mor.al power, of strong virtues, or of 

! great wealth ? What is meant by success 
in life when the instances most cited in 
this connection are Astor, Girard, Stewart, 
and Vandcrbilt? Whoever speaks of men 

J like Elihn liurritt and that class of pure 

i philanthropists and scholars, who are 
constantly thinking so much of others, 
that thej' have no time to devote to the 
accumulation of wealth. 

While we laud to the skies such men as 
Peabody, who having lived witliin himself 
until he had aniiissed great wealth, and got 
through with its use and aggrandizement, 
bequeathed it to such purposes and under 
such restrictions as suited his fancy or his 
ambition, we are quite apt to lose sight of 
the thousands of tender hearts and great 
souls whose wonderful benevolence and 
fellow feeling have made it impossible that 
they should grow rich save in the blessings 
of those whom they have helloed. Is it 
not time that a new lexicon was prepared, 
or the old ones amended, so that our "com- 
ing" men and women shall have a different 
idea of the true meaning of success? 



What is in the Bedroom. 

If two persons are to occujjy a bedroom 
during the night, let them step on a 
weighing scale as they retire, and then 
again in the morning, and they will find 
their actual weight is at least a pound less 
in the morning. Frequently there will be 
a loss of two or more i)Ounds, and the 
average loss throughout the year will be a 
pound of matter,, which has gone off' from 
their bodies, partly from the lungs, and 
partly through the pores of the skin. The 
escaped material is carbonic acid, and de- 
cayed animal matter or poisonous exhala- 
tion. This is diffused through tlu; air in 
part, and part absorbed by the bed-clotlies. 
If a single ounce of wool or cotton be 
burned in a room, it will so completely 
saturate the air with smoke that one can 
hardly breathe, though there can only be 
one ounce of foreign matter in the air. If 
an ounce of cotton be burned every hour 
during the night, the air will bo kept con- 
tinually saturated with smoke unless there 
be an open window or door for it to es- 
cape. Now the sixteen ounces of smoke 
thus formed is far less poisonous than the 
sixteen of exhalations from the lungs and 
bodies of two persons who have lost a 
pound in weight during the eight hours of 
sleeping; for while the dry smoke is main- 
ly taken into the lungs the damp odors 
from the body are absorbed both in the 
lungs and into the pores of the whole body. 
Need more be said to show the import- 
ance of having bedrooms well ventilated 
and of thoroughly airing the sheets, cover- 
lids, and matrasses in the morning, before 
packing them in the form of a neatly- 
made bed?i 



Domestic Life. — Hecannot be an unhap- 
py man who has the love and smiles of a 
woman to accompany him in every de- 
partment of life. The world may look 
dark and cheerless without — enemies may 
gather in his path — but when he returns 
to the fireside and feel§ the tender love 
of woman, he forgets his cares and his 
troubles, and is comparatively a happy 
man. He is but half prepared for his jour- 
ney of life who takes not with him, to 
soothe and comfort him, that friend who 
will fors.ake him in no emergency — who 
will divide his sorrows — increase his joys 
—lift the veil from his heart and throw 
sunshine amid the darkest scenes. No — 
man cannot be miserable who has a com- 
panion, be he ever so poor, desjiised and 
trodden upon by the world. 

It is at home that every man must be 
known by those who would make a just 
estimate either of his virtue or his felicity; 
for smiles and embroidery are alike occa- 
sional, and the mind is often dressed for 
show in painted honor and fictitious be- 
nevolence. 



ExTRAV.\QANCE OP WoMEN. — How much 
is said and written upon this subject ! 
Now pause a moment, my dear masculine 
friends, and let us comi)are notes. To be 
sure, wo sometimes wear diamonds, but, 
my dear sir, this " single stone " and that 
rich "cluster," with its opal center, tinted 
and rainbow-hued, costs not half so much 
as the regal solitaire sparkling upon your 
little finger ! Our ribbons and laces, 
which look such a prodigious jiile to your 
unfeminine eyes, could easily bo bought 
with the money thrown away on your 
cigar-stumps ! Our darling bonnets, 
though grown so liliputiau of late, we ad- 
mit cost a trifle, but so do all those luxu- 
ries over the way, where we poor aouls 
never care nor dare to enter. Our silks 
and satins cost less than your broadcloth, 
while our boots (dear, dainty little things) 
are scarce half the price of your own. 
Now, saying nothing of j'our clubs, and 
the secret association to which you belong, 
in what are not all the superfluities of our 
sex overbalanced by those of your own ? 
Where are the>/ ? Mks. Wilkinson. 



Men of great qualities do not always suc- 
ceed in life. 



Women in England. — A lady, in a re- 
cent letter from Liverpool, says: "Here, 
us in every other hotel in England, I found 
ladies at the bar keeping the register of 
arrivals and assigning rooms to guests, re- 
ceiving payment of bills, etc. So in the 
telegraph oftice, and in all the stores and 
shops, young and well-dressed ladies form 
a large portion of the attendance. I was 
greatly struck with it, and belisve it would 
be well for our people to adopt the custom 
of thus furnishing employment to a large 
and most dependent class of our people. 
Wherever there is light and nimble work 
to be done we found universallj' ladies 
employed. In the extensive draper estab 
lishment of Leo, in Liverpool, frequented 
and patronized by the nobility and wealthy 
of the land, the long liues of counters 
were attended by scores of beautiful young 
girls, tastefully dressed, and who were 
waiting ui)on the crowds of ladies and gen- 
tlemen purchasing supplies. 

Obedience in Children. — It- is un- 
speakable what a blessing it is to a child, 
what a savyig of unhappiness and wicked- 
ness in after life, to be early taught abso- 
lute obedience; there must be no hesitating 
or asking why, but what a mother says 
must at once be done. The young twig 
bends easily, but remember that, in after 
3'ears, it grows hard, and you will break 
before you can bend it. A little steadi- 
ness at first will save you many years' sor- 
row. Whileyouinristupon obedience, how- 
ever, you must take care that you do not 
l)rovoke achild and tempt it to disobedience, 
by unreasonable and foolish commands. 
"Provoke not your children to wrath," 
and when it is necessary to punish theiii, 
see that it never be done violcutlj' and in 
a passion, but a duty. 



YoJj^Q F^I-KS' CoLllfdJi. 

A Spider Story. 

In 1830, at Newcastle-on-Tyne, England, 
a gentleman boasted to a friend that he 
could introduce to him an engineer of 
more wonderful skill than Ilobert Steph- 
enson, who had just made himself famous 
by j^erfecting the railway locomotive. In 
fulfilment of the boast, he brought out a 
glass tumbler containing a little scarlet- 
colored sjiider, whose beauty, with its 
bright yellow nest on a sprig of laurus- 
tinus, had induced a young lady to pluck it 
from the bush where it was growing. When 
brought into the house, it was i)laccd on 
the mantle-piece, and secured by placing 
a glass over it. 

In a very short time, this wonderful lit- 
tle engineer contrived to accomplish the 
herculean task of raising the sprig of lau- 
rustinus, a weight several hundred times 
greater than itself; to the upper part of the 
glass, and attaching it there so firmly that, 
after forty ye.irs, it still suspended where 
it was hung by the spider. 

In the Bible we read: "The spider lay- 
eth hold with her hands, and is in kings' 
palaces;" but iu his glass prison there was 
notlyng for it to lay hold of — no peg, or 
nail, or beam, on which to fa.stcn its 
threads. Yet, in a short time the little in- 
sect had accomplished its task. 

It is believed that this kind of spider 
alwaj-s deposits its nest upon trees, and 
never upon the ground; and this may ac- 
count for its wonderful effort to raise the 
branch to the upper part of the glass. 

It may still be seen, dead and dry, hang- 
ing by one of its threads from the top of 
its prison house, with its little nest upon 
a leaf of the laurustinus. 



Mbs. H. B. Stowe has turned artist, and 
has presented a picture painted by herself 
to the Boston Fair for dumb animals. 



Boys, boys, if you look into the early 
life of truly helpful men, those who make 
life easier and nobler to those who come 
after them, j'ou will almost invariably find 
that they lived pnreh/ iu the days of their 
youth. In early life, the brain, though 
abounding in vigor, is sensitive and very 
susceptible to injury — and this to such a 
degree that a comparatively brief and mod- 
erate indulgence in vicious pleasures ap- 
pears to lower the tone and impair both 
the delicacy and efficiency of the brain for 
life. This is simply the truth of science. 
Poor memory, absent-mindedness, lack 
of application, indolence, shiftlessness, 
and a hundred other symptoms," indicate 
"bad habits." Oh, the beauty and benefit 
of purity ! Oh, the foulness and calamity 
of vicious indulgences ! 

Boxs, DO YOUR Best. — If you are run- 
ning along in a hurry, and tumble over a 
brickbat and spill your dinner, all right. 
Kick the brickbat out of the way, pick up 
your dinner-pail, save j'our bread and but- 
ter if you can; if not, whistle "Hail Co- 
lumbia," and run to school. It won't do 
to be put down by a brickbat. Take hold 
of a book as a squirrel takes hold of a 
hickory-nut. Be bound to get the meat 
out if there is any in it. Because Tom 
Lazychojjs wants to be a fool, it is no rea- 
son why you should be one. Do your best 
every time, and when the teacher calls out 
the classes, you can walk up like a man 
and tell him to go ahead. 

Child Life. — Every hour that a child 
lives a quiet, tranquil, joj-ous life, of such 
sort as kittens live on hearths, squirrels in 
sunshine, is just so much investment in 
strength and steadiness, and growth of the 
nervous system. Every hour that a child 
lives a life of excited brain-working, either 
in a school-room or in a ball-room, is just 
so much taken away from the reserved 
force which enables nerves to triumph 
through the sorrows, through the labors, 
through the diseases of latter life. 

A little five-year old boy was being in- 
structed in morals by his grandmother. 
The old lady told him that all such terms 
as "by golly," "by jingo," etc' were only 
little oaths, and but little better than other 
profanities. In fact, she said, she could 
tell a profane oath by the prefix "by." All 
such were oaths. " Well, then, grand- 
mother, said the little hopeful, is "by tele- 
graph," which I see in the newspai>ers, 
swearing?" "No," said the old lady, 
"that's only lying." 

Questions in Arithmetic. — If twenty 
grains will make a scruple, how many will 
make a doubt? 

If seven days make one week, how many 
will make one strong? 

If three miles make a league, how many 
will make a confederacy. 

Answer to Last Week's Charadf.— 
Newton Booth, 



January 13, 1872,] 



27 



lOMESTIC 



.CONOMY. 



How to Make a Coal Fire. 

The art of making and maintaining a 
coal fire properly is possessed by but few. 
We believe that there would be a sensible 
diminution in the number of domestic 
quarrels and soured tempers, if a knowl- 
edge of it were more general. Husbands 
would not have to growl and scold over so 
many late dinners, nor wives fret them- 
selves to skin and bone over obstinate 
fires that will neither bake, roast, nor boil. 

There are many faults in the usual con- 
struction of a coal 'fire. A common fault 
is to use too coarse wood for kindling, and 
too much of it. This, while it generally 
succeeds in lighting the coal, leaves a bed 
of ashes below the coal which inteferes 
with the draft unless raked out. The 
•wood should be of some rapidly burning 
variety which gives a quick and high heat, 
and should be split fine. It should be so 
jDlaced that the coal will remain on the top 
of it and not fall through to the grate, 
leaving the kindling on the top of any 
l^art of the coal. A good rule, where 
stoves or furnaces have a good draft, is to 
use coal as small as can be used without 
inconvenience from its sifting too freely 
through the grate. 

Grates should have their bars closely 
set for stoves that are cleaned out daily, 
and have fires lighted in them each morn- 
ing, while those which are intended to 
have fires kept in them continuously for 
days and weeks will not admit of line 
grates, on account of the accumulation of 
ashes and small " clinkers." 

Thei-e is much dilfereuce in coal in re- 
gard to the formation of clinkers. These 
ai'e nothing but vitrineil, or partially vit- 
rified earthy matters, and only can form 
when a high heat is maintained ; they are 
apt to be troublesome when there is too 
great a draft. A coal stove or furnace 
should, therefore, bo so constructed that 
its draft can be perfectly controlled. 
The bottom draft should admit of being 
closed air-tight, as nearly as is possible to 
make it, and there ought always be provis- 
ion made for a top draft. If, however, 
the draft of a chimney should be so strong 
that air in too great quantities is drawn in 
at the bottom when the dampers are closed, 
a damper in the pipe, which will close it 
partially, must be employed, though in 
sluggish chimneys siich a damper is apt 
to force the gases of combustion into the 
room, and therefore it ought always to be 
avoided when i^ossible. 

The practice of putting ashes on the top 
of a fire to keep it, is vei-y productive of 
clinkers, although it answers vei-y well in 
other respects. Damp coal screenings are 
better, and may be economically burned 
in this manner. If a coal fire gets very 
low, the quickest way to extinguish it is 
to rake it at the bottom. To preserve a 
fire under such circumstances, a little coal 
should be placed on the fire, and when it 
has caught, more may be added, and the 
raking deferred untilit has gotwell ignited. 
Wlien the fire bricks have become bur- 
dened with clinkers which have fused and 
adhered, they may be cleaned by throwing 
oyster or clam shells into the fire box 
when the fire is very hot, and allowing 
the fire to go out. The clinkers will gen- 
erally cleave off without the use of much 
force the next morning. From two quarts 
to one-half a peak will be sufficient for 
most stoves, and the operation can be 
repeated if some of the clinkers still ad- 
here. 



Water-Proof Boot Soles. 

If hot tar is applied to boot soles, it will 
make them water-proof. Let it be as hot 
as leather will bear without injury, ap- 
plied with a swab, and drj'ing in the fire. 
The operation may be repeated two or 
three times during the winter, if neces- 
sary. It makes the surface of the leather 
quite hard, so that it wears longer, as .well 
as keeps the water out. It is a good plan 
to provide boots for winter during the 
summer, and prepare the soles by tarring, 
as they will then become, before they are 
wanted to wear, almost as firm as horn, 
and wear twice as long as those unpre- 
pared. 

Ten years ago, says a correspondent of 
the Countri/ Gentleman, I met with a di- 
rection similar to the above, and with 
some hesitation I concluded to have it 
tried on the soles of a pair of field boots. 
Uy a piece of supnrarroganoe, a pair of 
thin-soled morocco boots was tarred with 
the others, the soles being saturated and 
the seaming too, all round, including the 
lower rim of the morocco all round the 



soles. As these boots are doing service 
yet, and have been much used every sum- 
mer during the ten years, I mention the 
fact because it furnishes what I then 
wished for, namely, a jDroof that the tar 
would not burn or otherwise hurt the 
leather. The soles remain like horn, and 
have never required any repair, and even 
the thin uiDper apparently cracked in all 
directions from the first, has never torn 
but a little on one boot, at the bend on the 
outer side of the foot. It has been oiled 
but once each summer, but the soles re- 
ceived only the one thorough tarring. 
Boot soles will take the tar best after hav- 
ing the grain worn off slightly. It soon 
dries in, if exposed to the sun, and the 
odor, even of gas tar, is quickly overcome 
by the all conquering effects of dry earth. 
A short walk over a fallow field will re- 
move it comi:)letely, and make it entirely 
unnecessary to imitate the eastern cus- 
tom of taking off the boots at the house 
entrance, unless there be some other rea- 
son for it than fresh tarred soles. 



Out Dooe Cellae. — In the first place, 
select the most elevated spot of ground 
conveniently near to your dwelling house 
and throw out the dirt to the depth of two 
feet. Build a double brick wall at the 
base of the excavation, leaving a vacant 
space of six inches, between the walls, 
which should be tied at the corners and 
several places in the sides, being careful, 
however, to leave vacant places for vent 
holes, to admit a free circulation of air 
throughout the length and breadth of the 
walls. The hight of the walls when com- 
pleted, nine feet from base to top. The 
surplus dirt, banked up, on outside four 
feet in hight. Floor overhead, two 
thicknes of well seasoned, matched floor- 
ing, and cover the whole with good 
shingles; construct a flue extending up- 
wards and at the top of the building, to 
allow impure air to escape. A drain 
should be constructed by which any water 
which might penetrate, would run off. Of 
course a proper floor should be construct- 
ed for the cellar. 

A correspondent of the Prairie Farmer 
says he has used such cellars for upwards 
of twelve years and ever found them sure 
deiDositories for fruits and vegetables 
in winter, and for milk, butter, etc., in 
summer. 



Lemon Jelly. — A correspondent of the 
Country Getitleman, communicates the fol- 
lowing: — To make two quarts of jelly; 
Take a package, which is two ounces, of 
gelatine, 1/^ lbs. of sugar, the juice of five 
lemons, some orange peel or stick cinna- 
mon, or other flavoring if you wish it, and 
soak all together for an hour in a pint of 
cold water; add to this, after the gelatine 
is thoi'oughli/ soaked, three pints of boiling 
water, and stir iintil it is all dissolved, 
and then strain through a fine strainer. 
It is better to make the jelly the day be- 
fore it is to be used, and in warm 
weather use a little less water. 

Be sure that the gelatine is j^erfectly 
soaked before pouring on the boiling 
water, even though it should take a 
longer time than above stated, 

Making Cider Vinegar. — A. Tufts, 
Centralia, Marion County, Illinois, writes 
to the American Farmers' Club as follows: 
One year ago last October I made a barrel 
of cider, put a bottle in the bung-hole, 
and placed it on the south side of a build- 
ing exposed to the sun. In a week I drew 
it off very slowly (to expose it to the at- 
mosphere) into tubs, let it remain four 
hours, and returned it to the barrel. Ten 
days after, I repeated the ])rocess, and 
when it was seven weeks old I sold it to a 
grocer for good vinegar, and it was good, 
an article very seldom to be bought at the 
groceries. I did the same thing several 
times before with the same success. 



Domestic Receipts. 

Barley Pudding. — Prepare a half pound 
of pearl barley; one quart of new milk, and 
six ounces of sugar. Put the barley in 
fresh water, and let it steep twelve hours; 
pour the water from it, add the milk, 
sugar, and a small salt spoonful of salt, 
and bake it in a slow oven. If a richer 
pudding be required, take it out of the 
oven when nearly done, stir in two ounces 
of butter, four well beaten eggs, a little 
almond flavor, or any other seasoning; re- 
turn it to the oven in a buttered dish, and 
bake it one hour. 

Bread Pudding without Milk or Eggs. 
Take one pound of stale bread; a half 
pound of currants; a quarter pound of 
siigar, and one teaspoonful of ginger. 
Pour boiling water on the bread, and 
when cool and properly soaked, press out 
the water, and mash the bread, adding the 
sugar, currants, ginger, a little salt, and 
grated nutmeg; mix the whole well to- 
gether; i)ut it in a buttered dish, laying a 
few small pieces of butter on the top, and 
bake in a moderate oven; when baked, let 
it remain a few minutes; then turn it out 
on a flat dish and serve either hot or cold. 

Apple and Tapioca Pudding. — Put a 
teacupful of tapioca into a pint and a half 
of cold water over night. In the morning 
set it where it will be quite warm but not 
cook. In the course of the forenoon iscel 
about a half a dozen sour apples and steam 
them until tender. Put them in the jjud- 
ding dish, add a teacupful and a half of 
sugar, a little salt and a teacupful of water 
to the soaked tapioca, and pour over the 
apples. Slice a lemon very thin and dis- 
tribute the slices over the top of the pud- 
ding. Bake slowly three hours; at the 
end of that time it will be'perfect jelly. 

Potato Pone. — Pare and grate, on a 
large grater, sweet potatoes enough to 
make one quart of grated potato. Stir to 
this one pint of sweet milk, two eggs, two- 
thirds of a cup of butter, and enough sugar 
to make it pretty sweet; season with gin- 
ger. Bake till well done. Eat, hot or 
cold, with butter. If desired to be light- 
colored, put the j'otatoes into cold water 
as soon as pared, and when ready, grate 
into the milk. If dark-colored pone is pre- 
ferred, sweeten with molasses and season 
with allsiiice. This is very rich made like 
pound-cake, using one and a half pounds 
of grated potato in j)lace of flour. 



Bitter Milk. — Cream, by standing long, 
is apt to become bitter. This is espec- 
ially the case when it is accumulated from 
day to day, the quantity being small. It 
rarely occurs when there is an abundance 
of milk, and churning is resorted to every 
day. If it does occur it may be in the feed. 
There are many bitter weeds, that doubt- 
less impart this principle along with 
others, odors, taints, etc. Clean feed with 
timely churning and proper temperature 
for the milk, will probably remedy the 
evil. 

To Eender Water Soft for Washing. 
Stir a pint of fresh slacked lime to a gal- 
lon of water; let it settle; pour it off from 
the sediment carefully, and immediately 
bottle, and cork it, tight. Add a tumbler- 
ful of this lime water to the hard water; 
stir it well together; let the sediments set- 
tle; then pour off" the water through a Can- 
ton flannel cloth. 



Mechanical Hints. 

Many mechanics comi^lain of inability 
to set a machine to be driven at right 
angles from the line or counter-shaft, with- 
out continual trouble with friction from 
the shifter on the belt, and the slipping of 
the belt to the tight or loose pulley. The 
operation is a simple one, and just as ef- 
fectual as to drive in a direct perpendicu- 
lar or horizontal. Take the center of the 
off or contributing side of your drive pul- 
ley and drop from it a plummet; let this 
line decide the center and perpendicular of 
the side of the tight and loose pullies 
which takes your belt at a right angle be- 
low. Unless your eye is accustomed to the 
angles which are given to the appearance 
of the belt, from either side, you will con- 
demn the position without trying, but if 
you are careful to get an exact perpendic- 
ular in the manner described there can be 
no mistake. — Am. Manufacturer. 

To Improve Woods. — An ingenious 
Frenchman has invented a process for 
treating common woods, which makes them 
of a closer texture, harder grain, and 
greater density, and so enables the cheaper 
kinds of wood to take a polish. The mode 
is as follows: The surface is first planed 
perfectly smooth, and then rubbed with 
diluted nitrous acid. An ounce and a half 
of dragon's blood, dissolved in half a pint 
of spirits of wine, and half an ounce of 
carbonate of soda are mixed together and 
filtered; and the liquid is then laid on the 
wood with a soft brush. The treatment 
should be repeated afta- a short interval, 
and the wood will tlien possess the out- 
ward appearance of mahogany. If the pol- 
ish is not sulKciontly brilliant, rubbing 
with cold drawn linseed oil will improve it. 

White Lines in Cabinet Work.— Tl«e 
Chinese are supposed to use a combina- 
tion of rice gluten and fresh shell lime in 
their inimitable white work; indeed, they 
use rice paste made by pounding boiled 
rice into a sticky mass, for a great number 
of purposes. Ilico, when pounded as 
above, with a little plaster of Paris, is a 
capital substance for inlaying. In Eu- 
rope, isinglass, dissolved in a strong white 
spirit, and any pale coloring ingredient 
added, constitutes artificial ivory. The 
dust of ivory, bone, box, or holly, made 
up with gelatine into paste, is also used. 



LtfE Tli@iIqS|Ys. 



Opinions grounded upon mere prejudice 
are always sustained with the greatest vio- 
lence. 

A moment's work on clay tells more 
than an hour's work on brick. So work 
on hearts should be done before they 
harden. 

A guilty conscience is like a whirlpool, 
drawing in all to itself which would other- 
wise imss by. 

Any one may do a casual act of good na- 
ture; but a continuation of them shows ita 
part of the temi)erament. 

Man was never intended to be idle; inac- 
tivity frustrates the very design of his crea- 
tion; whereas an active life is the be.st 
guardian of virtue, and the greatest preser- 
vative of health. 

Worship only God. Your brother man 
is only His child, and in His image created 
always worthy of l(ive, but never of adora- 
tion. 

One good deed — one kind, encouraging 
word, or one pure, fervent aspiration is 
worth more unto a dying man than all the 
earth combined. He hath lands, wealth, 
and worldly honors, yet these are not 
that after which he is seeking. 

Heavenly happiness and purity are 
worth striving for. Thy earthly yield 
may fail from causes beyond thy control, 
but thy heavenly treasures must ever in- 
crease as thou dost become more and still 
more j)ure. 

Fortune smiles on those who roll up 
their sleeves andj^ut their shoulders to the 
wheel. 

Beauty is worse than wine; it intoxicates 
both the holder and the beholder. 



Lord Macauly on the Sabbath. 

Of course I do not mean that a man will 
not produce more in a week by working 
seven days than by working six days. 
But I very much doubt whether, at the 
end of the year, he will generally have 
produced more by working seven days 
a week than by working six days a week; 
and I firmly believe that at the end of 
twenty years he will have produced less 
by working seven days a week than by 
woi-king six days a week. Tlie natural 
difference between Cam|iania and Spitz- 
bergen is trifling, when compared with the 
difference between a country inhabited 
by men in bodily and mental decrepitude. 
Therefore it is that we are not poorer, but 
richer, because we have, through many 
ages, rested from our labor one day in 
seven. That day is not lost. While in- 
dustry is suspended, while the plow lies 
in the furrow, while the exchange is si- 
lent, while no smoke ascends from the 
factory, a process is going on quite as im- 
portant to the wealth of the nation as any 
process which is performed on more busy 
days. Man, the machine of machines — 
the machine compared with which all the 
contrivances of the Watts and Arkwrights 
are worthless — is repairing and winding 
up, so that he returns to liis laT)ors on the 
Monday with clearer intellect, with livelier 
s^jirits, with renewed corporeal vigor. 

The Evil that Men do Lives After 
Them. — A valued correspondent writes: 
" I fully concur with you in the object 
and offices of writing, that it should in- 
struct, elevate and make better ; but you 
know the sordid and depraved tastes of a 
very large class of readers demand much 
that is unreal, and writers give way to it, 
because it pa>/s." 

Those who write for the masses have a 
fearful responsibility for every line of 
false morals they utter, and to-day, bleed- 
ing, prostrate France owes a large share of 
lier misfortune to the teachings of Eugene 
Sue and the less scrupulous school of 
literary adventurers who followed his suc- 
cessful debut, in shaping the tastes and 
vitiating all tlio social life-springs ,of the 
French nation. 



All earth shows forth too nicp and deli- 
cate an adaption, too beautiful a continua- 
tion of cause and effect, to admit even of 
a thought that the Creator has failed in 
His highest creation. 



The light winged hours bear to our 
hearts, day and niglit, the evidences of 
God's love toward us ; the seasons with 
varying round repeat the hollowed min- 
strelsy through all the grand sweep of life. 

Kaw cranberries will bleach a lumi- 
nous nose, provided raw whisky is not con- 
tinued as an illuminating agent. 



28 



[January 13, 1872. 



^ 



ATENTs & Inventions. 



Full List of U. S. Patents Issued to 
Pacific Coast Inventors. 



(PaoM Official Repobts to DEWEY &-C0., V. 8. and 
I'oREioM Patent Agents, and Publishiuib or 

THE SCIENTU'IO PRESS.] 

For the Week Ending Decembeb 26. 

Saw CoiiLAU. — Frank A. Huntington, San 
Francisco, Cal. 

Shingle Machine. — Frank A. Hunting- 
ton, San Francisco, Cal. 

Lamp. — Emil Boesch, San Francisco, Cal. 

Note.— Copies of U. S. and Foreign Patents furnislied 
by Dkwet k Co., in tlie shorttBt time posbible by tel- 
egraph or otherwise) at the lowest rates. All patent 
business for PaciUc coast inventors transacted with 
Rieater security and in much less time than by any other 
agency. 



Keeping Tomatoes Fresh. 

This indispensable fruit is so easily raised 
and so commonly canned for winter use, that 
few persons seem to have thought it worth their 
while to attempt to discover any way to keep it 
fresh during the winter season. We have at 
this time (December 31st) tomatoes in*a per- 
fctt state of preservation, and have had a great 
plenty for use in our family all the time until 
now. The mode of keeping has been very 
cheap and simple. Upon the first appearance 
of frost we threw some old pieces of carpet 
over a few vines that were full of the fruit in 
all stages of ripening. In this way they re- 
nuiiiied aud continued to grow and ripen until 
aliout a month siuce. We thou picked all the 
fruit from these vines, sorting them according 
to the degrees of ripeness. We packed them 
away in wheat chaff, in a dry, cool place, where 
they have remained since, and from which we 
have been using them as we wanted. From 
this experiment we are satisfied that tomatoes 
can be kept in perfect condition until the first 
of February. We would, by irrigating the 
vines, keep the fruit setting and growing as late 
as possible. Then we would cover the vines 
well from the frost with any convenient cover- 
ing. Straw, tule, or anything that will keep 
them warm, will do. If covered warm enough, 
the vines will continue to glow and ripen the 
fruit all winter. But if not so warm as to se- 
cure this result, then pick the tomatoes as soon 
as the vines show the efi'ects of frost, and pack 
them in dry, clean sand, or in wheat chaff, and 
you may enjoy this delicious fruit as fresh as 
direct from the vines. This is a great improve- 
ment on canning. The fruit is much better, 
aud the process is much cheaper. 

TuE Egyptian Cotton. — A large num- 
ber of experiments Lave been made the 
past summer, in several of the cotton 
states with a new variety of cotton known 
as the Tumel Maki, or Egytian cotton. 
The reports to the Agricultural Depart- 
mentf from those who had received seed, 
are generally favorable, the variety being 
a late one, and' the season in either the 
Atlantic or gulf States being too short for 
its full maturity. The stalk attains a very 
large size, and grows and makes in the 
driest season, even when other cotton 
ceases to grow and shod its balls. A stalk 
is reported from Bartrop, La., as H feet 
high and 22 feet across from tip to tip 
of limbs. It is possible that this variety 
might do well in California, as our seasons 
here are longer and such as would bo fa- 
vorable to the full development of the 
plant. 

The Tukkish Muskmelons mentioned last 
week are for sale by Geo. Hughes, No. 315 
Washington street. 



Olympia, in Washington Territory, is 
happy over a second crop of apples, which 
Lcs just been gathered at Swantown. 

The Rural Pbess. — L. P. McCarty, one of 
the oldest newspaper men on the coast, aud in 
all i)robability one who has the most extensive 
iti!(inaintance, has been in town for the past 
few days looking out for the interests of the Pa 
ciFic Udral Press, with which he is connected 
Tli>! Pkksh is without exception one of the best 
])apers devoted to the agricultural interests in 
tUe United States; it certainly has no equal in 
C.iUforuia. Its large corps of contributors, well 
informed in every branch of industry, and its 
facilities for obtaining useful knowledge, make 
it an extremely popular periodical, in which 
Californians take a commendable pride and in 
terest. — San Jose (Daily) Guide. 



Daily Record, 



By the U. S. Army Sisnal .Service, for the week ending 
Wednesday, January J, 1872. 





a 

m 








o 

II 


>. o ^ a. 

'-aai.- 

c = „ S 




state of 




1=1 

o 


.2S 




-r 2 t. 


Q 


9-6 u H 


M 


Weather 


'A 


Thursd'y. 30.07 


.V2 


66 


S. E. ISrisk 


rrhreat'g 
Fair 




Friday... 30. 13 


47 


8-5 


Calm 




Saturday :».!« 


.■id 


86 


N. W. Fresh 


Fog 




Sunday... 30.UO 


.•)2 


79 


S. Light .04 


Cloudy 


£ 


Moiiiiay.. 29.72 


.'il 


86 


Calm .4.5 


H. Rain 


-i. 


Tuesday.. 29.82 


4(1 


8.5 


N. £. Gentle .29 


Lt. Rain 


z 


VVed'day..3U.17 


47 


77 


S. Fresh 


Fair 




Thursdy. 30.22 


4B 


n 


E. Light .02 


Fog 




Friday . . . 










— 












t3 


Sunday... 30.10 


48 


77 


N. W. Light 


Fair 


!? 


Monday ..30.04 


48 


85 


N. K. Uentle 


Fair 


p 


Tuesday.. 
Wed'day.. 










^ 


Thursd'y.29.T2 


21 


74 


S. E. Fresh 


Clondy 


-•' 


Friday... 2H..V2 


H 


79 


S. E. Gent e 


Clear 


■c 


Satunlay 2S.7.5 


13 


82 


8. F'resh 


Fair 


- 


Sunday... 2il.(j0 


21 


81 


S. Fresh 


CJloudy 


■i 


Monday.. 29.63 


22 


7.5 


S. E. Gentle 


Fair 


t^ 


Tuesday. . 


M 


66 


S. W. Brisk 


Clear 




Wedday.. 












Thnrsd'y. 30.18 


31 


79 


N. Gentle 


Cloudy 




Kridaj-.... 30.3.5 


29 


8.5 


N. (ientle 


Clear 




Saturday. 311.23 


IK 


6.5 


N. Fresh 


Fair 


-. 


Sunday... 30. 13 


19 


8.5 


N. W. Light 


Cloudy 


z 


Monday.. 30.06 


2K 


76 


N, W. Gentle 


(Cloudy 


;■* 


Tuesday. 30.01 


41 


.51) 


S. K. Light 


Cloudy 




Wed'day..2S».% 


39 


M 


S. W. Fresh 


Cloudy 


■*i 


Thur8d'y.30.05 


30 


.59 


W. Brisk 


Clear 




Frida.v....3U.21 


13 


79 


N. W. Fre-ih 


Clear 




Salurday.30.06 


8 


76 


W. S. Lightl 


Clear 




Sunday.. .I'D.D.'i 


14 


61 


Calm. 


Cli-ar 


.■* 


Monday.. 2il.S)8 


32 


48 


N. W. Fresh 


Fair 


3= 


Tuesday. 30.01 


38 


.56 


Calm 


Cloudy 


.■^ 


Wed'day..-29.SB 


31 


42 


S. W. Gentle 


Fair 


b 


Tliursd'y .30.10 


31 


79 


S. F'resh 


F'air 


Friday.. .30.24 


20 


8.5 


(Jalm 03 


Clear 


s 


Salurday.3U.ia 


9 


78 


S. W. Gentle 


Clear 


^ 


Sunday... 30.01 


13 


81 


S. Fresh 


Clear 




Monday .30.01 


22 


8.5 


S. Gentle 


Clear 


,1 


Tuesday. 30.03 


37 


S3 


S. Vf. Fre-h 


Cloudy 


•■~ 


\Vedday..29.92 


44 


30 


W. Fresh 


lair 


q^ 


Thur8dy..30.26 


4 


74 


N. W. Light 


Clear 


:i 


Friday... 30. 11 


26 


7i 


N. W. Fresh 


Cloudy 




Sat urday. 












Sunday... 30.2S 


IH 


84 


Calm 


Foggy 
Cloudy 




Monday . .30.21 


20 


8.5 


S. Light 


*i 


Tuesday...30.10 


27 


88 


S. Gentle 


Fair 


> 


■\Ved'day..29.96 


33 


89 


S. Fresh 


Fair 


^ 


Tliursd'y..30.13 


18 


67 


N. W. Brisk 


Threat. 




Friday... 30.0( 


34 


79 


s. W. Gentle 


Clear 


ft 


Saturday 30.37 


:». 


8ft 


N. 15. Fresh 


Fair 


C 


Sunday.. .30.3i 


24 


86 


N. E. Fresh 


Clondy 




Monday. 31. :>7 


16 


83 


N. Fresh 


Clear 


."' 


Tuesday. 30.36 


2.5 


86 


S. Fresh 


Cloudy 


> 


Wcddaj 













Sacramento. 

LBy T.M.Logan, M. D., Secretary State Board of Health. 

Jan. I, 1872. Rainfall for the season to date.. 12.421 inches 
" 10, " " from Jan. 1 " " ...3.0.;0 *' 

Total for the season up to Jan 10. 1872 15.451 Inchs. 

Rf.M.vuks.— The succession of southeast storms, which 
set in on the 17th of Dec. last, appf'ars at last to have ex- 
liaustt'd tUL'iuKelvcs, leaving our pmins delujjed and an am- 
ple supply of water impounded on our mountain sumniitfi, 
in the form of snow. At all (fvents the indications, at the 
present writinK. are favorulilo for clear weather. Wind 
S. W. and barometer attiadily rising. 



QtjY p/I\f\KET R^Efoj^Y. 



DOMESTIC PRODUCE AT WHOLESALE. 



(The prices given below are those for entire consignments 
from drst hands, unless otherwise specitied.J 

San Fkancisco, Thurs., a. m., Jan. 11. 

FLOUR — We note a fair local demand with 
a moderate enquiry for export. Sales reported 
embrace 5,000 bbls. Cal. extra, 2,000 do. Cal. 
superfine, and 3,000 Oregon extra. We quote 
prices as follows: 

Supeiiiue, S.5.75@6.00 ; extra, in sacks, 
of l'J6 ibs. iJT.OO. Standard Oregon brands, 
extra may be quoted at $7.00. 

WHEAT — In limited demand, and but little 
inquiry for export. Prices show a further de- 
cline. Sales aggregate 10,000 sacks fair to 
choice at a2.20fe2.30 ti^lOO lbs. Quotable at 
close at S2.15(((i2.;50 per 100 lt)s. 

The latest Liverpool market quotation comes 
through at 13s. per cental — an advance since 
our last weekly re^•iew of 4d. 

B.YBLEY — Has been very quiet during the 
past week, at a decline in prices. Sales em- 
brace 5,000 sacks ordinary coast to choice bay, 
at l51.50(njS1.75, which is the range at close. 

O.VTS — Market has been inactive during the 
week under review. Sales 2,500 sacks ordinary 
coast to choice bay, at S1.G5@,1.«0 per 100 lbs. 
whi(^h is the range at close. 

COUN— Is quotable at 2.05@2.15 for yel- 
low and white respectively ^j 100 lbs. 

COllXJIEAL— Is quotable at S2.75@$3.25 
from the mill. 

]U'CKWHE.\T— Is dull at 92.50 per 100 lbs. 

KYE — According to quality is quotable at 
S2.37%(a;$2.40per 100 lbs. 

STUAW— Quotable at §7.00@S8.00 per ton 
by the cargo. 

BR.\N — Selling at $31 per ton from the mill. 

MIDDLINGS— For feed, are selling at $12.50 
per ton from mills. 

OIL CAKE MEAL— In good demand at $-10 
from the mill. 

HAY — lleceipts have been light, and prices at 
clflse are i!l7@,22 for fair to choice %i ton. 

HONEY — We quote Ijos Angeles comb at 
12%(ail.')C. Potter's in 2- lb cans, $1 per doz. 

hEESWAX — In good demand at 40c f^ lb. 

POTATOES— Market has been quite dull 
during past week owing to frre receipts. Differ- 
ent qualities are selling at 50(^'J0c. per ctl. 

SWEET POTATOES— Are seUing at $1.25 
% 100 lbs. 

HOPS— The range is 45@60c. 

HIDES— During past week 1,142 Cal. drv 
sold at 18@ 10 and 1,2(;5 salted at 8@9%c. 

WOOL — The market has been quite firm 
during the week under review; sales of 70,000 
Djs. are reported at full rates. Prices for good 



to choice shipinng grades are 22(a 28c per lb. 
Sales of extra choice at 30c.; hurry 17(aj21. 

TALLOW— Market quiet at 8%@'Jc ~f, ft). 

SEEDS— Flax 3c.; Canary, 5(5 7c., Alfalfa, 
HX^lli;; Mustard — California Brown, 3(aj,Gc; 
Cal. White ■.i~^(ii'i%c. '^ lb. 

PROVISIONS— California Bacon 13%(rt 14c; 
Oregon, 14%(fr«15c; Eastern do. 13Jj(«il4c; 
for clear and 14(ail5 for sugar-cured Breakfast; 
Cal. Hams 11(«;14%; Oreg<)n,15%@16c; Califor- 
nia Sugar-cured Hams, lG%@17c; Oregon do. 
17@18c; Eastei-n do, 18(a>20c; CaUfornia 
Smoked Beef, 13@14c. per It). 

BEANS — Market continues fair. The follow- 
ing are jobbing rates: Pea $3@3.15; small 
White $2.75(0 $3.00; small Butter S2.50@2.75, 
largo s;3.00(a.,:?3.25; Pink §3; Bayo, $3.40(«, 
S3.li0; Navy $3.50 "0 100 M. 

ONIONS— Fair to choice Silverskins $1.00@ 
$1.50 "^j 100 as. 

NUTS— California Almonds, 8@10o. for 
hard aud 18(a}25 for soft shell; Peanuts, 5@ 
7c; Pecan, 25c ^j Hi Walnuts, new, 12},^c; Hick- 
ory, 12c; Brazil, IGc; Chili Walnuts 10c. ; East- 
ern Chestnuts 25c per lb.; Cocoanuts fU.OO i)er 
100. 

COFFEE— Costa Rica 21c; Guatemala 20c; 
.Jbv. '25y,c; Manilla, 10%; Rio lV%(a.20. 
Ground Coftcc in cases 30c. 

SPICES— Allspice 14@15c. Cloves lG@17c. 
Cassia 35(a;3Gc. Nutmogs$1.00(»,$1.10. Whole 
Pepper 190. GroundSpiccs — Allspice $1.00 '<j^ 
doz.; Cassia $1.50; Cloves SI. 12%; Mustard 
$1..50; Ginger and Pepjjer, each $1.00 '^ doz.; 
Mace $1.50 '#, lb.; Ginger 15c ^, lb. 

FRESH MEAT — Market has remained firm 
since last report. We quote slaughterer's rates 
as follows : — 

BEEF— American, 1st quality, 10@llc^ft). 
do. 2d quality 'J(a(10c %>, tt>.; do. 3d do. 7(gi8c. 

VEAL— Quotable at8@llc. 

MUTTON— 10 @Hc ~^ lb. 

LAMB— 12%c yi Bj. 

PORK — Untb-esscd grain-fed is quotable at 
C@C%c. dressed, grain-fed, 'J@9%c. per lb. 

POULTRY- Live Turkeys, 20(«'21c ^ ft), 
dressed, 22(((;25c. per lb. ; Hens aud larj^e Roos- 
ters, $0.00 per dozen; Spring Chickens, $7.00(n; 
8.00; Ducks, tame, $'J.O0(ai 10.00 per doz. ; Geese, 
$15(aj$18 ^, dozen. 

WILD GAME — Dealers pay the following 
prices for lots from the country: Hare, S3.00(rtj 
$3.50 per dozen; Rabbits, $1.25(«;$1..50; (^uail, 
$1.75(2:2.00; English Snipe, $2.00(o $2.50; Mal- 
lardDucks, $3.0U(«$3..50; Small Ducks, $1.50; 
Wild Geese $1.5O(«i,$3.O0 "^ doz. 

DAIRY PROD U CTS—Cahfomia Butter, com- 
mon to good in rolls,may be quoted at 40(a'47%c; 
California firkin butter, 27%(a 32%c. Pickled 
25(g32%. Eastern firkin 20(a;30c. per lb. 

Cheese — California,15(a)19c, Eastern, !G(^17c. 
per lb. 

Egos — California fresh, 60(^63c. '^ doz. 

LARD-Cahfornia 12%(^13%; Oregon in bbls. 
and kegs 12%(Vjjl3c.; Eastern in cases 14%(^15 
do in tcs. l'2%(«i,13c. per lb. 



FRUIT. 



Mex. Orangc.'<.M.$2-i OtyMb W) 
Calilorniado .. l.'> W^ij Ofi 

Limes 10 U<>ig,li 00 

Ausiln Lemons, bx 4 00(g) — 
Sicily do ^ bx 8 00(oil8 00 



2 S0@ 3 00 
2 Mat 3 Ml 
1 ■ZSai i !S 
1 UOm I M 



20 @22 

. 10 (U|15 

. 8 (a)l2>ii 

15 tiU 



fJal. do T9 100 

Hananas,^. bniicb 

Apples, eating, bx 

do eookJDK, bx 

I'ear-s ^ box.... 

DEIED FRIIT. 

Apides. f* Ik 6c @ 7c Pitted, do ^ lb.. 

Pears, ¥( B) K iCylO IJaislnJ. 'S tti 

I'caches, -# n. 8 © 9 'BIsr.k Figs %* lb... 

Apricois, i=( lb 8 (gi «>s White, do .... 

I'lums.l* lb 6 (5 8 I 

VEOKTABLES. 

Cabbage, ^ lb 1 (S; IM jMarfl. Sfinash.ton $10 00@$1.') 

iiarllc,%i tb 1 M —1 

GENERAL MERCHANDISE. 

AGRICULTURAL IMPLEMENTS— Dealers 
rej)ort a good demand for seasonable articles 
under this head. 

BAGS AND BAGGING— There is only a 
moderate demand for any kind at present, and 
prices remain largelv nominal. 

BOOTS AND SHOES— There has been a 
fair demand during the week under-review for 
goods in this line at unchanged rates. 
BUILDING AND FENCING MATERIALS— 
The local trade has been fair, and oulj' moderate 
demand for exjjort. Dealers pay for cargoes 
of Oregon as follows: Rough $1G; do 
dressed $30; Spruce $17(V^18; Redwood $1(;(«', 
$30, for rough and dressed. Redwood Lum- 
ber Association's prices are as follows: 

Merchantable worked rustic, $:n 00 to $.32 60 

Kiluao do do 20 00 to 2160 

Merchantable surfaced and rough clear !i8 00 to aO 00 

Refuse surfaced and rough 18 00 to 20 00 

Merchantable beaded flooring 28 00 to 3U OU 

Kef use do do 18 00 to 20 00 

Merchantable rough 15 00 to 16 00 

Refuse do do 11 00 to 12 00 

Fancy Pickets 22 .50 -to 25 00 

KonghPickets 15 00 to 16 00 

The mill price for cargo lots from Northern 
Ports is $9.00@$10 for timber, and $17.50(as 
S20 fordooring. 

FISH — We quote Pacific Dry Cod in bun- 
dles at 5c., and in ca.ses at 8(W/8%c; Salmon, 
in bbls. $5..50(«/7..50, hf do, $3;50(o;4.50; Case 
Salmon, $2(a!3 fi doz for l(^2-ft> cans respec- 
tively; Pickled Cod, $4.50 in hf bbls aud $8 in 
bbls; Puget Sound Smoked Herring, (;0(^85c 
]>er box; Mackerel, hf bbls, new, per rail, 
$12; do in kits, $3; extra mess do, .$5; No. 
1, via Cape Horn, $8(gi,10 for hf bbls aud $2.50 
for kits; Smoked Salmon, 7(aj7%c per lb. 

NAILS — Quotable at $5.50(^7.75 for invoice 
lots ex ship. 

PAPER — California Straw Wrapping, sells at 
$1..50 ^ream. 

PAINTS— We quote White Lead at 10(«;i2%c; 
Whitening, 2c; Chalk 2%c '^ lb. 

RICE— Sales of China No. 1 at834(g8%c and 
No. 2 at7%(ai8c ^ ft>; Siam, quotable at 7@. 
7%c in mats; Carolina, 10c; Table, 9(a;9%c 
per B). 

SUG-\K— We quote Cal. Cube at 14%c; Cir- 



cle A Crushed, 14%c, and Granulated 14c; Yel- 
low Coffee and Golden C, 12%(^13<!; Hawaiian 
8(>t,12c as extremes ^ ft). 

SYRUP — Prices may bo given as follows: 
82%c in bbls, 85 in hf bbls, and 90c in kegs. 

SALT— California Bay sells at $5^$15; 
Carmen Island, in bulk, $13;.Liveri)ool Coarse, 
$18(n'20; do Stoved, $22.50 '^, ton. 

SOAP — The prices for local brands at 5(^ 
10c,. and Castile at ll%(rt!l2%c t^, 1^'- 

TEA — We (luote Hyson at G0(«!75c ; Gun- 
powder and Imperial, 95c(t^l.05 ; Young Hy- 
son and Moyune, 90c(S,1.15; FooChow Oolong, 
50(«!90c; Pouchong, 37%(2i45c; Souchong, 50 
(2j75c; Jajjan 40(2^7 5c. "^ ft). 



San Francisco Retail Market Rates. 



Butter, Cal fr. lb 
Pickled, Cal. lb 
do Oreffon, lb.. 

Honey. ^ lb 

Cheese. V lb — 

KflKS. per d02.. . 

Lard. ■# ■■ 



TiiL'KsDAT A'ooN, Jan lary lUi, 1S72 
MISCKLLA.NliOUS. 



GO 
W 

v> ® 

20 @ 
IS 






Sufrar, cr.. ti'" Ib.l (K) <aj 



Potato CJ'yBaKS. 

Second-hnddo 

Deer Skins, t* lb. 



22 (9 
1.^ (4 
\h f5) 



Ijrown.do.f* lb 

Heet, do ' 

Sui;ar, Map. lb. 
■ od. lb. 



(lU 13 



^ 30 
IM .111 
m 30 



Wheat-sks. 22x30 12 9 13 

.. „ .. ^ ,^^ 

1.^ 

- W 

Sheep sks, wl on .VI (^ 1h 

Sheep sks. plain. 12S<* Vi 

<;c«at nkins. each. 2.*) (Si) .W 

DryCal. Hi.les.. 18'»« IS 

Salted do - (01 VA 

Drv Mex. Hides •-■■^ 
Salted do 



Codfish, dry, lb 

Live Oak Wood. 9 .VI ®I0 IK) 



10 "@ 12)i 
8>.® 



Plums, drlei 

Pe.aches. dried. 

Wool Sacks, new (^ Tallow, 

Second-hnddo 67>ii3 70 

PRODUCE. ETC. 
Flour, ex. ^bbl..7 .'0 ® — 

Superfine, do .fi .00 (^ — 
Com Meal. 100 th.3 0« @3 .Vi 
Wheat. •»', 100 Ibs.a 40 (3 2 (SI 
Oats, |t 100 lb8...1 ',h @1 !IU 

FRUITS, VECKTABLES, ETC. 
Pine Apples, +....■> 00 (0.9 I "I Cress, •» doz bun 20 @ 25 
Bananas, V I' 'eh 30 ay 51 | Dried Herbs, b'h 25 (31 50 

Cal. Walnnts, 0). 10 2« Garlics 5 (t; 

Cranberries, ^ K 75 fel 00 iCreen Peas, 1^ lb toi 14 
Cranberries. 0.1 ((Jll i') 'Lcttnee, ^. doz.. 12 @ 24 
Pears, table.'j* bx 75 (gd 25 Mushrooms.^ tt) I2'3'9) 15 
Plums, Cherry,*. 6 (g) 8 llorseradisb.ri lb fm 2U 
"iS B. - •' " 



Barley, cwt 1 S5 l82 20 

Beans, cwt 3 .V) 34 .'ill 

D y Lima Bean> 't« Hi 8 

Hay, S ton.. ..23 OU (328 Otl 
Putatocs^, cll .. 75 %*1 12,<ji 



Oranges.^ IOUil..3:i 00 (a) 
Lemons, V mtt. 5 IIO &7 00 
l.inits per 10U...1 m fat 
Kijis. dried, "f^ lb. fSi 

Asparayus, wh.* 
Artichokes, doz. 
Ilrussel's sprts, * 

Beets. ¥ doz 

Potatoes. ^ lb . . 
PoUitoes, s>veet,* 
Broccoli. V doz. I 50 
Caulillower, t .. 
Caliluise. j*doz.. 75 
Carrots. j( doz. . . 10 
Celery. t« doz 



Ukra, dried, irt iw 
Pumpkins, ff lb. 
Parsnips, t bncha 

Parsley 

Pickles. 'P cal... 

Rhubarb. "# lb.. 

m 12S. Radishes, t buna 

■ ■■■ Red, do 

Marrowfat, do. 

Hubbard, do.. 
Dry Lima. shI... 
SIHnaKl^ t* bskl. 
Salsify. f> bunch 12 (oi 24 
Turnips,^ doz.. (^ 25 





(<U .VI 



POULTRY. GAME, FISH, MEATS, ETC. 



(thickens, apiece 87)4(a)l 00 
Turkeys, ^ lb.. 25 («i 30 
Ducks, wild, ¥ p 50(91 00 

Tame, do 1 .V) (ail 75 

Teal, f* doz.... 3 00 

Geese, wild, pair 75 gil 00 

Tame, "iH pair.. 2 .V) l^fil m 

Hens, each 75 (a.l (10 

Hniiie. "{< doz .. 1 -V) (u.2 00 

EnKlish.do... 2 SO l<l.3 00 
Quails. -^. doz ...2 2.'. (a2 .V) 
Piiieons. dom. do3 no to3 .V) 

Wild, do 1 -V) Is'iOU 

Hares, each ... 40 Mi .VI 
Itabbits. tame.. .VI @.l 00 

Wild.do.lH dz.l 75 (0,2 00 
Squirrel, "f* pair. '" "" 

lieef. tend, p lb. 

Corned, iji lb. . 

Smoked. V B) . 
Pork, rit), etc.. lb 

Chops, do, "^ lb 
Veal, It* ft 

Cutlet, do 

Mutton chops,* 15 

Lee, I* tb 15 

Lamb, {>. It) 

Tongues, beef, eA 
Tongues, pig, ca 
Bacon, Cal., 1* Ik 18 

Oregon, do 18 

Hams, Cal. 1^ lb. 18 




Hams, Cross* s c — (a) 25 

Choice D'fHeld — (m 25 

Whittaker's . . — ^ 25 

Johnson's Or. . — (ai 25 

I louuder. V lb... — a :-0 

Salmon, f* to — (4 20 

.Smoked, new,* 10 (g) 12 

Pickled, ■f lb., a 10 8 

Rock C:od. |» lb . . — @ .. 

Perch, s water.Ib 12':;0 20 

Fresh water.tt) — ^ — 

Lake Big. Trout* — (« 
Smelts.laige^.lb 

Small do 

Soles, j^ B> 30 (gi 

Herring, fresh.. 6 (u) — 

Smkd.nerlUO — («l 00 

Tomcoil, f! lb.... 30 @ 35 

Terrapin, V doz.4 00 <^5 00 
Mackerel, p'k.ea 

Fn^sh. do — @ — 

Sea Bass, ^ D). . . — (^ — 

Halibut — 1^ — 

Sturccon.T? B).. 8 (S) — 

Oysters, f( 100... 1 00 (»1 25 

r'),i.c.. «! Hny <al ml 



15 

Si 18 

35 



Cliesp. f* doz, 

Turbot — 

Crabs '¥. doz....l 00 

Soft Shell — 

Shrimps 12 

Prawns.. 



ml 00 
@ 75 
««l .VI 
a .VI 
18 



- @ 



■ Per lb. t Per dozen. 1 Per gallon. 



[Roy. — Duty; Pig, *i t*ton: iwinroau, eec p luu a.s: i 
hajl'^e p) lb: Sheet, polished. 3c V to: common. I'h(#I 
*i to • Plate, P^c ** to: Pipe, I'^c V to ; Galvaniz«!d.2'sc ^ 
Scotch andlEnglish Pig Iron, "t« ton $52 .VI (31 .55 ( 



San Francisco Metal Market 

•Corrected weekly by Hooker A Co., 117 and 119 Cal. street.) 

PRlCliS FOR I.NTOICIi 

JoyAng priceB ruU from ten to jiflten per cent, hiffher thmn (A« 
/ottowinQ g"Ofa i*nf. 

THritsp.w. January 11. 1872 
TR(,x_Dutv: Pig, S7^ ton: Riiilroad, Ulc >* luu tos: Bar, 

- - ...-.« ■■5(*Hic 

V lb. 
__ .. > 00 

White i»iK7"t< t'on ^ 45 00 6) - — 

Refined Bar. bad assortment, i* to — 04 (15 — 05 

Refined Bar. good assortment, V^ — 05 (g — OB 

Boiler. No. 1 to 4 — 05 Ijtt 

Plate, No. 5to» — — (g» — 06 

Sheet. No. 10 to 13 — 05'^(gi 

Sheet, No. 14 to 20 — 06 M 

Sheet. No. 24 to 27 _— 06 & 

Horse Shoeii. 7 .VI 

Nail Rod » 

Norway Iron *-■» 

Rolled Iron ,••■•.•.■. . ^ 

Other Irons for Blacksmiths, Miners, etc. 5 1^ 6 

COPPF.R.— Duty: Sheathing, S.'ic ¥ lb ; Pig and Bar, 2^0 

.^heithing, 3« to -24 @ - » 

Sheathing. Yellow- — 24 (^ — 25 

Sheathing. Old Yellow — 11 fe( — ll.ii 

Composition Nails — 24 — 

Composition Bolts • — 24 — 

Tin Pi,.Mf;s.— Duty: 25 T^ cent, ad valorem. 

Plates, Charcoal. IX ^ box 12 00 

Plates. ICI'harcoal 10 00 

Rooting Plates 11 00 

BancaTin. Slabs, 1? to 

Stef.l.— English 0»st, %* B) — 16 

Drill 18 

FlatBar .17 

Plough PoinU 3 75 

Russia ( for mouldjboards) 12!^ 

Quicksilver.— %i to — — 

LviD.-Pig, B* to "S-^ 

Sheet ~ 08 

Pipe — 9 

BaV! 08 

ZiNC.-Sheets, W to — 10 

BouAl.— Refined — 25 

Borax, crude — 5 



10 So 

— «i 

— IT 

17 
20 



- fa 

- 10 

- »» 

- Wi 

- 30 



UnrvEBsmi- of Calitobnta.— The Preparatory Depart- 
ju'iit is under the charge of five rrofessors of the Uni- 
versity, and six tutors. 

Besides the studies of the public Rchools, Aluebra, 
Geometry, Latin, Greek, German, French, Spanish and 
Book-KcepinK are taught. 

Terms: Board and tuition, 4 weeks, $.10. Students re- 
ceived at any time. tiioiiaE Tatt, Oakland, Master 
Fifth ClaKB. 8c9bptf 

$5 TO $20 PER Day and no Risk.— Do you want a situ- 
ation as salesman at or near home to introduce our new 
7 strand White Wire Clothes Lines, to last forever. 
Don't miss this ohancc. Sample Free. Address Hud- 
son River Wire Works, 75 WUliaBi street, N. Y.. or 1 
Dearborn street, Chicago, 111. 23vl-12mbp 

Ladies Desirino to Pbocurk a FntsT-OLASB SEwnNO 
Michine against easy monthly Installniente may apply 
to No. 294 Bowery, 167 E. 26th, 477 9th Ave., New York 
Good work at bifh prlccii U desu«d. aivl-Uiab]i 



January 13, ^^7^] 



^9 



Leather Market Report. 

[Corrected weekly by DoUlver & Bro., No. 109 Poet St.] 
San Fbancisco, Thursday, January II. 

Sole Leather.— The dpiimnd is still equal to the supply, 
and prices still continuo lirm. 

City Tanned Loathor.V 8) 26@'29 

SanU Cruz Leather, %( ft 2(i®29 

Country Leather, 1* ft ....^...... .26®28 

The market is well supplied with French stocks, and 
prices have a downward tendency. Heavy California skins 
are Mrm, with an upward tendency. 

Jodot,8 Kil., perdoz ttiO 00® 

,Jodot, 11 to li) Kil. .perdoz 76 00® 9.5 00 

Joilot, second choice. 11 to 1.5 Kil. ^ doz. 60 00® 8U 00 

Lenioine. 16 to 19 Kil .It* do/. 95 00® 

Levin. 12 and Ki Kil., perdoz 68 00® TO 00 

Cornellian, 16 Kil., per doz 72 00® 

Cornellian, 12 to 14 Kil., per doz 65 00® 70 00 

OgerauCaif, W doz 54 00® 

Simon, 18 Kil..% doz 65 00 

Simon, 20 Kil. ft doz 68 00 

Simon. 24 Kil. f* doz 72 00 

Robert Calf, 7 and 8 Kil 35 00® 40 00 

French Kips, f! ft 1 i 0® 1 JIO 

California Kip, Tft doz 65 00 to 80 00 

French Sheep, all colors, ^ doz 15 00 

EasternCalf for Backs, 1* ft 11.5® 125 

Sheep Roans for Topping, all colors, ^ doz 8 00® 13 00 

Sheep Koans for Linrngs,* doz 6.50® 10.50 

California Russett Sheep Linings 17-5® 5.50 

Best Jodot Ca' f Boot Legs, ^ pair 5 25 

Good French Calf Boot Legs, ^ pair 4.50® 5 00 

French Calf Boot Legs, f* pair i 00 

Harness Leather, 1^ ft 30® 37V^ 

Fair Bridle Leather, « doz 48 00® 72 00 

Skirting Leather, f» ft 34® 37.^ 

Welt Leather, « doz 30 00® SO 00 

Butt Leather, |( foot 17® 21 

Wax Side Leather, B foot 18® 20 



Farmers and others DnnpiM who got up clubs 
for the KuKAL Press Ill/IICW last year, can renew 
them promptly onco Yfllir* more at $3 per year, 
adding as many new ' UUl names as pos.sible. 
If you like the paper, P|||hc renew its sinews of 
strength, and we will vPUlJOi give you a better 
one next year. Our hand to the plow will not turn 
backward. We hope cone of our early friends will 
falter from our army of progression until entire success 
is carried and a thorouglily defined system of improved 
agriculture is understood and adoj^ted throughout the 
coast. Cash up to the man who took your subscription 
last year, whether he calls on you or not. Don't wait 
for a more favorable time. Any reliable person may get 
up a club for us without further authority. Sample 
copies and list of present subscribers furnished for any 
neighborhood ou application. Commence work, and 
send for list at any time. We must help one another. 
Your efforts will not be forgotten by DEWEY & CO, 



Tlie Fniits and Fruit Trees of America, or 

the Culture, Propagation, and Management, in the Gar- 
den ami Orchard, of Fruit Trees generally, with descrip- 
tions of all the finest varieties of Fruit, Native and 
Foreign, cultivated in this country. By A. J Do^VNING 
Illustrated; 1098 pages; 1869. The best authority, and 
only complete work. Price, in cloth and gilt, $-5, post 
paid, by Dewey A Co., this office 
New American Farm Book — originally by R- L. 

Allen; revised by Lewis F. Allen, IH7I. Embracing in- 
formation on all general subjects pertaining to Farming 
and all branches of Husbandry— a wide range, yet very 
fully Jind ably treated. WB pages. Price $3, postpaid. 
Address Dewev & Co., this ofhce. 

Harris (Joseph) on the Pig. Breeding, Ro.ir- 

ini,'. Management and Improvement. Illus., 2.50 pages. 
1S70.» Interesting to all readers: instructive and full of 
hints to raisers. Price $2, post paid from this office. 

Cranberry Culture, by a Practical Grower in 

N. J., .loseph J. White. A special treatise of 126 p.ages. 
Post paid from this office, $1.7.5. 

Farm Implements and Farm Machinery, and 

the i>rinciples of their construction and use. With simple 
and practical explanations of the La\\'s of Motion and 
Force as applied on the Farm; by .John J. Thomas; 2H7 
illustrations .and 302 pages. Sold by Dewey & Co., post- 
paid, for $1.75. 



VOLS. I AND II 

Of the Pacific Rural Press can now bo had, com- 
plete, for $:j per volume. Bound, $5. A. tew files only 
have been saved. 



Dickey's Liquid Rennet, 
For malting Slip, Curds, Whey, Custard, Etc., and for 
preparing Infants' Food. 

It is prepared from the lining membrane of the 
stomach of tlie calf, and is invaluable as a corrective to 
render cow's milk digestible when it is found to disa 
gree with the tender infant. Full directions accompany 
each bottle, which is sufficient for eight gallons of milk. 

For sale by all druggists and grocers. Iv3-3m 



Go to the Best. — Young and middle-aged men 
should remember that the Pacitio Business College is 
the oldest and most popular and successful Business 
Training School on this coast. Upwards of Three 
Thousand Students have atiended during the past six 
years, many of whom now hold prominent positions in 
the first banking and mercantile houses of this city. 
This is the model tr-uning school for business on this 
coast, having the greatest corps of Professors and 
Teachers, and the greatest number of stur''jnts in at- 
tendance, of any institution of the kind. Young men 
flock to this College from all parts of the Pacific States 
and Territories, British Columbia, Mexico, Sandwich 
Islands and South America. We shall be pleased to 
send our College Circular, giving full information, to 
all who send us their address. When you write, mention 
that you saw this notice in the Pacific Rural Press. 
M. K. LAUDEN, President, San Francisco, Cal. 



A Tea Culturist wants a situation. Zamba, a young 
■lapanese, now stoi)inng .at C14 Pine street, San Francis- 
co. Can also do ornamental hair work. 



Annual Meeting. 



The Annual meeting of the STATE AGRICULTURAL 
SOCIETY, for the election of officers for the ensuing 
year, and for the transaction of other business, will be 
held at Agricultural Hall, corner 6th and M streets, Sac- 
ramento, on the 24th instant, at 12 o'clock noon. 

A general attendance is requested. By order of the 
Board. I. N, HOAG, Cor. Secretary. 



Farmers and Gardeners, Attention. 

Do you want to buy 

SEEDS AND PLANTS 

that you may surely rely on ? Go to 

SEVIN VINCENT & CO., 

the well-known Seed De;iler8, 
005 Sansome St., Viet ween Wash- 
ington and .Taikson streets, San 
Francisco, and Brooklyn, .Ma- 
meda county. Mr. Seviu Vin- 
cent is the only Seed Grower of 
California. He guarantees the superior qual- 
ity of his seeds, and all those imported he 
tests with the greatest care before selling. 

Bo sure he will sell you the best and 
cheapest. jrl3.2m8t 





FULL BLOOD PERCHERONS. 



THE WHITE PRINCE ! 



The Perchorou or Norman Horse, WHITE PKINCE, 
was imported into Ohio from France in July, 1870, ac- 
combanied by 

A FULL BLOODED MARE. 




White Prince was five years old last spring, and pos- 
sesses the square, compact, solid form, with the gt od 
action of the Percheron race. 

The Mare was bred in Ohio, from Imported Perchorcn 
Stock, and has been 



Awarded. Three Premiums 

at the State Fair in Ohio (that is as often as she could 
compete) , as the Best Mare in the State. 

Louisa, at four months old, weighed CM pounds; 
girths, 5 feet; weight is not a matter of great interest; 
but the square, compact, nice form which she presents, 
is a matter to be especially noted. 

I also at the same time (December last) imported 

TWO THKEE-QUAETER BLOOD MAEES, 

one of which has a promising horse colt. 

Prom the above it will be seen that I am able to raise 
Full Bloods and High Grades. 

For any further information, address 



llv2-lamfim 



W. C. MYEK, 

Ashland, Oregon. 




^^ — 



The First Edition of Two Hundbed Thousand copies 
just published. It is elegantly printed on fine tinted 
paper, in Two Colors, and illustrated with over Tbkf.e 
HuNLiiiED Enoravings of Flowers and Vegetables, and 

TWO COLORED PLATES. 
The most beautiful and instructive Catalogue and 
Floral Guide in the world— 112 pages, giving thorough 
directions for the culture of Flowers and Vegetables, 
ornamenting gi-ounds, making walks, etc. 

A Christmas present for my customers, but forwarded 
to any who apply by mail, for Ten Cents, only one- 
quarter the cost. Address JAMES VICE, 

dec30-3t Kochester, N. T. " 



GREATEST NOVELTY of 
the age, now on exhibition at 
208 Montgomery street.— 
WEED'S PATENT CARPET 
SWEEPER, Broom and Dust- 
pan combined. A child can 
sweep a largo parlor carjiet 
in three minjtcs without 
raising any dust. Call and 
examine them. Cheaper than 
brooms at fi^'e cents apiece. 
DORSEY & LOWERY, Agents 
^ for California, Nevada, Ore- 

gon and Idaho. Agents wanted in every county of the 
State. Exclusive right to sell Weed's Sweeper in Oregon 
for sale. No. 208 Montgomery street. Iv3-ef 




w. H. ooEEiLL, Pres't. 



p. MALOON, Sec'y. 



Pacific Bridge Company 

Arc prepared to build Wooden and Iron Bridges on 
SMITIl'.S PATENT TRUSS PLAN. 
Plans and specifications fmuished to counties or per- 
sons desu'ing to buOd. Lithographs and prices sent on 
application. 

Smith's Cast Tron Pier, durable as stone, and 
adapted to resist ra^jid currents, i)ut in at low rates. 

Address PACU'IC BRIDGE CO., 

3y2-3m-eow Oakland Cal. 



McDOUGALL & MARaUIS, 

Architects, 

!lVo. 33S JMontgoiiiei-y Street, 

San Francisco, Cal. 
Iv3 3m 



Pacific Oil and Lead Works, 

SAN FRANCISCO. 
Manufacturers of 

Linseed a,n(l Castor* Oils, 

OIL CAKES AND MEAL. 
Highest price paid for Flax Seed and Castor Beans de- 



3v3-eow-ly 



STUDEBAKER WAGONS. 




Have become 

The Standard Wagons of the Pacific Coast. 

For QuALiiT, 

Durability, 

Light Runnino, 

Good Proportion, 

AND Excellent Style, 
Tlioy IIiivo x\i> l»cor. 
Iron Axle, 

Thimble Skein and 

Heider Wagons, 
Of all sizes, with heavy tires rivited on, always on 
hand and sold for $100 to $165. 

Having established a Manufactory to build Wagons, 
Beds, Br.ikes and Grates, I am better prepared than 
ever to furnish 

Just the Kinds of Wag-ons Needed, 

■A.S I make a specialty of the wagon trade. 

The attention of Deaiees is especially requested. 
Send for Circular and Price List. 

2v.1-3m E. E. AMES, General Agent. 

Factory and Depot, '217 and 219 K street, SACUAjniNTO. 



Watson's Patent School Desl<. 




This liitc ami iiiiprirtani impioveiiiL'nt in adjiistable fur- 
niture for sclsools, li;ills .Tiitl other nuri)Oses, is now ottered 
to the public on lH)eral terms. All its superior points of 
usefulness and merits can only be realized upon witni-ssinj; 
its actual operations. Address Wiley Watson, Visalia. Tu- 
lare Co.. Cal., for further information. 2v'24-'2t 



Phelps' Patent Animal Trap, 




FOR GOPHERS, SQIRRELS, RATS, CAYOTES, 
and other "Varmints." 

This Trap, as may be seen, is of simple construction 
and not likely to get out of order, and very durable. 

It is "Very Efficient 
and can be used conveniently by women or children. 
THE CHEAPEST AND BEST YET INVENTED. Price 
50 cents. By mail, prepaid (to places where express 
charges are high), $1. A liberal discount to clubs oi 
dealers who buy by the dozen. Address the inventor 
and manufacturer, D. N. PHELPS, 

al-ly-awbp San Leandro, Alameda County, Cal. 



H. M. BALCH, 

432 Kearny St., S. E. comer of California st. (up stairs/ 
SAN FRANCISCO. 

Repairs and Tunes 

ALL KINDS OF 

MUSICAL, INSTRUMENTS, 

Either Brass, Reed or String. 



Special attention given to PIANOS, 
ORGAN.-., or MELODEONS. 

Mr. B is a practical workman of twenty- 
five years experience, and emi^loys none 
but experienced workmen. 

ORDERS from the coimti'y attended promiJtly. 
8v23-3msa 




livered at our works. 

Office, 3 and 5 Front street. 



Works, King street, bet. Second and Third. 



FARMS AND STOCK RANGES, 

On Government, State and Railroad Lands, 
IN NEVADA. 

Having siuTcyed a large portion of the public domain 

in Northern Nevada, I am prepared to select, locate and 

obtain title for parties desiring io secure such lands, in 

quantities to suit, and on the most favorable terms. 

Address or apply to A. J. HATCH, 

22v2-3m8a U. S. Deputy Surveyor, Reno, Nev. 



MAMMOTHJCUCUMBERS. 

SEEDS OF THE MAMMOTH CHINESE CUCUMBER 
(which attains a length of six feet and a circumference 
of ',ll<i inches), will bo mailed by the subscriber to any 
address on receipt of price, viz., 25 cents each or $2.fX) 
per dozen. D. W, CURTIS, 

Box 444. Helena, M. T. 

2v3-lm 

Ssilicll TTour Corn. 

The LITTLE GIANT shells four bushels of corn pel 
hour, and costs only $1.50. If you ever buy one, 
and it fails to give perfect satisfaction, you can get your 
money back by returning the Sheller. W(^ would recom- 
mend lazy men and women not to buy it, for it is an 
enemy to both. Local or traveling agents will be sup- 
lilie^ with Shellers at low prices, a nd given sole 
agencies to sell in their town or county. 

WIESTER & CO., 
17 New MortuQincry street, San Francisco, 



BEIGGS & BEOTHER'S 

CATALOGUE OF 

Flower and Vegetable Seeds, 



SUMMER FLOWERING BULBS, FOR 1872; 

Now ready. Consisting of 130 pages, on rose-tinted 
paper, with upwards of 4f separate cuts, and Six Beau- 
TiFiTL CoLOBED PLATES I Cover, a beautiful design in 
colors. The richest catalogue ever published. Serd 25 
cents for copy, not one-half the value of the colored 
plates. In the first order, amounting to not less than 
SI, the price of catalogue, 25 cents, will be refundeti in 
seeds. New customers i^laced on the same footing with 
old. Free to old customers. Quality of Seeds, size of 
packets, prices and premiums offered, niake it to the 
advantage of all to purchase seeds of us. See Cata- 
logue for extraordinary inducements. 

You will miss it if you do not see our Catalogue be- 
fore ordering seeds. 

Either of our two Chromos for 1872, size 10x24 — one 
a flower plate of Bulbous Plants, consisting of Lilies, 
etc.,— the other of Annual, Biennial and Perennial 
Plants, guaranteed the . 

Most Elegant Floral Chromos 
ever issued in this country. A superb parlor ornament; 
mailed, post-paid, on receipt of 75c.; also free, on con- 
ditions specihed in Catalogue. Address 



BRICGS & BROTHER, 



[Established 1845.] 



Rochester, New York. 

2v3-lm 



1857. 



SEEDS. 



1872. 



la Yoai-« E«1al)lislic<l. 



W. R. STRONG, 

Sand 10 J street SACRAMENTO. 

Garden, 

Flower, 

Field, 

Fruit, 

Tree and Shrub, 
Grass and Clover Seeds, 
Fresh, Pure and True to Name. 

Seeds forwarded by mail to any part of the United 
States at 8 cents per pound. 

My annual catalogue is ready and will be forwarded 
on application FREE. 

ALFALFA. 

50,000 pounds California AlfaUa, grown by J. Wil- 
coxson and others of the most careful and reliable pro- 
ducers. 

Kentucky Blue Grass, Red Top Timothy, Red and 
White Clover, Mesiiuit or Gramlna Grass, etc. 

Seed Potatoes. 

Eafly Rose, Bruze Prolific, Climax, Excelsior and 
other of the best tested varieties. An Eastern Agiicul- 
turist offers $1,000 for a potato superior to th^ Excel- 
sior in good qualities. 

W R. STRONG, 

2v3-3m 8 and 10 J Street, Sacramento. 




FRUIT AND ORNAMENTAL TREES. 

3«a GLEN G-A.Rr>i:iVS, *i. 



..=A=iONE MILE EAST FROM SACRAMENTO. ,.=i=. 

My stock embraces all the celebrated varieties that 
are favorably known, including the justly celebrated 
" HALE'S EARLY PEACH," of which variety I have 
1,500 bearing trees. Also, GRAPEVINE AND CUT- 
TINGS of the leading sorts; 100,000 Blackberry and 
Raspberry plants of the most popular kinds, warranted 
true to name; Mulberry Trees, for feeding Silkworms, 
in quantities to suit. All offered at low prices. 

Orders sent by mail to the Proprietor will be promptly 
filled. Now is the time to plant! Fall planting will add 
a year's growth to trees or vines. 

2v3-3m E. F. AIKEN, Proprietor. 

TREES AND PLANTS 

By the 100, 1,000 or 100,000, both 

Wholesale and Retail, at the 

Lowest Market Rates, at the CAPITAL NURSE- 
RIES, Sacramento, Cal. 

Pend for Catalogue, Price List and printed directions 

ROBERT WILLIAMSON, Proprietor. 
Office and Tree Depot at U street, between Fifteenth 
and Sixteenth streets, Sacramento. Cal. 22v2-lm 

M SEEDS! GARDEN SEEDS! ^ 

H. CONSTINE, No. 175 .7 st., Sacbamento. 

Wholesale and Relail Dt^aler in 

,V11 liiiulsi of tis«i-rt<'ii ?-<oo<ls, Grn.ss 

Seeds, Seed Wheat, Seed Barley, Seed Potatoes. 

Also. ALFALFA, of California growth and of best qual- 
ity. All at Lowest Prices. 

All orders from a distance filled with dispatch, and Seeds 
warranted Pure and Fresh. .lyii-.lm 

?S<'otlw, ifniit.*^, I'lsiiitw. 

Our Descriptive Catalogues and Price-lists of GAR' 
DEN, FIELD, and FLOWER SEEDS, SMALL FRUITS, 
SEED POTATOES, etc., etc., ready in January, and 
mailed Free to all on applicati(>n. We know the value 
of pure and true Seeds and Plants, as we grow Fruits 
and Vegetables for market ourselvts. D. H. BROWN 
& SONS, CheiTy Lawn Farm, New Brunswick, N. J. 



FRUIT AND SHADE TREES. 



and FLOWERING PLANTS, and all general productions 
of the Nursery and Garden. 

All varieties of Fruit, from the earliest to the latest in 
cultivation. All waiTanted tnie to name. 

Prices to suit the times. Wholesale and retail. 

Call and examine stock at Depot, J street, between 
Seventh and Eighth, next to P. H. Russell's grocery 
store. E. PARSONS, 

3v3-3m Nurseryman and Florist, Sacramento. 



SHADE TREES! SHADE TREES! 

LOCUST, LOBIBARDY, POPLAR, CIRCASSIAN 
and States Mulberry, California and States Bhiek 
Wftlnut, Wild <'lierr.v, WeepihK Willow, etc., Krow- 
iiiK ill my Nur9er,v. If'^ miles below Sacramento (Near Sut- 
terviliel.aiid which I now oiler to Pla liters and tlie Trade 
at iirieea to suit the times. Trees deli\er(ii 1e ears or 
ste.'iniers, or to any part of the city. \\i11)mit addiluuial 
charge. Orders by mail or express preniptly attended to. 



'iv3-3m 



.1. S. HARBISON, Sacrnmcnto. 



10 Beautiful Flo-wering Plants for $1.00, 

By mail, postpaid, from a splendid collection. Seeds 

and Bulbs FREE in every package. 
Send Stamp for Catalogue. H. A. CATLIN, 
jal3.4w Corry, Pa. 

NOR WAY 1 S.tJ:l'Jfe<^^ri^?^ 1 A T S ! 

laud, by one of the proprieliiis of this jouiual, can b« 
had at this office. 



30 



S'j^aiFia saii^BAs sphess. 



rjanuary 13, 1872. 



HILL'S PATENT 

EUREKA GANG PLOW, 




The undorsigiii^d, Manufacturers of "HILL'S PAT- 
EN'I' EUREKA OANG PLOWS." take this iiicthoa of 
calling the attention of A firiculturists throughout the 
Pacifu' States and Territories to the merits of the above 
named Plows, and otter the following reasons why they 
are entitled to preference over any other Plow in use. 

They are made of the best material, and every Plow 
warranted. 

They are of lipht dranght, easily adapted to any 
depth, and are very easily handled. 

They will plow any kind of soil, and leave the ground 
in perfect order. 

FIRST PREMIUMS! 

These Plows took the First Premium at the Slate Fair 
in Sacramento, in 1870: at the Northern District Fair in 
Marvsville, 187U and 1871; and at the Upper Siteruniento 
Valley Fair, Chico, 1S70 and 1871. At the Mechanics' 
Fair, held in San Francisco in 1871, a Silver Medal was 
awarded these Plows; and the State Agricultural So- 
ciety, at the last Fair, offered a premium of $41) for the 
b»'Bt Gang Plow. The committee was composed of 
practical farmers frcpm the agricullural counties, who, 
alter a fair test and thorough competition with the 
leading plows of the State, awarded the premium to the 
Eureka Gang Plow. From this it -will be seen that 
these celebrated plows still maintain their reputation 
over all competitors. Patented Sept. 7, 1869. 

Champion Deep-Tilling Stubble Plow, 

which took the First Premium over all competitors at 
the State Fair, 1871. It turns a furrow 14 inches deep 
and 24 inches wide. 

This Gang Plow combines durability with cheapness, 
being made entirely of iron by experienced workuien, of 
the best material. Over three hundred are now in use, 
and all have given entire satisfaction. 

Manufactured and for sale at the corner of Third 
street and Virgin Alley, Marysvillu, by 

HILL, & KNAXJGH, 
And also by most leading Agricultural Dealers in the 

State. All others are invited to apply at once for 

Circulars, prices, etc, lCv23-tf 



MATTESON & WILLIAMSON'S 




Took the Premium over all at the great Plowing 
Match in Stockton, in 1870. 

This Plow is thoroughly made by practical men who 
have been long in the business and know what is re- 
quired in the construction of Gang Plows. It is quickly 
ailjusted. Sufllcient play is given so thntthe tongue will 
pass over cradle knolls without changing the working 
position of the shares. It is so constructed that the 
wheels themselves govern the action of the Plow cor- 
rectly. It has various points of superiority, and can be 
relied upon as tht) Best and Most Desirable Gang Plow 
in the world. Send for circular to 

MATXLSON & WILLIAMSON, 
.14T2-3m Stockton, Cal. 




FIRST PREMIUM AWARDED at the State Fair of 
1870; also First Preniium at Mechanics' Fair, San Fran- 
cisco, 1871; and Silver Medal and First Premium for 
best Farm Wagon, and First Prcminm for the best im- 
proved Thimble Skein at State Fair, 1871. Also State 
Fair GOLD MEDAL for 1871. 

E. SOULE, 

Corner Tenth and I streets, 
ap23-3in Saciumento. Cal. 



JACKSON MICHIGAN WAGONS. 



The large sale of the above WAGONS has induced a 
number of persons to try and sell other Eastern-made 
Wagons, none of which have any proof that thev will 
stand in this dry climate. JACKSON WAGONS have 
the highest certificates from use for ten to fourteen 
years, c usequently the buyer runs no risk in purchas- 
ing the Jackson Wagons. All si2es for sale low by 

J. D. ARTHUR & SON, San Francisco. 

N. B. — Warranted for three years. 21v2-3m 

DEALERS AND CONSUMERS 

Are hereby notified that 

THE STANDARD SOAP COMPANY 

Continue to manufacture the following Standard 
Preparaticjus : 

Detersive, Prize Medal and Laundry Soaps; 

Kane's Condensed Soaps; 

Thomas' Cool Water Bleaching Soaps; 

Standard and Eureka Washing Powders; 

Madame Balcear's Washing Fluid and Liquid 
Bluing. 

Adamantine Candles, and a general assort- 
ment of Family, Laundry, Fancy and Toilet 
Soaps. 

■T" Manufactory, 204 and 206 Bacramento street, San 
Francisco, 21v2-3m 



BAKER & HAMILTON, 

Sacramento and iSan f ranclsco, 

— niponxEKS OF— 

H AR r> W^ A.R,E, 

Farming Implements, 

31aoliiiics, Etc., Eto. 

Oang: Plows, 

Sinele Steel Plows. 

Iron Plows, 

Harrows, 

Cultivators, 

Seed Sowers, 

Grain Drills, 

Etc. Etc. 
18v2-3m 



G-ang and Single Plows. 

I am prepared to furnish my pftpular Gang and Single 
plows, of the lightest draft (best Plow to scour in sticky 
soil} , and the most ethcient Plow made. My leverage for 
raising the gang has no equal — a thirteen year old boy 
can work it with ease. I make any pattern of mould 
desired, to order. Twenty years experience in plow 
making enables me to demonstrate all I say. and every 
Plow is warranted to do all I recommend it to perform. 

Send ydur orders early, and 'or further information 
apply 10 A. ELLISON, Patentee and Manager. 

26v2-2m Marysville, Cal. 

J. R. ANDREWS, 

SITCCCSSOB TO 

F. IMCAJVSEI-iLi & CO., 

House and Sign Painters, 

412 PDJE STREET, SAN FRANCISCO, 
Three doors above Montgomery st. 



F. M.4,NSELL still superintends the Fancy and Orna- 
mental Sign Work, 



Country Or<loi"s Attended to 

With Punctuality, Cheapness and Dispatch. 
2Gv23-3m-bp 



SAVE $42! WHY PAY $80? 

THE 

"HOME SHUTTLE" SEWING MACHINE, 
Pi-ice #:i8. 

This machine belngas good as the best, we have no 

esitation in recommending it to our friends as a supe 
rior midline for family use. We take pleasure in its 
exhibition, and invite all to call and exrmine it before 
purchasing elsewhere. 

It has a straight needle and makes a Lock Stitch. 
Send lor a circular. 

A<enta wanted in every county. Each machine war- 
ranted for live years. 

E. W. HAINES, Aeeut. 
17 new Montgomery street, Under Grand Hotel, 

lCv2-:im San Francisco. 



KRI^IN, 



MANtJFA'TVEEK OF 



Oflice, Soliool Eiavnitiir© 

AND SETTEES, 
And all kinds of Office and Cabinet Work to order. 
Office, No. C1I7 Clav street, near Montgomcrv, San 
Francisco. SILVER MEDAL awarded for the best Cali- 
fornia-made Othce and School Furniture, at the Eighth 
Mechanics' Fair, 1871. 19v2-3m 



R. IRELAND, 

The old Pioneer Broom Factory— Established Au- 
gust, '6(i. No. «2 J street, between Third and Fourth, 
Sacramento. All kinds of 

"Wood and "Willow "Ware. 

Manufacturer of Brooms, Brushes, Baskets, Matches 
and General House Furnishing Goods, and sells Nichols 
& Falvy's Tubbs and Pails. 16v2-3m 



Floral Guide for 1872. 

Containing seventy-two pages and Two Beautiful 
Colored Plates nicely illustrated, giving plain directions 
for the cultivation of nearly a thousand vakieties of 
Flowers and Vegetables. Full bound with your name 
in gilt, post paid, 50 cts. Paper cover and one colored 
plate, 10 cts. 

Address, M. G. RETNOLDS, 

22v2-6in Rochester, N. T. 



FXrSfE I^IVEitY. 

— THE — 

Finest and Most Complete Livery Stable, 

together with the Best Turnouts in the State, are at 
WATSONVILLE, Cal. BILLINGS & ALEXANDER, 
Proprietors. 

P. S.— Their new Hotel will be in full blast within 
fifteen days from this date. oc21-3m* 



CO-OPERATIVE MARBLE WORKS. 

JOHN DANIEL & CO., 

Manufacturers of and Dealers in 

Monuments, Headstones, Tombs, 

M.VNTEL PIECES, ETC., 

421 Pine street, between Montgomery and i 

Kearny, Sam Fbakcisco. 

aiv2-iy ujum 




4i 
Second St, 

LELAXD STANFORD 

X'reslcleiit. 
H. F. HASTINGS, Vice Prosideni 
JOS. CRACKBON, - Seoretarj 

o) clvtei.(>e^ O) e:KLou>eLE, 

^cneta,( J^i/ctii^^ ,^j?omc &//u^ 

v2-3m 137 Montgomery street, San Francisco. 



WAOHHOEST'S TOWN OLOOK 

— ahd— 

JETTELItY SXOItE. 




THE LARGEST AND FINEST STOCK OF GOODS 
AT THE VERY LOWEST PRICES. 

Every article of Jewelry bought in this establishment 
Waiuianted strictly as represented. 

Watches, Jewelry and Clocks Repaired 

KY THE BEST WORKMKN. 

All orders from the country promptly attended to. 
7v2-3m 



THE GKEA-T 
RETA.il DRXJO TJOXJSsiE 

OF THE PACIFIC COAST I 

JAMES G. STEELE & CO., 
Chemists and Apothecaries. 

«7" Import and sell directly from Eastern and Euro- 
pean Markets. 

NO. 521 MONTGOMERY STREET, 

San Francisco. 

Manufacturers and Sole Proprietors of 
STEELE'S GLYCERINE LOTION 

— AND — 

GRINDELLA LOTION, 

For the Cnre of Poison Oak. 
21v2-3m 



SAN JOSE REAL. 

FOR SALE. 



ESTATE 



Farms from $12 to $100 per acre. 

Garden Land from $100 to $300 per acre. 

City Lots in San Jose or Santa Clara on easy terms. 

Well Improved Suburban Homesteads and Desirable 
City Property for sale by 

J. A. CLAYTON, Real Estate Agent. 

Office on Santa Clara street, opposite .\uzerais House. 

Rents collected, Tas paid, and Money invested on 
first-class security, a0v2-3m 



FACTS LITTI.E KNOWN RELATIVE 

-To— 

LIFE I]Vft!*LJKA.IVCE. 

Losses Paid on the Pacific Coast under the Massachu- 
setts Law by 111,. NEW KiNGLAND . MUTUAL Life Insu- 
runcu C'tiinOMiiy nf Ho^toii: 

.\. C. E. Miller. Portland, Oregon, Premium overdue six 
iiioiillis at time of dcalli. t/iilllll. 

.1. W. .tones. (JuliiKa, California, overdue four months at 
time of death. $10.11(111. 

J. B. llaUlwin. Colusa, Calirornia, overdue three months 
at time of death. »1,0IJU. 

G. L. Porter. Virginia City, Nevada, overdue ten days at 
time ol death. it.Hm. 

L. (i. Peel. Walnut Creek. California, overdue eleven 
months at time of death, $.'i.UII(l. 

.1. H. Calden. Princeton, California, overdue four months 
at time ot death. *3,(I00. 

J. l.cvison. Hoise City, I. T., overdue two months at time 
of death. *10,OIKI 

C. W. Salter, Horr's Ranch, California, overdue two 
months at time of death. t.i.tmO. 

(;. O. Stevens. Danville, California, overdue one month at 
time of death, ih,»m. 

THE MAIN POINTS OF THE LAW UNDER WHICH 
THE ABOVE CLAIJIS W ERIS PAID. 

No Insurance on Life gs-shall bo forfeited by non-pay 
mentof iircuiium.-.?^ 

The net value of the Policy shall lie ascertained at the 
time of the lap-ie of the premiuiii, and be considered anet 
siiiKle [iremium of temporary insurance. 

If the diatli of the parly occurs williin the term of tem- 
porary insurance, the Coninany shall be hound to Jiay the 
whole policy the same as if there had l>een no lapse of pre- 
mium: provided, the t'onipany shall haxe the riL.'ht to de- 
duct from the face ot tile Policy the amount of iiremium 
due, with intiTcsI. at the ilate o( death. 

THE NEW ENGLAND MUTUAL LIFE 
INSURANCE COMPANY 

Was incorporated in 1835. It has occunmlated assets of 

SIO.OOO.OOO.OO. 

This Company charges no more for Premiums on its ineo- 
ranee than those companies who have the unjust clause 
( pay promptly or forfeit) embodied in their policiea. 

,„ ^, , WALLACE EVIRSON, General Aeent 

Otnce, Northwest corner of California and Sansome bts. 

San Francisco. Cal. '.i4v23-lm 




Tin: tiNLY Tiicimmiii i,i .^i.m.ss i ui.u.i.j, u.^ 

the Coast. Its object is toiiiij.ait a piaetieal and useful 
education to persons of both sexes and ot any age. 
Academic department for those not jirepared for Busi- 
ness Course. Accommodations for 40 pupils. Students 
«au commence at any time. For full particulars call at 
the College Oflicc, 24 Post street, or address 

E. P. IlEALD, 
President Business College. San Francisco. 




Will change giay hair to its )oiithfiil color with a few 
applicati >ns. Suits all shades of color and complexion. 
Will ni'ither stain hands, scalp or clothing. No sedi- 
ment; clear as crystal. No sulphur or other bad '^mell, 
but delightfully periumed. As a hair dressing it has 
no equal. It makes th - hair rich in apjicarance, glossy 
and curly; cures dandruff and all other irritations of 
the skin, and prevents the hair from falling out. Lib- 
eral discount allowed dealers. Addi^-ss or<icrs to J. F. 
FliOAZI, or H C. Kirk & Co., Sacramento; Hug & 
Schmidt, Agents, .WS Commercial "street: Heathfield, 
Bogel >i Co., 206 Battery street, San Francisco. Sold by 
all Druggists. del6-3t 



J. BREUNER & CO., 

Importers, Jobbers and Manufac- 
turers of 

FINE FURNITURE, 

BEDDING, MIRRORS, ETC., AT THE 

Very Lowest Prices. 

Nos. 166, 168 and 170 E street SACRAMENTO. 

]6v2-3m 

CHICKERING & SONS' 

PIA.IVO EOKTEJSJ, 



Mason & Hamlin's Cabinet Orgrans. 

L. K. HAMMER Agent. 

Also' Importer of Sheet Jlusic. Music Books and Mu- 
slcal Instruments. Finest Violin and Guitar Strings. 
No. 230 J street, SACRAMENTO. 16v2-3m 

HALLET, DAVIS & CO.'S CELEBRATED 

r»i A.IV OS. 

WM. G. BADGER, Solo .\gent for this Coast. 

Second-hand Pianos taken in Exchange for New. 

Also, Sole Agent for Geo. Woods k Co."s Parlor and 
Vestry Organs, the Finest in the World. 

Warerooms, No. 7 Sansome street, S. F. de2-lm 



JOHN J. NEWSOM, 

Architect, 
No. 430 Montgomery street, over the U.S, Treaaorjr, 
2Bt2-6iu Ban Fbancisco, 



January 13, 1872I 



SI 



KELSEY'S NURSERIES. 




OAKLAND. 
Established in 1852. 

CITY l>EPOT, 

317 Wasliington Street Sak Francisco. 

The Proprietor having upwards of 
100 ACRES OF NURSERY GROUNDS, 
well stocked with all the leading and best varieties of 
Fruit Trees and Fruit Bushes; also Evergreen and De- 
ciduous Trees and Shrubs, including the rarest of Coni- 
fers, can till all orders on the most reasonable terras 
and with dispatch. 

Choice Roses and Pot Plants 

of every variety. Trees and riants securely packed to 

travel any distance. 

FOREST TREES 

of Australia, Europe China and Japan; in fact, wc aim 

to have and to get all and everything desirable. 

Parties planting can tind in this establishment what 

ever may be wanted, for iise and beauty, in furnishing ;i 

place without being obliged to go from one Nursery to 

another. W. F. KELSKY, Proprietor. 

21v2-3m 

Jiew York Seed Warehouse, 



C. L. KELLOGG. 

427 Sansome Street, near Clay, 

SAN FRANCISCO, CAL., 
Iniporter ami Dealer in 

Garden, Field, Fruit, Flower 

AND TREE SEEDS, 
Ilamie Plants. 

Pure Alfalfa, Mesquite Grass, Etc. 

r>TJTCH BULBOUS liOOTS, 

Imported Direct from the 
First Flower Nurseries, in Vozelenzang, 
28v2-3m HAARLEM. 



Seeds! Seeds! 

New California raised ALFALFA CLOVER SEED, 
sold in quantities at J. P. SWEENEY & CO.'S 

Seed, Tree and Plant "Warehouse, 

409 and ill Davis street, San Francisco. 



Surprise Oats, 

At $8 per 100 lbs. All kinds of 
Seeds, at "Wholesale and Retail, 

Sold by J. P. SWEENEY k CO., 

409 and 411 Davis street, S. F. 



Ramie ! 

KOOTED PLANTS, 

Of the above valuable textile, raised in this State, for 
sale by the undersigned, in lots to suit, where further 
information In regard to Soil, Cultivation, et^., will be 
given. 



Inquire of 


J. P. S-WEENEY & CO., 




Seedsmen, 409 Davis street, S. F., 


Or of 


JOSEPH GRAHAM, 


22.v2-3m 


Haywards', Alameda Co., Cal. 



Garden Seeds. 

I have on hand and will be constantly receiving an 

Assortment of Garden Seeds, 

To which I invite the attention of my customers and 
the public generally. Will also receive orders for 

Trees, Plants, Shrubs, Etc., 

Grown at Oak Shade Nursery Davisvllle. 

ARTHUR FLEMING, 

Apothecary and Dniggisi, San Leandro, Cal. 
2-ivi 3m 

Kamie Iioot» lor Hale, 

IN LOTS TO SUIT. 

BY JOHN S. DRURY, 

At C. F. RiCHAHDs St Co.'s Drug Store, S. W. comer of 
Clay and Sansome streets, San Francisoo., 

And by "W. W, DRXTRY, at RAMIE NURSERY, 

On Amarican River, near Central Pacific RaUioad Brld{[e 

Bouth side, Sacramento. 

21v2>3m 



Best & Brown's Unrivalled Seed Separator. 



PATENTED AFTITJ^ QS, ISri. 



We wish to call the attention of Farmers, Millers and Threshers to the great usefulness of this Machine. 




. It makes a perfect separation of Barley, Oats, Abess, Pink Seed, Kale and Mustard Seeds, and other impuri 
ties, from Wheat, rendering the foulest grain (either \Vheat, Oats or Barley) perfectly clean and fit for seed at 
oue operation — common hand mills are nowhere. 

We Guaranty Every Machine to do Perfect Work 

at the rate of Thirty to Sixty Tons a day. They can be conveniently attached to and run in combination with any 
threshing machiue, and driven by the same power. 

Wc wish it distinctly understood (and wo mean all we say) that we clean grain that is too foul for the flouring 
mill separators, at one operation. 

Light Horse Powers, adapted to driving the Separator, ftirnished to order. 
State and County Rights for sale on reasonable terms. 



For further isarticulars address 
Send for Circular. 



I5EST iSfc X5RO"Wr«I, 

Manufacturers and Sole Proprietors of the Patent, Marysville, Cal. 

(2.'-v23-sa) P. O. Box 206. 



J. ROCK'S NURSERIES, 



SAN aOSE. 



Fruit and Ornamental Trees. 



;^9 



^.s5^ The attention of every Plnnter, Nur- ii;^ 
\fi,-^S^ serynian and Dealer is called to our ^''-' 
large and superior stock of 



Fruit and Ornamental Trees, 

Grape Vines and Small Fruits, 
Shrubs and Plants, Etc., Etc. 

IN LARGE QUANTITIES, AT LOWEST RATES. 
Catalogue fm-uished on application. 



21v2-tf 



JOHN ROCK, San Jose, Cal. 



W. R. STRONG, 
Commission Merchant, 

And Wholesale Dealer in every description of 
}«« IC E 13 S* , 

California and Tropical Fruits, Nuts, Honey, 
and Agricultural Produce, 

Nob. 8 and 10 J Street, SacR/Vmento. 

Ordi^rs for all classes of Merchandise filled and for- 
warded with dispatch. 6v2-3m 



Orange Trees ! Orange Trees !! 

I now offer to Planters and Dealers a large and splen- 
did stock of ORANGE, LEMON, LIME, and ENGLISH 
WALNUT TREES. Also, a limited amount of 

Grafted Orange on Lemon Stock. 

At Lowest M.arket Rates. Address P. 0. Box 2G5, Lo 
Angeles, Cal. 

13v2-6m THOS. A. GAREY. 



New Seeds and Plants. 

Just received, a prime lot of NEW ALFALFA CLO- 
VER SEED HYACINTH GLASSES, DUTCH BULBS, 
Etc. Always on hand a fine assortnient of all kinds of 
SEEDS, BULBS, PLANTS, FRUIT TREES, at the Old 
Stand. E. E. MOORE, 

Importer of Seeds, Bulbs, Plants, Etc., 
425 Washington street, San Francisco, Cal, 
Send for » CAtalogue, 16v2-t{ 



TREES 

AND PLANTS FOR SALE AT THE 

LIBERTY NURSERIES, 

Petaluma, Cal. 

The stock I offer for sale this season is as varied and 
oomplete as can be found at any Nursery on the Pacific 
Coast. It consists of 

Apples, Pears, Plums, Peaches, Apricots, Nectarines, 
Figs, Quinces. Cherries, Oranges, Ponigrauatcs, Mul- 
berries, Grapes, Currants, Gooseben-ies, Blackberries, 
Ra.'ipbeiTies, Strawberries, etc. 

Almonds, English Walnuts, California and Eastern 
Black Walnuts Butternuts, American, Japan and Span- 
ish Chestnuts. 

Locusts, Maples, Elms, Poplars and Willows. 

Evergreen Trees and Shrubs in great variety. 

Peciduous Flowriug Shrubs in variety, including a 
choice collection of Roses. 

Also a choice collection of Bedding and Conservatory 
Plants, selected from the best new varieties (importa- 
tion of 1871). 

For complete list send for Descriptive Catalogue. 

The above stock of Trees and Plants will be sold 

At the Lowest Market Rates 

of the reliable Nurserymen, and guaranteed to be true 
to name and label. 

K^ All orders from unknown persons must be accom- 
panied with the Cash. 

TREES packed in the best manner and delivered to 
Railroad or Boats in Petaluma for shipment to all parts. 



Address 
21v2-3m 



"W. H. PEPPER, 

Petaluma, Cal. 



Seed ! Seed ! Seed ! 

"Wheat— Algiers, Australian, Sonora, Club Chile, 
Ori'gon. 
Oats— Norway, Oregon, Surprise, Coast, Wild. 
Peas — Canada, Windsor, Waco. 
Buckwheat-Oregon, Chatfield, Humboldt Co. 
Corn— Southern. Eastern. 
Flax Seed— California, Oregon. 
Potatoes— Early, of all kinds. 

IN LOTS TO SUIT, BT 

R. M. CHAMBERLIN & CO., 

N. E. Comer Clay and Davis stnwts. Produce Exchange 

Building, San Francisco. 

10- Depot for the Pacific Oil Cake Meal. 19v2-3m 



Genuine Mesqutt Grass Seed, 

For sale at low rates in quantities to suit, and will be 
forward<'d by Mail or Express. 

ORDERS SOLICITED. 

Also, full assortment of GARDEN, FIELD, FLOWER 
AND TREE SEEDS. 
26v.'.lin S. D. TO"WNE, 

Petaluma, Cal. 



RIFLES, SHOT-GUNS, REVOLVERS, Gun 
Mat-irial. Write for Price List, to GREAT WEST- 
ERN tnj.* WORKS, Pittsburgh, Pa. Army Guns, Re- 
volvers, Etc.. IV' or traded for. JgenU Wanted. 

evs-tim 




T 1 1 JI3 

CALIFORNIA COTTON GROWERS' 

— AND— 

Manufacturers' Association. 

INCORPORATED APRIL 10, 1871, FOR TWENTY-FIVE 
YEARS. 

Capital Stock(;$500,000, in Shares of $20 
Each. 

The Company's Plantation of 10,000 Acres is situated 
at and surrounding the town of Bakersfield, in Kern 
County. The Association has recently purcliased of 
Messrs. Livermore k Chesier. Real and Personal Prop- 
erty to : he amount of $200,000. The Company's stock, 
independently of the profits of raising Cotton and Man- 
ufacturing the same, is fully secured by Real Estate. 
OFFICERS : 

L. H. BONESTELL San Francisco President. 

JAMES D. JOHNSTON, San Francisco Secretary. 

JULIUS CHESTER, Bakersfield. Kern County Vies ' 

Pri'Sident and Residnit Director. 

BANK OF CALIFORNIA Treasurer. 

LEONIDAS E. PRATT, San Francisco. .. .Law Adviser. 
23v2-tf 



MELON EXTRAORDINARY. 

TURKISH MUSKMELON 

OR BACHIRI, 

The first and only lot ever produced in America; raised 
by R. MARCHELLA, of Oroville, Cal., are now oflcied 
for sale in this market by the undersigned at the low 
price of $1.00 each ; forwarded to any part of the State 
by Express. 

One Melon Contains from 100 to 500 Seeds, 

So that any farmer, for the price of a single Melon, can 
start a patch of his own. This is the BEST TASTl'.D 
MELON IN THE WORLD, and will KEEP TWO 
YEARS. 

For sale by GEO. HUGHES, 

No. 313 and 315 Washington street, San Francisco. 

N. B, — The first 100 Seeds brought to this country cost 
850. de23-lm 

HOP ROOTS FOR SALE. 

I have a lot of Choice Hop Roots for sale at $15 per 
thousand. The suckers, instead of being cut off from 
the stock, were covered with earth, thus promoting the 
growth of the " laterals," which are used fur planting. 
I can also furnish healthy Lawton Blackberry Plants at 
$8 per thousand. Orders may be addressed throujih 
Dewey k Co., of the "Rural Press;" Dn.iKE & Emehson, 
•521 Sansome St., San Francisco; W. R. SiiiONO, 8 and 10 
J St., Sacramento; or direct to me, 

25v2-3m-16p CALVERT T. BIRD, San Jose, Cal. 



1871. 1871. 

Farmers, Look to Your Interests. 

GRASS, CLOVER AND FIELD SEEDS 
On hand, in lots to suit, at lowest market rates. Genuine 
Alfalta California grow n, Red and White Clo\er, Timotii.v 
Seed {Oregon and Eastern prown). Genuine Norway Oats. 
Also, choice varieties Seed Potatoes, Peas, Beans, ('ab- 
bage. Onion and Mehtn Seeds. Address JOHN, 0. DALY, 
No. 2.'i Front street, Sacramento. P. O. Box, No. 519. 
16\2-3m 

10,000 Acres of Land, 

Situated upon 

GRAND ISLAND, 

Twenty miles south of Sacramento, 

KOR LEASE ON SHARES FOR ONE, TWO OR THREE 
YEARS. 

The construction of the levee Is now going ahead. 
This land CANNOT BE EXCELLED IN PRODUCTIONS. 

Shipments can be made from any portion of tl>e 
island by all classes of vessels. 

Apply to G. D. ROBERTS, 

401 California street, San Francisco. 

Or to WM. GWTNN, 

16v2-tf Lime Merchant, Sacramento. 



J. M. MAXWELL 

1871. 



H. K. CUTUMINOS. 

1858. 

HENRY K. CUMMINGS & CO., 

Wholesale Fruit and Produce Commission 
House, 

ESTABLISHED 1858. 

415 and 417 Davis street, cor. of Oregon, San Francisco. 

Our business being exclusively Commission, we have 
no interests that will conflict with those of the producer. 
4v2:i-ly 



^V I I^ C O X ' s 

IMPROVED STEAM WATER LIFTER, 

With neither Engine, Piston, or Plunger. 

The moat Simple, Durable, and In all 
respects the most Economical of all 
Steam Pumps. Uses the same steam 
twice instead of once. Any person I'an 
run it. J'hey are used on the Central 
and Western Pacific R.R. from Oakland 

to Ogdcn. They are used for Water 

Works. Milling. Irrigation, and all other ordinary pump- 
ing. Solid for Descriptive Circularand Price List. Ad- 
dress ALLEN WILCOX, No. 21 Fremont street, Sau 
Francisco. 16v2-3m 

J. ROSS BROWNE, 
Olllce; Wo. '4t5 >Iont;s;*>"»®»'y Blocli, 

Sam F&uicuoo, Oai.. 




82 



S^^©I»I© 



^IK.IBSS« 



fjanuary 13, 1872. 







It ie one of the LarRpst, best Illustrated ami most Original 

and Enterprising Aerricultural Journals in America, 

and lius no rival on the we-^tern side of the 

Continent. Its circulation is Raindiy 

Increasing, and it is Very 

Popular with iti« 

Patrons. 

A IV JEW IIXJSBA.1VOT1Y, 

aa it were, is required on the Pacific Coast, on account of its 
j)ecuUHr seasons, soil, climate and topography. Tlie new 
discoveries, ideas, and useful hints evolved in its ra|nd 
protfress, are to be observed with interest, and read, as re- 
ported in the Pacific Rukal, with profit by practical and 
progro-sivo agriculturists everywhere. Sample copies of 
the PttE-SS, post paid. 10 cts. Subscription, $4 a year. 

DEWEY & CO., Publishers, 

No. 333 Montgomery St., San Francisco. Cal. Nov.,IS7l 



TO 
POST- 
MASTERS. 



GREAT 
INDUCE- 
MENTS. 



The Publishers of the 

PACIFIC RURAL 

PRESS 

now offer to the Post- 

mastere and regular 

Ex press Agents 
throughout the Faeitii; States exceedingly liberal teniis 
for soliciting subscriptions to sxieh a weekly as they 
can with all contidence recommend with pride, thus 
promoting homo industry; and subscribers will thank 
aud honor you for it. Be cautious of recommending 
journals which you are not positive are up to the wants 
of subscribers on this coast. Bear in mind, too, that a 
monthly journal of equal size to ours, at $1 a year, is 
far dearer than the Kubal Pkess at $4, with Odrlten 
Issues every quarter. Get up clubs tor your home paper. 
It has a greater vari- ppj lipe'y "f fresh and 
live reading, which Utl Ur can be heartily ap- 
preciated here, than PI 1 1 DO any othT HOME 
AND FARMING wLUDO. JOURNAL. Its 
popularity with its readers is unsurpassed. Send for 
sample copies and rates to agents. Get up lists this 
year and you can easily renew them next. See sub- 
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IllIE'S PATEl GANG PLOWS-PRICES REDITED. 




to offer t 



HUIE'S PATENT GANG- PLOW. 

Having purchased the Gang Plows impoited by Treadwell & Co., at very low figures, we are enabled 
:x them at greatly reduced prices — below the cost of importatiou— giving a Gang combining 



Simplicity, Utility. Durability and Low Price. 

They ore selling very rapidly and we would advise early orders. This is the cheapest GOOD Gang ofTercd 
Being boxed, the transportation is low. 

Price of Steel Gang, $60. Price of Collins' Gang, $75. Without Extra Shares. 

For an order of five Huie Steel Gangs wo will take off ten per cent. Addresa 

BAKER Ac HAIMILTON, 

Manufacturers and Importers of all kinds of Agricultural Instruments and Hardware, 

San Francisco and Sacrajiento. 



WiLLCOX & GIBBS 

Family Sewing Machine 

IS THE BEST IN THE MARKET. 

It is the Most Simple, 

Easy to mn (a child can operate it) , not liable to get out 
of order, sews the heaviest or lightest goods, and 
ie remarkable for the great variety, perfec- 
tion and durability of its wt-rk. 

It Is the only Machine 

Making the triple-threaded seam, with the twisted loop 
stitch, the strongest and most elastic made. 

The Willcox & Gibbs 

Received the only honorable mention and strongrecom- 
meudation at the last Stockton Agricultural Fair. 

Its Work Received the First Premium 
At the Sah Francisco Mechanics' Institute Fair, 1871. 

Don't Fail to Exiamine. 

nS> PERFECT SATISFACTION GUARANTEED. 

Other Machines taken in part payment. 
Call on or address 

WILLCOX & GIBBS S. M. CO., 

113 Post Street, S. P. 

22v2-9m 



TREES FOR SILK ! 



ZMultioatiHsi, 

1 year old, $20 per Thousand. 

Do. 2, 3 and -t years, $25, $.3.5 and $■«). 

ALBA AND MOKETTO, 2, 3 and i years, $40, $50, $C0 

CUTTINGS of all kinds $2.50 per thousand. 



LIKFOKTH, KELLOGG & CO., 



IMPORTERS OP 



HA^RDTV^-ARE 



AND 



AGRICULTURAL IMPLEMENTS. 



Tho attention of Farmers is respectfully called to tlio 
following Superior 



G.AJSG PLOW^, 

Which wo now offer as the best hitherto made : 

PACIFIC RAILROAD, 

MONITOR, 

EUREKA. 

General Agents for the Pacific Coast for the Celebrated 

WORLD MOWERS AND REAPERS, 
BALL'S OHIO REAPERS, 

TORNADO THRESHERS. 



TREES FOR SHADE! 

Finest and Cheapest m the state. | RumSBy'S Lift and FOPCe PumpS, 

WliiteandBlael«:M:iill>erryi.^QQ^.^^Qj^^^ HANDLE WORKS, 



From 1)4 to 3 inches diameter, and 15 to 20 feet high— \ 
from $25 to $30 a hundred, or 30 to 50 cents each. 1 



FRUITING MULBERRY ! 

From 60 cents to $1.50 caeh. 

Silkworm Eggs and Silk Manual. 
Liberal discount to the trade. 



2eT2-3m-16p 



I. N. HOAG, 

Sacramento, Cal. 



ONLY 81.00 EACH 

For postpaid collection of FLOWER and VEGETABLE 
SEEDS. Or send stamp for Catalogue aud select for 
yourself. SA14AH H. MARTIN, 

jal3-aw Marblchead, Mass. 



LEARY RAILROAD LANTERN, 

Etc., Etc., Etc. 

IRON PIPE, RUBBER HOSE, RUBBER AND 

LEATHER BELTING, ROPE AND FENCE 

WIRE, ALL AT LOWEST 

MARKET RATES. 

3 and 5 Front Street, San Francisco. 



SPANl.SH MERINOS.— We ofTer for sale low, about 100 
of our tine Thoroughbreds. Send for Catalogue. Orders 
solicited. Ii4-v2) JouM SHfili>ON X iiON, Moscow, N. \ . 



FRESH GARDEN SEEDS. 

ALSO, 

Grass and Clover Seeds. 

A. L F A. L F A. . 

Trees, Plants, Roots, Etc., 

For Sale at Wholesale or Retail by 

GEO. r. SILVEKTKlt, 

No. 317 Washington Street, 

«?" Send for a Catalogue. 

OXJATVO. 

100 Barrels Guano for Sale, 

In quantities to suit purchasers. 
6v2-ly.l6p GEO. P. SILVESTER. 



GEO. B. BAYLEY, 

Comer Sixteenth and Castro Streets, OAKLAND. 




Importer and Breeder of 
CIIOIOE POULTrtY. 

Every variety of Fancy Poultry constantly on hand 
and for sale. 
Address, with stamp, P. 0. Box f>59, San Francisco. 



Fine Imported Poultry, 

CONSISTING OF 

Dark Brahmas, Light Brahmas, Buff 
Cochin, Patridge Cochin, and Houdans, 

Guaranteed Pure, and bred direct from the finest im- 
jjorted stock iu .\merica. 

EOOS 

Of the above varieties for sale carefully packed. 
Poultry Yards at San Lcandro, Alameda county, Cnl. 



Address 



lv3-3m 



W. FORD THOMAS, 

Custom House, 
San Francisco. 



FINE CHICKEN EGGS. 

THE T'NDEKSIONED IS NOW PREPARED 
to furnish EGGS fur breeding of the follow- 
iDK varieties: Dark and Lifjht Brahma; Buff 

r',,,.i.in Partridge Cochin. La I'leche, Silvejr 

Spangled HamhurK. White Leghorn. White Face Span- 
ish, and Silver Laced SebriKht Bantam. 

All these Chickens are imported price birds, and have 
not their superior in this state. 

Orders left at WM. BOFEU k CO.'S, GIO Sacramento 
street, can be filled immediately. A. MAIiyUAKD, 
2v3.1m Importer and Breeder of Fnmy Fowls. 





Single copy 15 cts.— $1.50 \v.x annum. 
Address C. F. & W. J. YOUNO. Box 1501, San Fran- 
Cisco, Califoruls. l>iJ-tt 




Volume III.] 



SAN FRANCISCO, SATURDAY, JANUARY 20, 1872. 



[Number 3. 



About Sheep in General. 

The sheep if not pre-eminent is certainly 
one of the most useful animals that the 
Creator has bestowed ujjon man. Whether 
we refer to sacred or profane history we 
find this among the earliest animals men- 
tioned. Of course the sheep was origin- 
ally wild, and has been subdued and do- 
mesticated by man, to answer to his neces- 
sities and wants. There are many varie- 
ties of this animal still wild and unsub- 
dued, and naturalists are quite undecided 
as to which of the several varieties may be 
entitled to the distinction of being the pa- 
rent-stock of the domestic sheep. 
Wild Sheep. 

There are four principal divisions of the 
the wild sheep: Musmon [musemon) still 
found wild in some of the Mediterranean 
islands, and European Turkey; the Argali 
[ammon] tenants of the Himalays and other 
high mountains in Central Asia; the Beard- 
ed sheep of Africa {tragelopleus) found on 
the highlands of Egypt and Morocco, and 
the Rocky Mountain sheep, (Montana,) the 
only variety found wild on this continent. 

The sheep is naturally a lover of the 
mountains, and in a state of nature is 
scarcely less active than the goat, from 
which it is iisually regarded by naturalists 
as generically different — though not by all. 
All the wild varieties are horned — the 
Rocky Mountain variety being the most 
abundantly blessed, (or burdened,) in this 
particular, and also possessing the largest 
bodily proportions. 

Domesticated Varieties. 

The many varieties of sheep domesticated 
in Europe and this country, all of which 
have descended from one common stock, 
may be conveniently divided into two gen- 
eral classes — those having horns and those 
without. Of the horned sheei^, the chief 
varieties are : — The Dorset — a good folding 
sheep, producing well-flavored flesh; the 
Shetland, small, handsome, and hardy; the 
Hedrtdian, the smallest of its kind, some- 
times not weighing over 20 pounds, when 
fat, and the Mei-ino, the most important 
and best known of all; which was brought 
to its greatest perfection in Spain. 

The accompanying figure presents a rep- 
resentative individual of this variety, bred 
by Victor Wright, of Middlebury, Vt., 
from pure Infantando stock; but now be- 
longing to Henry Thorpe, of Charlotte, in 
the same State. 

Of the hornless sheep we have the Leices- 
ter, characterized by fineness and fullness 
of form and special propensity to fatten ; 
the Cotswold, long celebrated for their fine- 
ness of wool; the Dartmoor, an ordinary 
breed, with white faces and legs and some- 
times with horns; the Cheviot, a peculiar 
breed, which originated on the Cheviot 
hills, very hardy but not very profitable ; the 
Southdown, so called from an extensive 
tract of "down" land, in the counties of 
Essex and Sussex, England, with close- 
curled wool, nearly identical with which 
are the Shopshiredowns, named from the 
down lands of the county of Shopshire. 

Of the other remarkable domestic varie- 



ties found in different parts of the world 
we .may mention the Fat-tailed sheep of 
Tartary, Arabia, and Persia, the tails of 
which are so loaded with fat, that they are 
said sometimes to weigh 20 i^ouuds; the 
Fat-riunped Tailless sheej) — a misnomer, 
for they have a tail; but so enveloped in 
fat upon the rump as to be scarcely visi- 
ble (this breed has pendant ears;) the 
Mamj-horned sheep of Iceland and North- 
ern Russia, which has three, four, and 
sometimes five horns; the Cretan sheep, of 
the island of Crete, kept in some parts of 
Europe as a curiosity on account of the pe- 
culiarity of their horns, which are remark- 
ably large, long and spiral; and lastly, the 
African or Guiena sheep, a native of all the 
tropical countries of Africa and the East. 
The distinguished features of this breed 



term variety is applied to different national 
branches of the same breed, such as the 
Saxon, French and American varieties of 
the parent Sj)anish Merino. The term 
Family is used to designate those branches 
of a breed or variety found in the same 
country, which exhibit permanent but or- 
dinarily lesser difi'erences than varieties. 
Thus the difierent kinds of Downs and the 
Rylands are families of the English Short- 
Wooled Sheep; the Cotswolds and the 
Leicesters are families of the Long-Wool- 
ed sheep; the Infantados and Paulars are 
families of both the Spanish and Ameri- 
can Merinos. The term sub-family is oc- 
casionally used to designate a minor group, 
bearing the same relation to a family that 
a family does to a variety. . 

The system of classification above de- 
scribed, answers very well when applied 
to the Merino. This breed exhibits all 
the enumerated classes in permanent, dis- 
tinct forms, each to a certain extent iso- 




iVIR. THORPE'S EWE— KATE. 



are — a rough, heavy skin, sharp horns, 
pendulous ears, a dewlap under the chin, 
and a long mane which reaches below the 
neck. 

A Difficulty. 

Much difficulty has been experienced by 
writers on sheep from the want of an es- 
tablished and systematic nomenclature to 
express the various divisions of species, 
which, in the process of time, by inter- 
breeding, etc., have become both numerous 
and oftentimes perplexing. A confusion of 
terms often leads to a corresponding confu- 
sion of ideas. This matter has been especially 
noticed by Mr. Henry S. Randall, in his 
very excellent work, entitled the "Practi- 
cal Shepherd." To devise a uniform mode 
of classification in the premises, he has made 
use of and adopted in his work the follow- 
ing:— 

The term breed is applied to those ex- 
tensive and permanent groups of sheep 
which are believed to have had, respective- 
ly, a common origin — which exhibit cer- 
tain common leading characteristics — and 
which transmit those characteristics with 
uniformity to their progeny. Examples 
of Breeds, are the Merino of Spain, includ- 
ing its pure blood descendants, wherever 
found; the Fat-Rumped Sheep of Asia, 
the Long-Wooled Sheep of England, and 
the Short-Wooled Sheep of England, The 



lated from the others by separate breeding, 
for a considerable period, and totally iso- 
lated from all other outside groups of 
sheep by perfect purity of blood. But 
this classification is wholly unsatisfactory 
when applied to the British breeds of 
sheep. I will not consume space to ex- 
plain, a fact, the causes of which will be 
so obvious to the observing reader. 

Pakk CoMMissiONEits' Eeport. — We have re- 
ceived from the hand of William Hammond 
Hall, Engineer and Superintendent of the 
Golden Gate Park, the first Biennial Eeport of 
the Park Commissioners. It is an elaborate 
document setting forth the contemplated im- 
provements and the actual progress made in 
laying out and beautifying the grounds, the 
amount already expended and the balance on 
hand. 

It appears that the eastern end of the Park 
and the Avenue Reserve have received the first 
attention from the engineer, and already give 
evidence of a master hand. In a few months, 
pleasure grounds, lawns, conservatories and 
flower gardens will beautify the landscape, and 
carriage drives and avenues will meander 
through the Park, in the midst of natural 
shrubbery and around artificial lakes. We can 
even now congratulate our citizens on the pros- 
pect of a Park that will be second to no other 
in the Uiitod States. San Francisco has the 
money to make it so, and we have seen New 
Yrrk Central Park. 



Culture of Raisins. 

The growing of grapes for raisins is attract- 
ing the attention of culturists in very many of 
the best grape producing districts of the State ; 
partly from a desire to be the growers of raisins, 
but in many localities because it will pay better 
than to market the grapes in their undried 
state. There is always a risk attending the 
transportation and sale of fresh grapes, partic- 
ularly where the handling is entrusted to other 
hands than the owner. Raisins never suffer 
from handling if put up in proper packages, 
and the weight of the same in contrast with the 
undried fruit, is a point entirely in favor of the 
producer who pays his own freight per pound. 

We have been asked our opinion in regard to 
the most desirable locality for the production 
of raisins as a specialty. There are reasons for 
preferring certain rich, strong lands for this 
purpose. Raisins, to sell the best, should be 
large; and though the dry and chalky foothill 
districts may produce a grape of higher flavor, 
and therefore superior for wiue, they never 
reach that size of bunch or berry desirable in a 
raisin-grape, unless the growing is attended 
with profuse irrigation. The length of the 
season, for the growth of the grape, producing 
an early maturity, and giving a longer drying 
season_before the autumnal rains, is also in 
favor of the low and heated valley lands. Not 
that the higher lands and foothill valleys will 
not produce excellent raisins; but that, thus 
far in the production of California raisins, we 
have not seen those that compare favorably 
with the best imported, with reference to size. 

Small raisins will sell at some price always, 
but large ones will sell at almost any price, and 
it is just as easy, and easier to raise large than 
small ones, as there are not as many bunches 
to handle during the drying. Of the best va- 
rieties for raisins, we cannot do better than to 
refer to one of the most successful growers in 
California, B. N. Bugbey, of the Natoma vine- 
yard, Folsom, whose raisins have been on fre- 
quent exhibition at our State Fairs for the past 
five years. He can give the names of the best 
raisin-grapes for his locality. Whether he has 
the varieties for sale in the form of cuttings or 
rooted jilants, we know not. 



Keep a Few Hens. — Why is it that we must 
year by year import stale eggs from Chicago, 
and even China, to supply our home demand? 
Not that we want stale eggs from any source ; 
but the fact is undeniable that we do import 
and use eggs of the quality referred to in enor- 
mous quantities and at high prices, all because 
our farmers, and particularly grain growers, 
will not, or do not keep a few hens. We are 
aware that a few failures have occun-ed where 
the attempt has been made to establish large 
heneries, to support which the entire food was 
necessarily purchased, because the proprietors 
were not grain growers; and a further reason 
of failure perhaps was in the attempt to keep 
too many fowls in one locality. It has been 
shown again and again, that small numbers of 
fowls can be kept in perfect health, where 
larger numbers invariably sicken and die. 
Whether it arises from the want of insect food, 
so natural to fowls, or in the scarcity in many 
localities of the necessary sharp gravel for the 
gizzard, is not satisfactorily determined. But, 
that a few hens can be safely and profitably 
kept on every ranch in the State, is as certain 
as that the said ranch affords barn, out-house 
or stable room for their comfort or protection. 

There are 00,000,000 acres of wheat lands in 
California, of which only 2,000,000 are under 
ctdtivation. 



34 



^SMWEQ 



[January 20, 1872. 



kORRESPONDENCE. 



Agriculture in Montana. 

[Br OtJB Ovrs Tbatelek.] 

The first essays of agricultural enterprise 
in this Territory were made by the Jesuit 
missionaries some 25 years ago. The 
country is comparatively well-woodctl hav- 
ing large bodies of timber in several local- 
ities; the slopes of the mountain ranges 
are generally covered with heavy timber. 
It contains eight principal valleys, viz.: 
Flat Head, Mission, Jocko, Hell Gate, 
Bitter Eoot, Big Blackfoot, Flint, and 
Deer Lodge, with many smaller ones of 
great beauty and fertility. 
Passameri Valley. 
This small but productive valley gener- 
ally called the Stinking Water Valley, is 30 
miles long by G miles wide, and is watered 
by a small stream which passes through 
its entire length. 

Sheridan City 
Is situated 20 miles from Virginia City, 
and is a small village with a post oflOlce, 
blacksmith shojj, a good school, and a 
flouring mill, located ,on Mill Creek; it is 
run by water-power and turns out 100 sacks 
of flour daily. 

Ranches. 
Mr. J. Gambell has a fine ranch near the 
town and this season cultivated 95 acres, 
■which yield him 25 bushels of grain to the 
acre. Mr. Foster this year raised upon his 
own farm a large crop of grain and culti- 
vated the farm of Sirs. J. Farris. The 
yield from 55 acres was 1,600 bushels. 
Ninety acres upon another ranch produced 
1,458 bushels of wheat and 1,200 bushels 
of oats. The price of wheat is from §2 to 
$2.50 per bushel, and flour $S a sack. 
Fattening Hogs. 
I noticed upon the farm of Mr. 'A. H. 
Van Bruckliu a novel apparatus for pre- 
paring food for hogs. It consisted of a 
wooden tank 3 feet long and 2% feet wide, 
the bottom being lined with sheet iron. 
This box is placed over a tire place, and 
tilled with potatoes, grain and peas which 
are boiled together, after which the con- 
tents are put into barrels and kept for 
feeding. The hogs thrive upon it, and 
Mr. V. has been quite successful in this 
business. 

Mr. E. H. Coombs has a farm of 320 
acres, 90 of which were in wheat and oats 
the present season. He also raised 150 
tons of hay, which he sold at $12 per ton. 
His wheat averaged 30 bushels to the acre. 
This is one of the best imiJioved and most 
productive farms in the valley. 

Mr. J. liedfurn has a small ranch 
planted with ajjple trees, which have 
done well and he thinks this locality well 
adapted for this kind of fruit. Mr. Bull 
raised upon his ranch this season 5 acres 
of wheat, and 500 bushels of oats from 14 
acres. The price of oats is one dollar per 
bushels. Outs and barley are sown alter 
the wheat. 

Silver Spring FIdur Mill. 
This mill is located in the middle of 
the valley and is tirst class throughout. 
The building is 40 by 27 feet, and 4 sto- 
ries high. It has 3 run of stones which 
are driven by an over shot wheel 24 feet 
in diameter. The water is brought from 
a large spring several miles distant. Mr. 
L. B. Olds is the Superintendent and H. 
H. Mood, miller. 

Mr. John Taylor cultivated 180 acres 
of wheat this season, which averages 25 
bushels to the acre. It was sown Ajiril 
1st and harvested Aug. 15th. Upon this 
ranch from 250 to 500 bushels of potatoes 
were raised per acre. The farmers say, 
that if the ground is plowed every year it 
should be plowed only 4 or 5 inches deep. 
Threshing Machines. 
Three threshing machines arc in opera- 
tion in the valley this fall. Mr. O. W. 
Jay threshed 270 bushels of oats in one 
hour, and 1,900 bushels in 9'o hours upon 
the ranch of Mr. A. Cisler of Mill Creek. 
Prices. 
Spring grains were sold this season at 
the following prices. Wheat, from 6 to 8 
cents per pound, and barley from 4 to 5 
cents. Potatoes brought 3 cents; eggs 
$1 j)er dozen, butter from 50 to 75 
cents per pound. General house help is 
very scarce, and in demand at from §40 to 
$60 iser month and board. The good 



farmers also complain of the scarcity of 
marriageable women. 

Baker's Wheat. 
' This wheat is said to be some two weeks 
earlier than the "Touse" variety. Mr. 
Baker planted his wheat last spring, April 
5th, and harvested the crop July 15th. 
This wheat makes XXX flour. It is of a 
small grain, but gives general satisfaction.* 
Its weight is about 60 lbs. to the bushel. 
His laud averaged 30 bushels to the acre, 
30 acres of whiclx was ujj-land 
Irrigation. 

1 Lave learned from the farmers in this 
valley a few items ui)on- tliis important 
subject. Bench lauds should be irrigated 
in the sj)ring, before plowing, say March 
1st. The soil in this country should be 
irrigated before it is plowed. The bench 
lands can be plowed as soon as the water is 
turned off. Sow and harrow three times. On 
bottom lands, the farmers should wait un- 
til the laud is tolerably dry, say 8 or 10 
days before plowing, to prevent caking, 
the soil will likely be soft aud muddy. 
Irrigating bottom lands in the full and 
plowing in the spring is found to be 
preferable. tJrain should not be irrigated 
when too young or it will chill and turn 
pale, and the ground will become hard 
so that the grain cannot thrive. When 
irrigation is needed the grain will become 
a very dark green, and the leaves fall 
down and droop, and, soon after, red 
leaves will make their appearance at the 
lower end of the stalk. When the grain 
begins to head out, it should be thorough- 
ly irrigated. 

Bench lands should be irrigated fotir or 
five times a year, according to circum- 
stances, but bottom lands rarely require 
two irrigations. The grain upon bench 
lands are not easily injured by too much 
water, but upon the bottom lands great 
care should be taken. w. h. m. 



Remarkable Succession of Floods. 

How To Prevent Destruction by Floods. 

It is a notable fact that, for the past 
sixty years, commencing with 1812, and 
concluding with the present year, this con- 
tinent has been regularly .visited by delu 
ging floods about every tenth year. In 
the winter of 1811-12 the valley of the Mis- 
sissippi was flooded to such an extent 
that boats losing the channel, were drifted 
into the interior and stranded upon plan- 
tations, many miles away from the river. 
In 1822, ten years later, this coast was 
visited by the greatest deluge ever known 
here. In 1832 the valleys of the Ohio and 
Mississippi were visited by another memo- 
rable flood — in fact the waters of the 
Ohio, at that time, rose to a point never 
attained since. At the same time the Pa- 
ciflee coast was deluged, but not to sucii 
an extent as in 1822. 

In 1842-'52-"02 and now in 1872 these plu- 
vial visitations have occurred invariably 
at the close, or rather, at the beginning of 
every decade as can be proven by living 
witnesses. 

The regular recurrence of this meteoro- 
logical phenomenon should be enough to 
satisfy the most sceptical that astrono- 
mers and other scientists are correct when 
they affirm that disturbances upon the 
siiu's photosj)here, which occur about 
every tenth or eleventh year, also produce 
simultaneous disturbances in the electrical 
currents of the earth and atmosphere, 
thereby creating storms, tornados, eartli- 
(juakes, typhoons and devastating floods. 

If this be true (and the experience of 
sixty years, as well as philosojjhical the- 
ory, renders it at least plausible) we may 
reasonably expect the recurrence of a flood 
every tenth or eleventh year and predict 
its advent with as much precision as wo 
can predict the phases of the moon, or 
changes of the season. 

In view of the absolute certainty of these 
periodical floodiugs, it is the duty of peo- 
ple living in the valleys and on the mar- 
gin of the rivers and creeks, in this State 
to adopt some plan to save their farms 
and gardens from being overflowed and 
ruined by the rivers. The chief source of 
destruction to valley lands bordering the 
streams, is the abrasion and wearing away 
of the banks by the swollen waters. 

For some inexplicable reason, an Amer- 
ican farmer never can learn the value of 
trees and shrubs. About the first thing 
he does after enclosing his farm is to chop 
down, grub up and burn up every natural 
tree, bush and shrub on the place. Now 
every rational person knows that a loose, 
loamy soil, such as wo have in California, 
when not cemented aud stayed by the 
roots of trees and shrubs must necessarily 



crumble and wash away when attacked by 
rapidly running streams. 

At a venture we suggest that the banks 
of all the streams in the country subject 
to abrasion be immediately planted with 
yellow German willow, or common basket 
willow of commerce. This shrub grows 
rapidly from cuttings; has an enormous 
spread of roots arid the more it is cut ofi' 
the wider it continues to spread. In ad- 
dition to its being a strengthener of the 
banks against abrasion, it will, to some ex- 
tent be valuable in the manufacture of 
wicker ware. 

We merely suggest this as a starter 
without stopping to consider its practica- 
bility; at any event something should be 
done to save the land from abrasion by 
devastating floods, and that too quickly. 

How to Keep From Freezing. 

Editobs Pbess:— I have heard of many 
persons throughout the mountains getting 
their hands and feet frozen while travel- 
ing; of course they are away from houses, 
or material for the speedy kindling of a 
fire, and before they can get to shelter or 
timber, frost docs its work. Now my ob- 
ject in communicating this to the Pkess, 
is that a slight protection against such 
mishaps may receive a wide circulation, in 
mining localities situated far back in the 
mountains, where snow is the deepest, and 
cold intense. At South Pa.ss, in the win- 
ter of '68, I tried the method, here given, 
and found it a good one. 

Take an ordinary " Dark Lantern" and 
fasten it at the waist, in front of the per- 
son; have the coat, cloak, or blanket to 
cover it, so that if riding or walking the 
hanils can be placed directly on it; have 
tiie vessel that contains the oil so fastened 
that it will not jostle about, even if you 
should jump up and down, or fall down. 
Use oil in burning. 

The one I used was a small affair, and 
had a contrivance to close over and ob- 
scure the light, and also an arrangement 
fixed so that a belt could be passed 
through it, and around the waist, thereby 
holding it firmly in its place. It is then 
convenient for the hands, andjin an extreme 
emergency it can be taken off and the feet 
warmed. 

For persons who have a long distance 
to travel, a small canteen could be filled 
with oil, and slung over the .shoulders, a 
supply would then be on hand to replen- 
ish the lamp or to aid in kindling a fire, if 
necessary. It is a fact that most persons 
are frozen, when out doors, while in the 
act of kindling a fire ; the material is 
either damp, covered with snow and ice or 
a light cannot be struck ; and it is fre- 
quently the case, that not until the last 
minute do they conclude to build a fire. 
With one of these dark lanterns — com- 
monly called a " Bulls-eye " — and a little 
oil the traveler has constantly with him a 
fire. True, it is but a small blaze, but 
what a delight that blaze can create in the 
feeling of lost and cold travelers ! 

Another advantage gained by having 
along this little companion on a dark night, 
is that the sliding door can be opened, and 
the light's rays, concentrated through the 
thick glass in front, thrown along the 
pathway and the correctness of your route 
determined, or any obstruction laying in 
your way seen and its passage or removal 
accomplished. 

The advantage of this little lantern can- 
not be fully understood, or rather appre- 
ciated until one is caught far from settle- 
ments in a cold dark night. 

If I may, through the.sc few instructions, 
be the cause of saving any one from freez- 
ing, the mere knowledge will be a pleas- 
ure to me through life. N. L. Tuenek. 

Ophir City, U. T., Jan., 1872. 

Rain bt Machineby. — The latest agri- 
cultural experiment in England is surface 
irrigation by artificial rains. This has 
been tried at Stoke Park, the surface ex- 
perimented upon being a tract of twenty 
acres in grass. Every night, except.when 
natural rains made it unnecessary, during 
the season of 1871, water has been applied 
in artificial showers. The ajiparatus con- 
sists of pipes laid in the grouud, supplied 
from elevated reservoirs, into which the 
water is pumped by machinery. The fol- 
lowing figures will show the result per 
acre: Interest (5 per cent) on cost of raa- 
j chincry and pijies, $7.50; superstruction 
and fuel, $7.50; manure, other top dress- 
ing, $67.50; cost of harvesting, $12.50 ; 
to al exiJense, $95. The value of the prod- 
uct of each is stated as .$200; the net profit 
is thus $105; Land of the same character 
and in the same tract, not so irrigated, 
netted only $45 per acre. 



The Wheeler Expedition. 

The Wheeler Exploring Expedition, sent 
out last spring to examine the country be- 
tween the Pacific Railroad at Elko and 
Southeastern Arizona, has completed its 
labors; but the results of the expedition 
will not be properly known until commu- 
nicated to the public by the publication of 
the oflicial report at Washington. We 
have learned enough, however, to satisfy 
us that a large amount of valuable and in- 
teresting information has been obtained. 

The expedition examined the topography 
of a district about seventy-five miles wide 
and six hundred long. Thirteen main 
topographical points were determined pre- 
cisely, and many minor points approxi- 
mately. The country from Elko to the 
Colorado was found not unfavorable for 
railroad purposes. In Arizona a consider- 
able district occupied by hostile Apaches 
was examined and its topography commu- 
nicated to General Crook. The mines 
along the route were carefully inspected 
and a large mass of information of an in- 
dustrial character collected. The great 
canon of the Colorado was ascended for 
sixty-five miles from its mouth. 

The photograijhor was kept constantly 
emploj-ed, and has obtained views of all 
the prominent places. The San Diego 
Union says that when the results of the 
labors of the photographers are given to 
the public, a sensation will be created; for 
among the scenes he has portrayed by the 
aid of the camera, are some of the most 
grand and striking conceivable. 

The report of the Mineralogist on the 
mining resources of the Territory of Ari- 
zona will show that the mineral wealth of 
that country has not been overestimated. 
The new silver mines recently discovered 
in the Pinal Mountains were examined, 
and Dr. Hoffman gives it as his opinion 
that they are unequalled by any mines yet 
discovered on this continent. The expe- 
dition will undoubtedly result in throwing 
more light on the history of the mysterious 
Aztec race. Many ruins never before heard 
of, were discovered by the explorers, and 
sketches and photograijhs of them made, 
and their surroundings carefully noted. 
The report of Lieutenant Wlieeler, when 
reatly, will only be equalled by a descrip- 
tive book from the pen of Dr. Hofl'man. 
The former will possess statistics and in- 
formation invaluable to the student, and 
the latter will be pleasing to the lover of 
stories of strange adventure in an almost 
unknown country. 

The Cost of EriDEMics.— The statistics 
of small-pox, as it has been raging in Lon- 
don, are frightful, and, all things consid- 
ered, mortifying, since they show that 
man is such a fool that he cannot profit by 
the knowledge which Providence, or his 
own luck, vouchsafes to him. Notwith- 
standing the assured safety wliich vaccina- 
tion oflers, not less than 5,000 jjersons 
have died of the disease in Loudon, v liile 
at least 100,000 have been maimed, disfig- 
ured and pauperized. The monej-cost to 
the metropolis of the epidemic has not 
been less than $500,000. But this disre- 
gard of ordinary precautions is, perhaps, 
no greater, though it may, perhaps, be 
better defined than the recklessness which 
courts the advance of cholera by neglect- 
ing a few simple sanitary precautions. 
One would think that, as a race, we hated 
life, instead of loving it too well. Our 
theory is that to its preservation all other 
things must defer; the law allows every 
one to defend it, and hangs those who un- 
lawfully take it; but for all this we go on 
risking it and losing it, as if wo had 
ninety-nine existences at our disposal in- 
stead of one. — Medical and Surgical Re- 
porter. ___^ 

Pabadise VaIiLET. — The farmers in Par- 
adise Valley, many of them, are activelj' en- 
gaged in clearing new land, which will be 
sown with wheat the coming Spring. From 
all accounts, we are of the oijinionthat the 
farmers in Paradise will be almost, if not 
quite, able to supply this county with all 
the flour needed another year. The in- 
formation will be gladly received, as in 
our judgment, the article now in market, 
from there, is superior to that generally 
manufactured in California. In other por- 
tions of the county, as well as Paradise, we 
learn of largely increased preijarations be- 
ing made for cultivating the soil— to be 
planted principally with wheat and bar- 
ley.— £r. 

Heavt Wheat. — Culpepper county, Va., 
Farmer says, that from three quarts of the 
Touzelle wheat sown on one-tenth of an 
acre, he harvested five bushels, weigh- 
ing 66 pounds to the bushel. It ripened 
June 1st, about eight days earlier than other 
varieties. 



January 20, 1872.] 



*H 



ECHANICAL 1?R0GRESS. 



Machine Puddling a Success. 

No improvement in modern days has 
been more earnestly desired by the iron 
trade than a successful, practical ma- 
chine puddler. The attainment of such 
an invention can not be considered of any 
less value than the Bessemer process of 
making steel. Various devices have been 
tried with greater or less success, the most 
promising of which have been based upon 
the principle of employing a rotary cham- 
ber in which to perform the work. Such 
devices have been tried both in this coun- 
try and in Eurofjo, and have been found 
perfectly practical with the single excep- 
tion of the difficulty attending the pro- 
curement of a durable lining for the 

chamber. 

During the past year, success in this 
important particular has been claimed by 
a Mr. Danks, of Cincinnati, who has de- 
vised a lining which is said to fully meet 
all reasonable requirements. Mr. D., 
after putting such a furnace into success- 
ful operation in Cincinnati, went to Eng- 
land, of which country he is a native, and 
explained his process in an elaborate paper, 
read before the Iron and Steel Institute. 
His deportment was such as to secure the 
confidence of that association to such an 
extent that it appointed a committee 
of experts to return with him and 
thoroughly examine into the merits of the 
alleged invention. This commission k'ft 
England early in October last, taking with 
them about 40 tons of different kinds of 
English pig-irons, (such as they had un- 
successfully experimented with,) to be 
operated on as a crucial test. This com- 
mission has telegraphed to England, as 
stated in our issue of last week, that they 
had found the invention a complete suc- 
cess, a result which will at once insure its 
general adoption in England and on the 
Continent. 

The Dank's Furnace, 
Aside from its obvious general mechanical 
arrangement and construction , consists of ro- 
tating upon a horizontal axle one end of a 
chamberwhich communicates with a furnace 
in which the flame is urged by fan-blasts, 
and the other with a flue; this latter being 
closed by a detachable head while the aj)- 
paratus is in i\se. The rotation of the 
chamber, duly charged with molten pig, 
of course insures the requisite movement 
of the metal, and consequently the results 
commonly obtained by the action of the 
puddler's tool. At the proper stage of the 
process, the head of the chamber is taken 
off, the flue moved aside out of the 
way, and a large fork suspended from a 
crane is thrust in. A few turns of the cham- 
ber then causes the ball to adhere to the fork, 
and the latter being withdrawn conveys the 
ball to the squeezing machinery. The 
method of lining this chamber is described 
as follows: 

"The foundation for the lining consists 
of a mixture of pulverized iron ore and 
pure lime, worked with water into the 
consistency of a thick paste. Upon the 
completion of the initial lining, a quanti- 
of pulverized iron ore, about one-fifth of the 
total amount required to line the appara- 
tus, is thrown in, the furnance is heated 
and made to revolve slowly until the iron 
is found to be completely melted, when 
the apparatus is stopped. That part of 
the molten iron which has not been con- 
sumed by glazing the initial lining sur- 
face runs to the lowest level of the furnace, 
and there forms a pool, into which there 
are put a number of small and large lum ps of 
iron ore of such dimensions as will be requir- 
ed to allow the said lumps to project over the 
surface of the liquid ore by from two to 
six inches. This part of the lining is 
allowed to sot, when a fresh quantity of 
pulverized ore is thrown in. The furnace 
is again made to rotate slightly until the 
newly added ore is liquefled, when 
the apparatus is again stopped, and the 
pool filled with lumps as before. The op- 
eration is continued in this way until the 
whole of the vessel is properly lined. 
From 2 to 23^ tons of iron ore are re- 
quired to line a 700 lbs. furnace. 

The London Mining Jotirnal in alluding 
to the reported success of this invention, 
says: "The news appears too good to be 
true. The problem will, however, soon 
have its solution. We shall then know if 
in the United States there is at work a ro- 
tary puddling furnace which, although 
not very different from that with which 
Mr. Menelaua has been experimenting, yet 



has distinguished itself with important 
difference of having been a success, while 
the British machine cannot be so re- 
garded." 

Our cotemporary has ere this found the 
"news" both "good" and "true," and the 
meeting of the Iron and Steel Association 
before whom Mr. Danks read his paper, 
already referred to, Avill become, as the 
Journal said it would, if the expectations 
thus raised were realized, "more memor- 
able in the history of the iron trade than 
that meeting in Cheltenham, at which Mr. 
Bessemer read to the British Association 
his famous paper, will prove to the steel 
trade." 

It thus appears that this American in- 
vention is destined to take its place foremost 
among the improvements adopted by the 
greatest iron-making country in the world. 
The real value of the j)rinciple is shown 
not only in the doing away of the severe 
manual labor in the puddling operation, 
but also in thej)roductionof largerballsat a 
single heat than coiild be done by the old 
method; in an increased economy of fuel, 
and a greater yield of iron from a given 
grade and quantity of ore. In the fur- 
naces at Cincinnati, puddled balls ranging 
from 650 to 1,000 pounds are conveniently 
made, and no special difficulty ai^pears to 
have been met with in forming into a 
single ball the product of a heat of 1,400 
pounds. 

The iron is charged into the furnace either 
in a solid or molten condition. When 
charged in the shape of pig-iron, the melt- 
ing down occupies from 30 to 35 minutes, 
during which a partial rotation is given to 
the furnace from time to time in order to 
expose equally all sides of the charge to the 
flame. When the whole of this is thor- 
oughly melted, the furnace is made to ro- 
tate only once or twice per minute during the 
five or ten minutes, in order to obtain the 
most perfect action of the cinder iipon 
the molten iron. But this article has al- 
ready become quite too long to admit of 
any further details of the process at this 
time. 

Pulverized Fuel — A Sebious Deaw- 
i!ACK. — An "eminent engineer," who has 
had some experience in the use of jjulver- 
ized fuel, says that although perfectly suc- 
cessful at first, it grow gradually unsatis- 
factory from the glazing produced upon 
the flues, grates, etc. ; the percentage of 
silex, etc., which in ordinary stoking and 
burning is carried off as slag and refuse, 
being carried against the throat, etc., 
brings on a vitreous diptheria which is 
fatal to the flues. It is intimated in reply 
that in the use of this kind of fuel, much 
will of course depend upon the character 
of the material. If the refuse is easily 
vitrified, then the result described may 
possibly occur; but, if the refuse is not 
easily vitrified, it will be carried out of the 
chimney in the form of dust. Pulverized 
fuel has been successfully used by several 
establishments for a year or more, and 
is no doubt the most economical way in 
which coal can be used, when the objection 
above referred to does not interpose. 

Improved Construction op Sheet-iron 
Stacks. — Sheet-iron stacks, especially for 
heating and puddling furnaces, are now 
being made in separate rings, instead of 
one whole length as formerly. Each ring 
has a band of flat bar-ii-on — horseshoe bar 
— about two inches from the lower edge, 
firmly riveted, and by which each is sup- 
ported as it fits into and rests on the edge 
of the one next below. By making the 
stack in this way in short sections, it can 
be more conveniently erected, and also can 
be rei^aired by renewing any worn-out part 
or burnt section at less cost and much less 
labor than when otherwise constructed. 

Speed of Ocean Steamers. — The steam- 
ship Oceanic, of the new " White Star" 
line, during a late trip from New York to 
Liverpool, ran 384 knots in a single day, 
which is spoken of by some of the news- 
papers as being the greatest distance ever 
made in twenty-four hours. This, says 
the American Artizan, seems to be a mis- 
take, for we find by reference to our rec- 
ords of the passages of steamers, that the 
City of Baltimore, oi the "Inman" line, ran 
385 miles in twenty-four hours, in the year 
1866. 

Iron Ship-building in the United 
States. — No iron ships were built in the 
United States in 1867. In 1868 six small 
vessels were constructed, having an aggre- 
gate of 2,800 tons; in 1869 ten were built, 
of an aggregate of 4,584 tons; in 1870 
fifteen, with an aggregate burthen of 8,281 
tons; and in 1871, up to the middle of No 
vember, twenty were constructed, measur- 
ing an aggregate of 15,479 tons. Of the 
twenty iron vessels built during the year 
ending January 31, 1871, nineteen were 
steamers. 



iCiENTiFlC SiROGRESS. 



The Force of Life. 

There have been writers who affirmed 
that the pyramids of Egypt were the pro- 
ductions of Nature. We now regard them 
as the work of men's hands, aided by ma- 
chinery of which no record remains. The 
blocks in this case were moved by a power 
external to themselves, and the final form 
of the pyramid expressed the thought of 
the human builder. 

Let us ijass from this illustration of 
building power to another of a different 
kind. When a solution of common salt is 
slowly evaporated the water disappears, 
but the salt remains behind. At certain 
stages of concentration particles, or mole- 
cules, as Ihey are called, begin to deposit 
themselves as minute solids, so minute, in- 
deed, as to defy all microscoi>ic power. 
As evaporation continues, solidifioations 
goes on and we finally obtain a mass of salt 
of adefiute form. 

What is this foi-m ? It sometimes seems 
as a mimicry of the architecture of Egypt. 
We have little pyramids, terrace above ter- 
ace forming a series of stepf resembling 
those of the pyramids. The human mind 
is as little disposed to look at these little 
salt crystals without further question as to 
look at the jjyramids of Egypt without in- 
quiring whence they came. How, then, 
are those salt pyramids built up ? 

Guided by analogy, we may suppose 
that swarming amongthe constituent mole- 
cules of the salt there is an invisible popu- 
lation, guided and coerced by some invisi- 
ble master, and placing the atomic blocks 
in their positions. Tiiis, however, is not 
the scientific idea, nor do I think your good 
sense will accept it as a likely one. The 
scientific idea is that the molecules act 
upon each other without the intervention 
of slave labor, that they attract and repel 
each other at definite points, and in certain 
different directions, and that the pyramidal 
form is the result of this play of attraction 
and repulsion. While then the blocks of 
Egypt were laid down by a power external 
to themselves, these molecular blocks of 
salt are self posited, being fixed in their 
places by the forces with which they act 
upon each other. 

I take common salt as an illustration, 
because it is so familiar but almost any 
other substance would answer equally well. 
In fact, throughout organic Nature, we 
have this structural energy ready to come 
into play. It is present everywhere. The 
ice of our winters and of our polar regions 
is its hand-work, and so equally are the 
quartz, feldspar and of mica of our rocks. 
This tendency of matter to organize 
itself, to grow into shape, to assume defi- 
nite forms in obedience to the definite ac- 
tion of force, is all-pervading. It is in the 
ground on which you tread, in the water 
you drink, in the air you breath. Incii^i- 
ent life, in fact, manifests itself throughout 
the whole of what we call inorganic Na- 
ture. 

The forms of minerals resulting from 
this play of forces are various and exhibit 
different degrees of complexity. Men of 
science avail themselves of all possible 
means of exploring this molecular archi- 
tecture. For this pui'i^ose they employ as 
agents of exploration, light, heat, magnet- 
ism, electricity and sound. Polarized light 
is especially useful and powerful here. A 
beam of such light, when sent into the 
molecules of a crystal, is acted on by them 
and from this action we infer with more or 
less clearness the manner in which the 
molecules are arranged. The difference, 
for example between the inner structure 
of a plate of rock-salt and a plate of crys- 
tallized sugar is thus strikingly revealed. 

And now let us pass from what we are 
accustomed to regard as a dead mineral, 
to a living grain of corn. When it is ex- 
amined by polarized light, chromatic phe- 
nomena similar to those noticed in crys- 
tals are observed. And why? Because 
the architecture of the grain resembles in 
some degree the architecture of the crys- 
tal. In the corn the molecules are also 
set in definite positions, from which they 
act upon the light. But what has built 
together the molecules of the corn ! I 
have already said, regarding crystalline ar- 
chitecture, that you may, if you please, 
consider the atoms and molecules to be 
placed in position by a power external to 
themselves. The same hypothesis is open 
to you now. But, if in the case of crys- 
tals you4liave rejected this notion of an 
external architect, I think you are bound 
to reject it now, and to conclude that the 
molecules of corn are self-posited by 
the forces by which they act upon 



each other. It would be poor pbii- 
osophy to invoke an external agent in the 
one case, and reject it in the other. 

But, I must go still further, and affirm 
that in the eye of science the animal body 
is just as much the product of molecular 
force as the stalk and ear of corn, or as 
the crystal of salt or sugar. Many of its 
parts are obviously mechanical. Take the 
human heart, for example, with its ex- 
quisite system of valves, or take the eye or 
hand. Animal heat, moreover, is the same 
in kind as the heat of a fire, being pro- 
duced by the same chemical process. An- 
imal motion, too, is directly derived from 
the food of the animal. 

As regards matter, the animal body cre- 
ates nothing ; as regards force, it creates 
nothing. Which of you by taking thought 
can add one cubit to his stature? All 
that has been said regarding the plant 
may be re-stated with regard to the animal. 
Every particle that enters into the com- 
position of a muscle, a nerve, or a bone, 
has been placed in its position by a mole- 
cular force ; and unless the existence of 
law in these matters be denied, and the 
element of caprice be introduced, we must 
conclude that, given the relation of any 
molecule of the body to its environment, 
its position in the body might be pre- 
dicted. Our difficulty is not with the 
quality of the problem, but with its com- 
plexity ; and this difficulty might be met 
by the simple expansion of the faculties 
which man now possesses. Given this 
exi^ansion, and given the necessary mole- 
cular data, the chick might be deduced as 
rigorously and as logically from the egg 
as the existence of Neptune was deduced 
f rom^the disturbances of Uranus, or as con- 
ical refraction was deduced from the un- 
dulatory theory of light. — Condensed from 
a lecture by Tyndall. 

Iron Electrotypes. 

The art of electrotyping, says a contem- 
porary, already applied to myriad uses, 
shows constant evidence of progress, es- 
pecially in the successful deposition for 
practical purposes of metals that have 
hitherto been considered intractable. 
Nickel-plating is now common, and, while 
cheaper, is for some purposes superior to 
silver; and there is some reason to sup- 
pose that by the employment of a small 
percentage of some other metal to dimin- 
ish the brittleness, the rather refractory 
nature of the nickel coating may be brought 
more completely under the control of the 
burnisher, in lieu of the polishing wheel, 
than is now the case. 

There are many purposes, however, for 
which a plating of iron would be, all things 
considered, better than any of those now 
familiar in electro -metallurgy; and to se- 
cure this has occupied the attention of 
some foreign experimenters, who have, 
apparently, been very successful in their 
efforts. 

At the late London International Exhi- 
bition (1871) were exhibited bank-note 
plates, medallions, and a page of printing- 
type, electrotyped in iron, by a process 
devised by M. Eugene Klein, who is at the 
head of the Chemical Department in the 
Imperial State Paper Manufactory in St. 
Petersburg. 

The advancement of the iron electrotype 
to a practical success has not been accom- 
plished without the expenditure of much 
thought and experiment, and many diffi- 
culties have had to be surmounted; but 
the scientific interest which attached to 
the new development, and the eminently 
useful applications of which he saw it was 
susceptible, especially in the departments 
of engraving and printing, stimulated M. 
Klein to continue his exi^eriments, against 
what appeared to be almost or quite in- 
surmountable hindrances. 

His starting point was the steeling of 
engraved copper-plates, which process was 
effected in a bath composed of chlorate of 
ammonia and iron, to which he added a 
small quantity of glycerine. On leaving 
the bath the iron is as hard as tempered 
steel and very brittle. Reheated it loses 
much of its hardness, and becomes mallea- 
ble at cherry red, when it may be cut with 
the graver as readily as soft steel. 

Of the importance of the practical ap- 
plication of the process there can bo no 
doubt whatever. By replacing plates of 
copper by those of iron, greater facilities 
willbe afforded for producing publications, 
works of art, and especially bank-notes and 
checks. Iron electrotype plates are found 
to be almost indestructible in the process 
of printing, while copper soon wears out — 
much sooner, in fact, than wood. A late 
issue of Engineering gives in detail the ex- 
periments through which this important 
process has advanced to a condition of high 
practical value. 



36 



pjb§iiia 



[January 20, 1872. 



Hof^T'cJi-T^^^'- 



Tanyah, or Calladlum Eseulentum. 

[Written for the PoEsa, by E. J. Uoopeb.] 

In the 9tli of Dec. number of the 
Pacific Kural Pkess I wrote a jiaper de- 
scriptive of a vegetable called by the In- 
dians, " Tanyah," now being cultivated 
in the Southern States for the sake of its 
tubers, and considered there of but little 
less value than the Irish potato. I wrote 
to a friend, B. F. Hills, of Areola, La., 
(who sent me two plants of it,) to give me 
a more minute account of the plant than 
he at first sent me. He has written to me 
lately as follows : " It requires the same 
culture and mode of jsreparing it for the 
table as the Irish potato, except it should 
not be boiled in an iron vessel as it gives 
it a dark color. Peel it and slice it up as 
you would a long turuii), cook until soft, 
mash it tine, and season to taste ; put it in 
a dish, set it in the oven and browu it. It 
is then more like the vegetable oyster than 
any vegetable I can think of. When 
mashed hue mix in a little milk, flour and 
eggs, and fry it as you would batter cakes, 
or make it in a jjudding or pie as sweet 
potatoes are sometimes done. As to its 
culture, prepare the ground as for the Irish 
potato, but kii&p the plant a little below 
the level of the ground — I mean not on a 
ridge — as it grows best in moist situations, 
and becomes more rich and thrifty. Plant 
the small tubers if you wish to increase 
tlie croj} rapidly. Cut the large tubers as 
you do the Irish potato, with an eye on 
each piece. I saw an article in some of 
the works, stating that the stems of the 
leaves were a good substitute for asparagus, 
but I have not tried them. The leaf is 
handsome, sliaded with light and deep 
green, and beautifully grained. I have 
measured leaves here three feet long 
and two feet wide. If any of your nurse- 
rymen wish it, I will send them plants in 
exchange for some they may have that I 
would like, such as the Pisherzagos rai.«in 
grajje, or the Zante currant." 

Tliis i>lant is considered of sufficient 
imijortauce as a good vegetable to be ad- 
vertised among the list of vegetables in 
1). II. Bliss ana Son's Catalogue, N. Y. It 
would bo well adapted for the climate of 
California, I think, if projierly irrigated. 

Fruit Production. 

Some statistics of the fruit production of 
California, lately published in a public 
journal of this city, though purporting to 
come from a house extensively engaged in 
the fruit business, are so inaccurate that 
they must mislead iiersons in search of in- 
formation. We are told that 2,801,000 lbs. 
of apples, 4,754,750 apricots, l,7Ib,250 of 
cherries, 0,401,000 ot poaches, 13,598,000 
of jjears, 511,000 of prunes, 1,181,000 of 
quinces, 1,120,000 ot tigs, 42,000,000 of 
grapes, 1,402,000 of blackberries, 1,831,- 
500_of currants, 131,000 of raspberries and 
24,825,000 of strawberries were "pro- 
duced" by California in 1871. These esti- 
mates include all the counties, and after an 
examination of the figures they appear to us 
to possess no value. Sierra; for instance 
is credited with 50 tons of tigs, Mono 5 
tons, Plumas tons and Sonoma 10 tons; 
whereas the last county ijroduces ten 
times as many as the three mountain coun- 
ties named. According to the Assessor's 
reports, Sonoma has 1,300 tig trees. Sierra 
11 and Mono none. El Dorado and Plu- 
mas are each credited with producing 75 
tons ot grajjes, San Bernardino 25, and 
Sierra 150. The State statistics tell us 
tfiat El Dorado has 1,357,805 grape vines, 
Siera 9,000, and San Bernardino 481,450. 
A slight acquaintace with the climate of 
Plumas, Mono and Sierra, with the State 
statistics were not accessible, would satis- 
fy any enquirer that those counties could 
not rival Sonoma, San Bernardino and El 
Dorado in growing grapes and tigs. We 
could find many other mistakes equally 
grave, aud the statistics, as a whole, are 
unworthy of trust. Estimates carefully 
prepared by well informed persons are often 
valuable when precise statistics are not 
obtained. — Alta. 



Mancking Tkees. — It is a mistaken no- 
tion thut many have of applying all the 
manure and water close around the foot 
of their trees. The roots run off a dis- 
tance in search of nourishment; and more- 
over the roots near the body of the tree 
have much less facility for taking of nour- 
ishment than those at a considerable dis- 
tance. 



Santa Clara Valley Farmers' Club. 

Mcvement About Road Laws — Agriculture, Horti- 
culture, Etc. 
In this county great dissatisfaction ex- 
ists, especially among the country i^eople, 
in relation to the present system of assess- 
ing, collecting and expenditure of the road 
tax. Under the existing law the road tax 
is assessed to all tax payers alike, whether 
they be residents of town or country, and 
when collected, is placed as a special fund 
under the immediate control of the Board 
of County Supervisors. The Board has 
the power to make appropriations from the 
fund to each road district in the county, 
and to appoint road masters for the same. 
Our farmers complain that this appointing 
power of the Board not only leads to a 
species of favoritism, but that the distri- 
bution of the fund is uneqal and injudi- 
ciously applied. Yesterday, there was a 
full attendance of the " Farmers' Club," 
in this city, and the road question monop- 
olized almost the entire time of the session. 

Speeches were made by several leading 
members of the Club. Various suggest- 
ions aud propositions were made and ad- 
vanced. The central idea seemed to be 
that a radical change in the road system 
must be made immediately, and the plan 
finally adojited was that a committee be 
appointed to obtain signatures to a petition 
to our legislative delegation requesting 
them to use their endeavors to have our 
road law so amended that each road dis- 
trict shall have the power to elect its own 
road master, and also to assess and collect 
road taxes sufficient to keep the roads in 
repair inside of its own limits. 

As your correspondent understands it, 
the idea of the Club is not to entirely 
abolish the special county road fund as it 
now exists, but that each District Super- 
visor being elected for his competency, 
and being fully cognizant of the imme- 
diate necessity for road improvements in 
his own neighborhood, can at once do the 
work without being deisendeut upon the 
Board of Sujjervisors. A committee was 
appointed to draft resolutions, and also a 
committee to circulate the petition for sig- 
natures, both of which will report at the 
meeting on next Saturday. 

The Santa Clara Valley Agricultural So- 
ciety is considering the most feasible and 
profitable plan or plans for improving and 
beautifying the Fair grounds. The Society 
some time since advertised for sealed pro- 
posals, to be reported at the last regular 
meeting. Certain proposals were made at 
that time, but the whole matter was con- 
tinued till Monday evening next (15th 
in St.), when some final action will proba- 
bly be taken. 

Our Farmers 
All wear smiling faces, feeling assured of 
a bountiful harvest this year. Money is 
tolerably i)lenty in private hands for loan 
at from 1,'s' to IJ4 i)er cent., and is being 
readily taken by farmers and business men. 
for the reason that the late bountiful rains 
has raised the hopes and expectations of 
everybody and restored public confidence. 
Farm lands in this valley which, a year 
ago, were almost begging for buyers at re- 
duced prices, cannot now be purchased or 
rented at any price, the owners preferring 
to cultivate every acre themselves. 

It would do good to the eyes of our 
metropolitan friends if they could just 
now take a peep at our splendid horticul- 
tural surroundings. The drenching rains 
have washed every vestige of dust from the 
leaves, and the i)lants and trees are bright 
and beautiful. In a spacious enclosure 
near the " New York Exchange," the vet- 
eran gardener, Mr. William O'Donnel, 
who has been engaged in horticulture here 
for seventeen years, has a miniature park 
containing every variety of plant, shrub 
and tree to be found on this continent. 
Mr. Charles Caine has another splendid 
collection of the same sort near McLaugh- 
lin & Ryland's Bank, on Santa Clara street. 

Taking it all in all, we have not enjoyed 
such an auspicious season for many a year, 
and we devoutly hope that no untoward 
event may blast our expectations. 

Gopher Law Repealed. — It having 
been hinted that certain persons were 
about collecting scalps from the mill- 
ions of drowned gophers which had 
been unceremoniously taken ofi' during the 
late heavy rains, and claiming bounties 
therefor, the Legislature has put an ef- 
fectual stop to any such speculation by re- 
pealing the law. 



f\K¥ H'NTs. 



Apples for Feeding Animals. 

H. H. Doolittle of Oak's Corners, 
N. Y. , gives to the Rural New Yorker a 
statement of his experiments in feeding 
apples to horses, cattle and swine. The 
price for apples being low in market last 
autumn, he used them to advantage in this 
way. He took care to give to his animals 
good sound fruit, and not such as was 
partly rotten or partly frozen. His two 
horses were kept in good condition, and 
well fitted for work, which could not 
have been attained for less than §15 worth 
of grain. Two breeding sows were kept 
as well as they could have been on $5 to 
§10 worth of grain; and three spring pigs 
were well fattened on apples at a saving in 
grain of about §10. Tlie pigs were also 
tried with boiled apples and a little meal, 
but they liked the raw apples best. Cows 
were fed mostly on whole apples, there be- 
ing none small enough to choke them. A 
milch cow was increased in milk at least 
fifty per cent., which made excellent but- 
ter. She fell away one-haif in yield on 
clianging the apples to sliced turnips, 
buckwheat shorts and corn stalks. The 
loss was partly restored by changing the 
turnips and shorts to half a bushel of ap- 
ples daily. The apples in the experiment 
were regarded as worth from $b to §10. 
A dry cow was handsomely fatted on ap- 
ples—worth from §15 tj §20. 

The apples fed in this way, were a crop 
of about 50 barrels of Greenings, and one- 
half as many more of second quality, be- 
sides a few others intended for family use 
— all worth at current prices at that time 
not over §50. According to the statement 
in the experiment, from §50 to §05 were 
obtained for them as food. It also fur- 
nishes corroboration of the statements we 
have made in former years, tJiat rich sour 
apples are scarcely inferior to sweet ones 
for this purpose. The flow of milk from 
the cow, from October 1st to November 
10th, was two-thirds as much as on good 
June feed. 



A Variety of Crops. 

Mixed husbandry has two great advanta- 
ges, it gets the benefit of all the land has 
to bestow, the various crops drawing upon 
the various materials of the soil. Hence a 
greater length of time can be covered with- 
out reijlenishing the land, though it is 
better to feed liberally and constantly. 
Second: In the variety of produce there 
are always some products that will sell 
well even in the worst of times, while there 
is less loss in the poor prices where but a 
small quantity is sold. In this way there 
is no loss, h\it always again; not a fortune 
realized (nor a fortune lost), but fair, mod- 
erate profits secured. 

This is Ka/e farming, just as in specula- 
tion the man who is content with moderate 
profits is the safe speculator, prosecuting 
his trade when others fail. 

The beauty is to make the whole soil 
work, nothing lying dormant, useless, for 
whatever fertility the farm has unused, it 
must always be remembered, is so much 
loss in interest, and in the use of profit. 
But, as we have said, the farmer is safe 
aud in these critical times this is of the 
first importance. Have many things to 
sell, rather than one of a kind largely, 
which — though many chances are against 
it — will sell at a low figure, which any of 
our thinking farmers know is not the fig- 
ure that i)ays, for, remember, every penny 
not every everj' dollar we will say, but 
every penny gained in selling is so much 
clear f/diii. Have a variety then, to be 
sure to get this clear gain.— Country Gen- 
tleman. 



Wood Ashes for Wheat.— A subscriber 
sends us the following as his experience 
in using wood ashes, viz: that in quanti- 
ties of only eight bushels per acre, they 
have a marked effect; that they push the 
wheat forward several days, thus getting 
it ahead of that critical period when it is 
so apt to be attacked by rust, that they 
strengthen the stem and increase its so- 
lidity. All of which and much more, we 
can readily indorse. In fact, ashes arc an 
excellent 'application for an orchard. — 
American Agriculturist. 

How TO Improve Musty Wheat. — A cor- 
respondent of the Rural New Yorker had a 
lot of wheat get musty in a pile. He says: 
"I put it on my hop kiln, dampened it 
slightly with water, put a fire under it 
with brimstone on the stove. When it 
cooled off, I found the mustiness had en- 
tirely left it. We tried it for bread, and 
it made as good as any wheat." 



When to Manure Trees.— Inquiry is 
often made as to the frequency and amount 
of manuring or cultivation for trees. The 
answer must be: Act according to circum- 
stances. The question again recurs: How 
shall we know what our soils need ? The 
answer is : Observe the results of growth. 
An examination or analysis of the soil will 
be of little use. But the trees will tell 
their own story. If the soil is so rich that 
they make annual shoots of two or three 
feet or more in length, without any culti- 
vation or manuring at all, (which, how- 
ever, is rarely the case) then it will be 
needless to give additional care. The an- 
nual growth is the best guide to treatment. 
There are very few apjjle or other orch- 
ards which, after reaching a good bearing 
state, throw out annual shoots more than a 
foot and a half long, and many not half 
this length. The owner may lay it down 
as an unalterable rule, tliat when his trees 
do not grow one foot annually they need 
more manuring or cultivation, or botli. 
By observing the growth he can answer 
questions of the kind referred to without 
difiiculty. — Amei-ican Frnit Culturist. 

Manure should never bo placed in con- 
tact with the roots of a tree in setting it 
out ; and old, finely pulverized earthy 
compost should always. 

Cabbages for Stock. — Commenting on 
the subject of raising cabbages for stock, 
the New York World remarks, that in En- 
gland they grow thirty tons per acre of the 
ox or drumhead cabbages, against 18 tons 
of Swedes of 22 tons of Mangles; and ac- 
cording to Dr. Volcker, cabbages contain 
nearly three times as much flesh-forming 
substance as common turnips, and are 
equal to almost all clovers and grasses as 
food for stock. They are much better for 
lambs and milch cows than any kind of 
turnijis and they are much better relished. 
Cabbages can only be grown to profit on a 
very rich and highly manured soil ; aud 
the same applies strictly to the Indian 
corn crop. It is probable that cabbages 
are a much surer crop in the cool, moist 
climate of New England than in our hotter 
summer. 



Salt and Charcoal for Stock. — Farm- 
ers who raise stock should give them plenty 
of charcoal to eat, and furnish them freely 
of Salt. Both iiuprove cattle and keep 
them in g( od condition. Salt acts health- 
ily on the blood; charcoal strengthens and 
heals the mucous membrane throughout 
the alimentary canal, and increases the 
power of the digestive organs, healing any 
unhealthy condition existing there. It 
prevents worms generating in the stomach, 
etc.; it absorbs the putrescent gases by 
which worms are generated, aud they con- 
sequently die. The free use of salt and 
charcoal will contribute to protect cattle 
from epidemics, and will counteract the 
effects of putrescent or septic water. 



Farm Machinert. — In reply to a j'oung 
farmer who asks. "Will farm machinery 
pay at first?" Mr. Harris replies in the 
American Agricu Iturist: 

"I should buy as little machinery as pos- 
sible. I asked a farmer who has had consid- 
erable experience with machines if they 
paid. 'If bought with good judgment,' 
he replied, 'and used with great care, I 
think they do.' A farmer can lose more 
by using a broken, one-tined fork, a dull 
hoe, a worn oiit axe, and a battered-up 
spade, than he can save by using a machine 
to saw wood or a reajjer to cut his gi-ain. 
A small farmer had better hire his work 
done with a machine than to buy the ma- 
chine himself." 



How TO Select Pecan Nf ts fob Plant- 
ing. — The Memphis Farmer, in recom- 
mending the pecan tree for cultivation 
says: Select best Texan pecans, largest and 
thinnest shells, and plant in December, 
January, or February. By transplanting 
carefully every two years (cut ofi" tap root 
first year) .for two or three times, they will 
fruit in eight or ten years, and when 15 years 
old will bear a bushel each; when fully ma- 
tured, one or two barrels of the best, 
worth generally §20 to §30 per barrel. 
Plant, say 30 feet apart, and leave to your 
children a snug income. 



Although, almost ever since agriculture 
has been practiced soot has been known 
to be a valuable manure, in the nineteenth 
century there are hundreds of farmers who 
cannot be persuaded to believe it. It is 
really as valuable as guano. Take a hogs- 
head of water, and dissolve it in twelve 
quarts of soot, and you will have a splen- 
did liquid manure for plants. Apply it to 
the roots, of course, and then watch the 
result.— /oMrna^ of the Farm. 



January 20, 1872.] 



37 



^q^icyLjd^-\L fI@7ES. 



CALIFORNIA. 

ALA31EDA COUNTY— News, Jan. 12: 
Grass. — Farmers say that the cold weather 
of the ijast few days checked the growth of 
grass, and that it will be some time yet be- 
fore there will be good feed for cattle. 
Holders of hay Avill have opportunity 
enough to sell before new grass becomes 
plentiful for stock. 

Salt Works. — It is reported that during 
the late storms the salt works at Alameda 
were badly damaged, the beds being cov- 
ered with loom and sand. One man lost 
1,500 tons of salt and other owners about 
1,000 tons. 

Mushrooms. — Mushroom.s are plentiful 
in market and range in price from 8 cents 
to 50 cents jier ft., the latter for choice 
cultivated. 

LOS ANGELES — The News reports 
that Los Angeles county last year made 
1,230,000 gallons of wine and 50,000 of 
brandy, against 1,064.000 of wine and 59-, 
GOO of brandy in 1870. The cost of the 
wine per gallon to the makers is estimated 
at 15 cents. One firm has already made 
28,000 gallons of brandy, and will make 
10,000 more. Raisins of last year's crop 
have made their appearance in the market, 
but in a small quantity. The grapes suit- 
able for raisins command prices so high 
that there is not much inducement at jsres- 
eut for buying them. 

TuE crop of oranges and lemons in Los 
Angeles county this year is fully up to 
the average, both as to quantity and qual- 
ity. 

MARIN — Fruit in Marin. — During the 
year 1871 there have been produced in 
Marin county 750,000 pounds of apjjles, 
14,000 pounds of apricots, 20,000 pounds 
of blackberries, 10,.'>00 pounds of cherries, 
5,000 pounds of currants, 2 tons of figs, 50 
tons of grapes, and 10 tons of nectarines. 
These figures are supplied by Lusk & Co., 
the well known fruit dealers of San Fran- 
cisco. 

NEVADA — RepubUcmi, Jan. 10: The 
ranchmen in the lower portions of the 
county have sown more than their usual 
quantity of grain, and propose to sow more 
as soon as the storm abates. We hear of sev- 
eral new vineyards that are to be planted 
early next spring, one of which is to con- 
tain 20,000 vines— the most in any single 
vineyard in the county, if we remember 
right. The silk growers are also making 
preparations to add largely to their mul- 
berry plantations this year, and experi- 
ment more extensively in raising silk- 
worms and cocoons. Indications of a 
change for the better in the county are 
more favorable than they have been for 
ten years. Things have a hopeful, perma- 
nent appearance. It is rare we hear a res- 
ident of the county talk of leaving for 
some other locality expecting to better 
himself. That Nevada county is going 
to take a fresh start and increase rapidly 
in population, we do not mean; but 
we believe it has seen its darkest days of 
adversity, and that henceforth it will in- 
crease slowly and surely in pof)ulation and 
■wealth. 

News, Jan. 14: We understand that Ed. 
Muller, of this city, pi-oposes to publish a 
pamphlet on silk culture. Mr. Muller is 
one of the jjioneers in the business and 
has made it a study for years. His exhi- 
bitions at the State Fair have taken high 
premiums, and his displays have been 
l^raised by the press of the State. His ex- 
perience renders him thoroughly qualified 
for the work suggested, and such a pam- 
phlet would be valuable to those engaged 
in the business in this State. 

SANTA CLARA— Gihoj Advocate: Our 
Tobacco Interests. — We have on a num- 
ber of occasions called attention to the op- 
erations of our townsman, J. D. Culji, in 
raising and manufacturing tobacco. A 
year ago he purchased a sjilendid farm in 
San Felipe valley, from Mr. E. A. Sawyer, 
and last spring put in a crop of tobacco, 
five acres of which was planted to Havana 
seed. From the.se five acres he has gath- 
ered and cured a croji of 8,000 pounds of 
fine Havana tobacco. Samples have been 
submitted to every leading tobacco man 
in San Francisco, and all have joined in a 
certificate that it is equal to that raised on 
the island of Cuba. To cure Havana to- 
bacco raised in this country so as to pre- 
serve the peculiar flavor and qulities of 
that imi^orted from that island has always 
been the acme of the hopes of all our to 
bacco growers, and millions of dollars 
have been expended in various efforts 
which have heretofore been fruitless. The 
plant could be raised and matured in this 



country as readily as on that island , but 
no one ever could cure it so as to preserve 
its delicate flavor. One company experi- 
mented in Florida some years since, and 
sunk several hundred thousand dollars in 
their efforts. They procured the young 
l^lants in Cuba and brought them over 
to their jDlantation in vessels and failed. 
The next year they not only brought over 
their plants, but imported ship loads of 
the soil from that island, which they 
placed around the jilants and still they 
failed in attaining their object — and finally 
gave np their enterprise in disgust. The 
value of Mr. Culp's discovery may readily 
be apjjreciated when we state that the to- 
bacco imported from Havana is worth in 
San Francisco from $1.12% to $2 per 
pouud, to 2Jroduce the same article here. 
The supi^ly of tobacco raised in Cuba is 
limited and not equal to the demand; the 
best grades of tobacco raised there are 
manufactured into cigars on the island and 
we only get, even at the enoiunous price 
paid, an inferior quality. California has 
every natural advantage for becoming 
the greatest tobacco producing country in 
the world. The richness of the soil and 
mild climate, together with the certainty 
of dry weather when the ci-oj) is being 
cui'ed, are advantages that cannot be sur- 
passed. 

The annual meeting of the Santa Clara 
Valley Agricultural Society was held on 
the 4th instant. The following named of- 
ficers were elected: President, W. C. 
Wilson; Vice-Presidents, Cary Peebcls 
and J. P. Sargent; Secretary, Givens 
George; Treasurer, C. T. Rylaud; Direc- 
tors, William O'Donnell and S. B. Emer- 
son. The total receipts for 1871 were 
$10,720.90; and the expenditures amount- 
ed to .f!8,346.95, leaving a balance on hand 
of $2,.373.95. 

The Guide, Jan. 15: Faemees' Club. — 
The Club met yesterday afternoon with a 
good attendance. The Road Law subject 
was discussed in all its bearings, and the 
interest manifested showed that the mem- 
bers feel deeply the necessity of a revision 
by the Legislature, of the present law. 
The idea of having each district make and 
maintain its own roads and regulate its 
own taxes, seemed to meet with general 
favor. Several reports on the matter 
were read, and the subject continued until 
next meeting, when it will assume a more 
definate shape. In connection with the 
reading room, a library has been added, 
aud donations of books received. These 
meetings ai-e growing rapidly into favor, 
aud with the present encouraging financial 
condition of the Club, there can be no 
doubt but that it will be a permanent in- 
stitution. 

SANTA CRUZ.— Sentinel, Gth: Cali- 
fornia Raisins. — G. M. Jarvis, of the 
famous Vine Hill Vineyai-d, has prepared 
and boxed, from this j'ear's vintage, sev- 
eral thousand pounds of raisins, from the 
choice Burgundy grape, which surpass in 
flavor and excellence any brand of foreign 
raisin in market. This is a new feature 
with the grajje growers of this county, and 
from the successful experiments of Mr. 
Jarvis this season, ijromises to become ex-- 
tensive and profitable. This luxury can 
now be supplied by the home product at a 
greatly reduced price. Six-pound boxes 
selling for $1.25. There is no reason why 
tons of superior raisins could not be pre- 
pared next year in this county, thus turn- 
ing out valuable vintage in a more profita- 
ble and desirable account than wine mak- 
ing. Mr. Jarvis will be enabled, from his 
extensive varieties, next year, to prove 
which are best suited for raisins. From 
Mr. 3 Jarvis' vineyard a great many tons 
have been sold throughout the county for 
table use, several tons turned to raisins, 
and over 20,000 gallons of wine made from 
the best varieties of foreign grape. Sev- 
eral thousand gallons of superior wine 
vinegar has also been manufactured from 
the refuse pulp this season. 

Wine Product. — In our brief mention 
of the wine product of this county, some 
three weeks since, our figures did not 
show, as we intended they should, the 
amount of wine produced for 1871. The 
error was typographical, and we now make 
the correction. The production instead of 
25,000 gallons should have been G5,000 
gallons. The Jarvis Brothers alone have 
made about 35,000 gallons and other vine- 
yards in the Vine Hill region have i>ro- 
duced 10,000 gallons more. It is a very 
small estimate, to say that the product of 
1872 will exceed 100,000 gallons. Witli 
the railroad completed to Santa Cruz, car- 
loads of grapes could and would bo shijjped 
direct from here to the East; this might 
reduce the wine production a trifle. 

We learn that a large number of persons 
are preparing to plant the vine this year, 



in the foothills adjacent to Santa Cruz and 
Soquel. 

The hills are now clothed in the beauti- 
ful green iseculiar to the country bordering 
the ocean. Another month and the flow- 
ers will be as plenteous as the green blades 
foretelling their approach. 

SACRAMENTO— TheBauaqe to Sher- 
man Island LeyeeLess than Reported. — 
In regard to the break on Sherman Island, 
which has flooded a portion of the island, 
I understand that it will be closed to-mor- 
row. The expense of filling the break 
ought not to exceed $500. The people on 
Sherman Island are not concerned as to 
tlieir safety or the success of their reclam- 
ation. The water on the island will not 
cause any loss of crops or stock, and will 
soon be drained out by the action of the 
tides. 

I have recently examined all the prin- 
cipal levees on the Lower San Joaquin and 
Sacramento rivers, and although there are 
some of the smaller levees covered by the 
water, I have seen no damage to any that 
would exceed a few hundred dollars. In 
fact, it is a question whether or not the 
land will not be more benefitted than dam- 
aged by the floods. The sediment depos- 
ited on Grand Island, by the present fiood, 
will amount to several inches, and some 
of the lower jjlaces much more. This will 
more than comjiensate for the damage 
done the levee. As the public are inter- 
ested in learning the facts in j'egard to this 
enterprise, and as the statements of the 
Call were evidently made with undue haste, 
and without fully understanding the mat- 
ter, I will be obliged by your publishing 
this. Yours, Wm. C. Walker, 

Superintendent T. L. R. Co. 

January IGth. 

[Mr. Upham, of Sherman Island, informs 
us that the break was closed as anticipated 
above, with little or no damage to the 
growing wheat, as the daily low tides in 
the Sacramento and San Joaquin rivers 
admits of rajjid drainage of the surplus 
water. Sherman Island is all right and 
ready for another trial, if it must come. — 
Eds. Press.] 

Beet Sugar. — The Sacramento Bee says: 
The Sacramento Sugarie has on the way 
by rail, to arrive in a few days, 200 bags 
of sugar beet seed, direct from Germany, 
all of which they will sow. The Alameda 
Sugarie will sow largely also; and it 
is announced that a beet sugarie is 
likely to be erected this year upon 
Sherman Island. California wants sev- 
eral hundred of these institutions, and 
there is some prosjiect that in a decade 
she may have them. 

SAN JOAQVIN— Stockton Independent: 
Very Encouragino. — The reports received 
from all portions of this valley lead us to 
believe that the farmers will the coming 
year be able to make up for a portion of 
their losses during the last two dry 
seasons. An uncommonly large area was 
seeded before tlie commencement of the 
heavy rains, and owing to the fact that the 
weather has continued warm there has been 
nothing to delay its growth. The season 
is jjarticularly favorable for the farmers on 
the west side of the Han Joaquin river and 
those cultivating the sand plains. The 
adobe and bottom lands will be too wet 
for cultivation for some time to come, but 
these lands will produce a crop even if 
sowed much later. Although we have had 
an almost unprecedented rainfall during 
the last two weeks, we have heard of but 
little damage by floods. Had there been 
large quantities of snow in the mountains 
the result would probably have been dif- 
ferent; but now the land has been thor- 
oughly saturated without any disastrous 
flood. The prospect for a large crop 
throughout the State was never better at 
this season of the year, and our farmers 
are generally jubilant in consequence. 

We had a conversation a few days since, 
with an extensive owner of cattle on the 
subject of the Fence Law. He informed 
us that, until quite recently, he had been 
decidedly opposed to its repeal; but, being 
convinced that it was inevitable, he had been 
led to carefully investigate its probable ef- 
fect on his interests, resulting in the belief 
that it would jirove favorable. The law 
had, at one time, undoubtedly been bene- 
ficial to the cattle interests, but had now 
ceased to be so. It had resulted in over- 
running the country to such an extent that 
they were mutually eating up and destroy- 
ing each other. Cattle were deteriorating 
and perishing in vast numbers from starva- 
tion every year, and it was vain to think of 
bringing about any concert of action by 
which their numbers could be reduced 
within the sustaining capacity of the coun- 
try. No Fence Law would bring about 
thai result and a healthy condition of a 
great interest. The man of enterprise 



could improve his breeds, and no Ifi- .n- 
suffer the pain of witnessing their coi 
degeneration. The owners of land, t 
as a stock raiser or farmer, would derisc .i 
benefit from it; the country would improve 
and better markets oisen. 

TULARE.— A correspondent, J. B. R., 
sends us the result of his observations for 
the months of November and December as 
follows: 

The average of thermometer for Novem- 
ber at 6:30 o'clock a. m. was 57°; at 2 p. m. 
it was 64%'-— the coldest being 38°, and 
warmest 7G°. The rainfall .20 inches on 
26th, .76 on 27th, and .64 on the 29th, 
makinga total of 1.60 inches for the month; 
which coming so late and so well together 
gave the grass a fine start. By the middle 
of December the plains were green, and 
barley up. From Dec. 4th to 12th we had 
an unusual amount of fog, which was an 
advantage. The average of thermometer 
was 46)3" at 6:30 a. m., and 55%" at 2 p. 
M. —the warmest being 70°, and coldest 30" 
on the morn of 14th, when we had a heavy 
frost, cutting down tomatoes, beans, and 
potatoes, which might otherwise have been 
growing until now, as is shown by a few 
that came up since. The rain for Decem- 
ber was .35 inches on the 18th, .05 on 19th, 
.70 on 20th, .20 on 21st, .30 on 22d, .45 on 
24th, .15 on 28th, .87 on 27th, .03 on 30th, 
making a total of 3.60 inches in the month, 
or 5.40 inches this fall. The soil is wot 
down about 15 inches. Farmers have quit 
feeding and turned stock out to pick a liv- 
ing; though the grass is rather short it is 
improving rapidly. We have potatoes 
planted, peas in bloom, and vegetables 
coming on finely. We have been circu- 
lating petitions in favor of no fence law, 
and find plenty ready to sign who voted 
for fence; they have been thinking since 
election and would vote dilferent now. 
Some are waiting to hear of tlie passage of 
a general trespass law, intending in such 
case to sow all the grain they can upon the 
plains. I would like to enquire if grapes 
are raised, and do well without irrigation," 
on the red hills around Auburn, or on sim- 
ilar soil elsewhere. 

MONTANA. 

Independent: Grain. — The prospects of 
this Valley becoming one of the centres 
of the Territory for agriculture is very 
good. There will be a much larger area 
of grain sown the coming season than ever 
before. No jjart of the woi-ld jDroduces 
larger crops of grain than Deer Lodge 
Valley, and there is a good home market 
for all that is raised. Until recently but 
little attention has been paid to farming 
as the raising of stock was more profitable. 
In the future ranchmen will pay more atten-. 
tion to cereal crops which will materially 
advance the prosperity of the country. 
We shall soon be enabled to produce all 
the farm products we consume. 

There is a wonderful scarcity of eggs in 
this market at the present time. Tliey 
readily command $2 per dozen. From 
some cause they are always much dearer 
here than in any other place in the Terri- 
tory. It occurs to us that if some cf our 
ranchmen were to turn their attention to 
raising i)oultry they would in a short time 
realize handsomely from the outlay re- 
quired. Eggs command an average of 75 
cents per dozen the entire season, and for 
the jjast year the average has been about 
85 cents. Chickens will average about one 
dollar apiece. We do not pretend to know 
the cost of raising chickens in Montana, 
but juding from Avhat it costs to raise them 
in other countries we think it might bo 
made quite profitable. 

WASHINGTON. 

Stock Dying. — The Victoria Colonist of 
the 6th, says the most alarming accounts 
continue to reach us from the interior of 
the mainland. The thermometer at Wil- 
liam Lake has fallen to fifteen degrees be- 
low zero, and the snow, which had previ- 
ously begun to thaw, was covered with ice. 
The poor animals, consequently are unable 
to get feed and are dying by scores. Large 
numbers of pack-horses and work-oxen 
have already died for want of feed. Ore- 
egon Jack, on the Thompson river, is get- 
ing three cents a pound for straw. Corn- 
well and other largo farmers have no hay 
or grain. There is no feed at Yale. The 
town is full of i)ack-animals, many of 
which arc dying. They wore driven down 
to Yale in the hope of getting transporta- 
tion to Sumas, but the steamer Hope, ow- 
ing to tlie ice, is unable to reach Yale and 
the result, it is feared, will be a terrible 
loss. 

Scarcity op Feed. — Under this caption 
the Walla Walla Statesman of the 16th ult. 
says: Wo learn that there is comparatively 
little feed in this valley, and that in the 
event of heavy snows in the month of Jan- 
uary the stock is likely to suffer. 



38 



*5/ «5fe 4b O ' 



(.January 20, 1872. 



Tree Planting. 

Read Before the Farmers' Club of Sacramento, 
January 13th. 

The wrong way is too often practiced. 
The holes are dug — some barely large 
enough to admit the roots — and these even 
are often doubled up and crowded in such 
a manner that a portion of them decay 
prematurely and the tree is easily blown 
over. Others are dug and the tree planted 
as a fence post should be — deep, with the 
earth well packed around them. In this 
case certain death to many varieties of 
trees, such as the stone fruits, locust, etc., 
follows. Pear, lombardy-poplar, and some 
other varieties endure this style of plant- 
ing and frequently do well. Of late years 
some variation is made in the manner of 
prejjariug the holes. For instance they 
are dug about three feet in diameter, and 
as many deep. If in hard ground (alkaline 
it may be) these holes are usually filled 
with material hauled from a distance, a 
<iuantity of manure deposited in the bot- 
tom; sediment is used to finish the filling. 
If in sandy ground it is thought best to 
have some clay to mix with the sand. The 
clay is hauled— most likely it is black 
adobe, or that which is as poorly adapted 
to the requirements of tree life as the lean 
washed sediment— the holes are filled, the 
trees ]ilanted — some deep, some shallow — 
it don't make much difference which, for 
no very good results ave ever seen to fol- 
low such unworthy practices. 

It is noticeable of late years that a much 
larger proportion of trees planted along 
our streets, as well as of fruit trees in our 
gardens and orchards, die or grow feebly 
than in former years, which i-- not charge- 
able to any change in the manner of ))lant- 
ing. but to the fact that the ground has 
been tramped over, destroying its life-giv- 
ing qualities, or exhausted of its fertility 
from long cropping. While our land was 
.new and untrodden, trees planted in the 
most superficial manner mostly grew and 
did well, and when spared the murderous 
trimmings that have utterly ruined so 
many of the fine trees that formerly graced 
our sti'eets, are today equal in size and 
beauty to those grown in any city of the 
land, and at the same time show us what 
must be done to restoi-e the pristine vigor 
of our soils before we can hope to attain 
success. 

Another cause has contx-ibuted not a lit- 
tle to the failure of tree jilanting of late 
years. The trees have mostly been brought 
from distant nurseries, and for the want of 
proper care in packing, or the entire ab- 
sence of any packing, more or loss damaged 
before they are planted. Formerly the de- 
mand was almost entirely supjdied from 
our local nurseries. The latter having, to 
a great extent, been destroyed by floods, 
leaves most of the nurserymen without the 
means and the courage necessary to start 
anew and compete successfully with distant 
commercial nurseries with whom it is dif- 
ficult to compete even where no calamities 
have befallen. 

The right way of preparing the ground, 
if for field or orchard planting, is this: The 
■whole surface should be deeply and thor- 
oughly tilled, either with a plow or by 
trenching with the spade. For street 
planting, or where there is but a limited 
amount of room, the whole of the ground 
the length of the row, and as wide as pos- 
sible, should be deeply and thoroughly 
pulverized, and poor clay or sand replaced 
with rich friable soil, such as the success- 
ful market garden is sure to have, and cul- 
tivate carefully. In short, I would have my 
field or border prepared as one hole hold- 
ing the entire plantation, being careful to 
provide proper drainage, so that no stag- 
nant water should come in contact with the 
roots of the trees. Would avoid putting any 
gross unrotted manure with the filling 
around the roots, but instead would use 
large quanti.ies spread widely on the sur- 
face of the ground, only avoiding near con- 
tact with the tree to avoid fermentation. 
Such application should be made as soon 
as the trees are planted, but never comes 
amiss at any season of the year. An annu- 
al top dressing just before the rains set in 
first plowing the ground cannot be too 
highly recommended. 

Mulching the trees, as just suggested, is 
the only substitute for the frequent stir- 
ring of the soil. The latter must not be 
entirely omitted, and particular attention 
to prevent weeds growing must be given 
at all times. 

With the exception of partially hoed 
crops for two or three years after planting, 
the ground should be left vacant in order 
to allow of frequent cultivation. Wheat, 
barley, oats, grass, etc., are highly preju- 
dicial to the success of trees at any time^ 
and usually prove fatal to them if grown 



the first or second year after planting. 
One crop even may so far injure an orchard, 
though in bearing, that it will never re- 
cover from the injurious eifeets. 

J. S. H.\KBISON. 



Freeman's Grain Separator. 

The ace Dmpanyin g illustration represents 
Freeman's improved grain separator, which 
belongs to a class of machinery in which 
our local mechanics excel Eastern manu- 
facturers in producing for this Coast. It 
is intended for farmers and warehouse use, 
and will be found especially useful to the 
latter in cleaning seed grain. The grain 
is fed into the hopper and passes over a 
wire sieve to which is imparted a peculiar 
tossing motion and at the same time moves 
forward and back rapidly. It then drops 
on to the perforated zinc plates of which 
screens there are three, and while dropping 
through, a blast of air from the fan be- 
low, blows off the chaff and other impuri- 
ties. These plates may be lowered by 
thumb-screws so as to stand at any desired 
incline. They have a lateral shaking mo- 
tion so as to facilitate the passage of the 
gr.ain through the holes. 

The cheat and other deleterious sub- 
stances drop through the sieve into the 
cheat box below and the cleaned grain into 




Freeman's Grain Separator. 

its proper receptacle. The different boxes 
have separate outlets and are so arranged 
that the contents may easily be sacked 
without the necessity of anything falling 
on the floor. The machine is run by hand 
and can be easily moved from place to 
place. It will be found es))ecially useful 
in cleaning grain of the Siiene Gal/ica, or 
French catch fly, a sort of pod which trou- 
bles the farmers in many parts of Califor- 
nia. 

The screen m.ay be removed and attached 
to any threshing machine, doing away with 
the chaffing screen and performing the 
work at one ojieration. There are three 
sets of zinc plates and screens for different 
kinds of grains and they can be changed 
in a few moments without the necessity 
of moving any screws. This improve- 
ment is the invention of a practical man 
and one who has had great experience with 
threshers. Parties having threshing ma- 
chines can obtain the right to use the pat- 
ent pod screen on such machines, and 
those desiring the separator, right of iise, 
etc., may be had by applying to W. D. 
Freeman, Tomales, Marin county, Cal., 
who will also give further information 
to those desiring it. 

Post Office Changes. 

Following are the Postal changes in the 
Pacific States and Territories during the 
week ending December 30, 1871. 

Post Offices Established. -Hot Spring, 
Siskiyou county, California — George 
Townsend, Postmaster; Mount Fairview, 
San Diego county, California — B. F. 
Jones, Postmaster; Schellbourne, White 
Pine county, Nevada — Melchoir D. Eaum, 
Postmaster; Woodburn, Marion county, 
Oregon — Adolphus Mathiot, Postmaster. 

Postmasters Appointed. — Caliotoga, 
Napa county, California — William P. Lit- 
ten; Ellsworth, Nye county, Nevada — P. 
O. Tyler; Hiko, Lincoln county, Nevada 
— Charles G. Heath; Rock Creek, Owyhee 
county, Idaho — J. S. Delavnn; Eoekj' Bar, 
Alturas county, Idaho — Warren P. Cal- 
lahan. 

DiscoNTiNtTED. — Port Orchard, Kitsap 
county, Washington Territory. 

Name Changed. — Emmaville, Salt Lake 
county, Utah, to Granite City, and Joseph 
J. Snell appointed Postmaster. 

A New Horse Shoe.— A new horse shoe 
has come into general use in Paris. It is 
imperfectly described as being a " narrow 
rim of 'iron, which gives perfect protection 
to the edge of the hoof, without cramping 
its sole." It is said to require much 
less weight of metal, and therefore is 
cheaper. Though not specified, wo sus- 
pect that nails are not used. It is said to 
give great satisfaction— it is called the 
Chanlier horse shoe. 



Table of Altitudes. 

The follovring list of altitudes above the 
sea-level, which has been furnished us for 
publication, by Mr. W. A. Goodyear, As- 
sistant Geologist, will doubtless be inter- 
esting to many of our readers. The local- 
ities named are most of them in the region 
between the North and Middle Forks of 
the American river. The determinations 
were made with the barometer by the State 
Geological Survey during the summer of 
1871. The results are not absolutely exact; 
but most of them will be found very near 
the truth, and accurate enough for practi- 
cal purposes; 

Feet above 
level of the sea. 

Colfax 2,421 

Toll-house at Bice's Bar, North Fork of 

American Kiver 1,146 

Parker House, Iowa Hill 2,867 

Summit of 1^ Sugar Loaf, Iowa Hill 3,084 

Mr. Teaslaud's House, Wisconsin Hill. . 2,880 
Highest crest of Kidge between Elizabeth 

Hill ami King's Hill 3,065 

Crest of uiiiiu ri Jgo between Iowa Hill and 
Damascus, just southwest of head of 

Green Valley Gorge 4,130 

Hotel at Damascus 4,010 

Crest of main riJge immediately south of 

Damascus 4,691 

Mouth of HumbuK Canon, south branch 

of North Fork, American River 2,051 

Fork's House, on ridge, south of Damas- 
cus 4,789 

Crest of ridge between Forks House and 

Hog's Back 5,468 

Secret House 5,486 

Summit of Secret Hill 6,651 

Yank's Cabin, Canada Hill 6,229 

N'orthwest summit of Canada Hill, Bald 

Mountain 7,179 

Millers Defeat 5,812 

Last Chance 4,545 

Bottom of Canon of North Fork of Middle 
Fork of .\mericau lliver, on trail be- 
tween Last Chance and Deadwood. . . . 2,719 
Crest of ridge near the Devil's Basiu. . . . 4,390 

Hotel at Deadwood 3,943 

Bottom of El Doiiido Canon, on trail from 

Deadwood to Michigan Blufl" 1,821 

E.\press office, Michigan Bluff 3,488 

Bottom of Volcano Canon, on road from 

Michigan Bhiff to Bath 2,871 

Forest House, Forest Hill 3,230 

Martin K. Tubb's Saloon, Yankee Jim's. 2,574 

I'odd's Valley 2,730 

Fold's Bar, at mouth of Otter Creek, on 
Middle Fork of .American River 795 

The State Geological Survey.— No. 2. 

In our issue two weeks ago wc made some 
general remarks upon the character of the 
Geological Survey, the jiurposcs for which 
it was instituted, and what may legitimate- 
ly be expected from it. These remarks 
might easily have been extended to far 
greater length, showing bow broad and 
complex is the field which falls within the 
proper scope of such a work, and how diffi- 
cult are many of the problems with which 
it has to deal. 

But our space would not permit it. For 
the same reason also, in reviewing what 
has already been done we cannot attempt 
any detailed history of the work from its 
inception down to the present time; but 
after a brief notice of the most important 
publications of the survey prior to its 
stoppage by the Legislature of 18(57-8, we 
shall pass rapidly on to the work of 
the last two years, of Mhich our ac- 
count will bo somewhat more detailed. 
Those who desire fuller information must 
be referred to the published volumes of 
the report, and to the printed biennial let- 
ters of the State Geologist to the Gover- 
nor, giving detailed reports of the prog- 
ress of the work year after year. 
Earlier Publications. 

The first published volume of the report 
was issued in 1864:, and formed a portion 
of the Paleontology, being devoted to a 
description of the invertebrate fossils be- 
longing to the formations lower than the 
tertiary. It was finely illustrated with 
plates engraved on steel and stone. 
This is an important portion of the 
work, since the fossils found in the rocks 
form the only sure and certain guide bj' 
which to solve the intricate question of 
the relative ages of the rocks. But it pos- 
sesses little interest to the general reader. 

The next publication was issued in 
1865, and entitled a " Report of Progress 
and Synojisis of the field-work from 1860 
to 1864." This volume consists of about 
500 royal-octavo pages of handsomely 
printed text, profusely illustrated with 
geological sections, and sketolies of our 
giandcr mountain scenery, and crowded 
with valuable geological facts .and data 
from almost every portion of the State. 

The next publication was a second vol- 
ume of the Paleontology in 1867. 



In 1867 also, was published the topo- 
graphical " Map of the Region adjacent to 
the Bay of San Francisco" on a scale of 
two miles to the inch, and covering an 
area about 88 miles long by 66 miles wide, 
which is nearly equivalent to the com- 
bined areas of the two States of Connecti- 
cut and Rhode Island. This was the first 
really accurate map ever published of any 
considerable portion of California, and is 
to-day the finest topographical map yet 
jjublished of any equal area of mountain- 
ous country in the United States. We 
now pass to 

The Work of the Last Two Years. 

On the resumption of the work by the 
last Legislature, the " Map of Central Cal- 
iforniaj" was one of the first and most im- 
portant matters which engrossed attention. 
This magnificent topographical map, if the 
means are furnished tocomijlete it, will not 
only be an honor to the State, but its practi- 
cal value for fill time to come, will only grow 
more ajqiarent year by year. Its scale is 
six miles to one inch. It embraces the 
central portion of the State from Owen's 
Lake and Visalia on the south to Lassen's 
Peak on the north, and from Bodega Bay 
on the west to Cerro Gordo on the east. 
It is in four sheets, each twenty-four 
inches square, and covers an area of about 
eighty thousand square miles, and cov- 
ers about one-third of the whole area, 
and i)robably ninety-five per cent, of 
the population of the State of California. 

The southwestern quarter of this map 
was already in the hands of the engraver. 
For the purpose of completing the south- 
eastern qu.arter, a party was fitted out to 
explore aud map the Inyo and White 
Mountain ranges 'and the region south of 
Mono Lake. 

They took the field on the 20th of 
April 1870. Later in the season Messrs. 
Craven and Goodyear, with two as- 
sistants spent three months in mapping, 
and working np the complex but extreme- 
ly interesting geology of the region in the 
Coast Range extending from the head of 
Napa Valley northwesterly some distance 
into the higher mountains beyond Clear 
Lake. 

The fine engraving of this map, which is 
of necessity a slow and costly work, is 
already almost half done, and if the means 
are furnished the whole thing can be com- 
pleted, the engraving finished, and the 
map published within the next two years. 
The geological field-work for this map ia 
being done simultaneously with the topo- 
graphical work, so as soon as the map is 
finished it will only remain to color the 
geology upon it, and publish tlie descrij)- 
tive volumes, which can then be quickly 
done. 

Few people have any adequate concep- 
tion of the amount of labor involved in 
the production of sucli a map; but every 
one who travels in the mountains can ap- 
preciate its practical value when once it is 
completed. It would be a great loss to 
California not to have this map completed 
and iiublished. 

Ornithology. 

We must not omit to mention one other 
publication of the survey. The first vol- 
ume of the "Ornithology of California," 
devoted to the land birds of the State, 
made its appearance in the spring of 1871. 
This beautiful volume is finely printed, 
and illustrated with 602 engravings on 
wood aud copper. The plan of these il- 
lustrations is as follows. Each species, 
over three hundred in all — has a life-size 
figure of its head colored from the life, by 
handj while full length i)ortraits illustrate 
the general appearance of some one repre- 
sentative of each genus. This is by far 
the handsomest volume yet published by 
the Survey. The coloring of the engrav- 
ings is finely and delicately executed. It 
forms a most elegant standard work, and 
should be found in every gentleman's li- 
brary. 

In our next we shall have something to 
say of another, and extremely interesting 
department of the Survey-work. 

Kansas City vs. Chicago. — Kansas 
City, this season, packed fifty thousand 
head of cattle. Chicago packed only fif- 
teen thousand head, although the business 
used to be one of the largest items in the 
trade of the Lake City. The explanation 
is given in the fact that packed beef is 
shipped from Kansas City through Chi- 
cago to New York for seventy cents per 
hundred. Of this amount the road east 
of Chicago receive forty-two cents. The 
rate from Chicago is sixty-five cents. At 
this discrimination the Chicago packers 
are indignant, and acknowledge that its 
cause is a mystery they are unable to 
solve. Chicago is chagrined at the loss 
of the trade, and Kansas City is corres- 
pondingly exultant. 



January 20, 1872.] 



39 



© 



POPULAR LECTURES. 



Industrial and Agricultural Needs of 
tlie State. 

[By Prof. Ezra S. Cark, of the Cal. State UniverBity, 
before the Mechanic Arts College, Mechanics' Insti- 
tute Hall, S. F. Keported expressly for the Press.] 

Lecture No. IV, Jan. 13, 1872.— The 
course of lectures before the Mechanics' 
Arts College was resumed on Saturday 
evening before a full class. Mr. Hal- 
lidie announced that the next lecture 
of the course would be delivedby Professor 
Kellogg of the Chair of English Literature 
in the University. Prof. Carr announced 
as his subject the "Industrial and Agri- 
cultural needs of the State." He began by 
contrasting the present condition of the 
English laborers with those in America; 
and thought that the greatest proof of the 
power of free institutions lay in the amount 
of information possessed by American 
laborers in the face of the carelessness 
shown in their education, and if Europe 
was daily more and more preparing for a 
republican form of government, how care- 
ful should our Government be to secure 
the perpetuation of its freedom by a thor- 
ough education of its working classes. 

The first great requirement in this land 
is the fullest and most liberal education of 
of the masses. It is not suflicient, in order 
to train a boy to vote intelligently upon 
the question of free trade, that he should 
simply understand arithmetic and gram- 
mar but that he should be liberally educa- 
ted. The time is approaching when scientific 
study of human nature will be a necessity. 
Until the laws of life and the manner in 
which they affect social problems are 
learned and understood, legislation will re- 
main a series of legalized experiments. A 
vital question is how shall we educate our 
young men so as to make more farmers, 
mechanics and producers. The lecturer 
gave a very graphic account of the causes 
which have led to the decline to the coun- 
try and farm life in its social aspect, and 
said that one man, by leaving a rural home 
for the pleasures of city life on the ac- 
quirement of riches, would unsettle the 
mindb of many of his neiglibors and ren- 
der them dissatisfied Avith their lot. Peo- 
ple must rely upon co-operation and com- 
munity and begin to care more for neigh- 
bors than for acres. The people of the 
little settlement of Anaheim have profited 
by understanding this princij^le. 

While drawing a vivid ^picture of rural 
life and labor, he said that it was useless 
to eulogize callings from which farmers' 
and mechanics' sons were turning in dis- 
gust. When they grew up they began to 
see that the trades of their fathers kept 
them in a lower position in the social scale 
than they wished to be, and they desired 
to become clerks and abandon the business 
of their fathers as beneath them. He al- 
luded to the fact that already in California 
we are to-day looking to the lower class of 
foreign immigration for manufacturers, 
mechanics and laborers in the field. We 
must learn, and at last are beginning to 
learn, that the farm and factory are to be 
the foundations of success in this State as 
in other ones. The lecturer gave a graphic 
account of the causes which led to the 
decline of country life, attributed it to de- 
fective education, and advocated aesthetical 
culture as its cure. 

The prejudice against "book learning" 
on agricultural matters, and the old notion 
about "mother wit and plenty of manure," 
has passed away and had its day. In- 
ventois, mechanics and newspapers are 
rapidly bringing about a proper acknowl- 
edgment of the benefits of science as ap- 
plied to the afl'airs of every-day life, and 
in enlightening and improving the world. 
The increasing popularity of agricultural 
and mechanical colleges is one of the best 
assurances of a rapid change for the bet- 
ter. The lecturer f ol lowed Avith a highly 



interesting account of the agricultural and 
mechanical colleges of Euroi^e, especially 
those of Prussia, where the government 
at the expense of hundreds of thousands 
of dollars annually maintains and supports 
schools and colleges devoted to the prac- 
tical teaching of agriculture, mechanic and 
productive arts. Here thousands of schol- 
ars, from the sons of nobles to those of the 
poorest peasant, receive a liberal educa- 
tion at the expense of the government; and 
some of them do manual labor in the fields 
and workshops, and attend the schools 
during their leisure time. 

Prof. Carr here reviewed the condition 
of the same institutions in this country, 
which are j'et in their infancy, and gave a 
description of what our own State Uni- 
versity intends to do, paid a glowing trib- 
ute to the Regents for their liberal spirit 
in throwing open the doors to all, without 
distinction of sex, and closed the lecture 
with an eloquent tribute to agriculture as 
the first foundation of all arts. 



Qqqo ^|e^l7[|. 



BSEI 



CoNCOKD Axles. — For fifty years the 
name of Concord, N. H., has been familiar 
on every stage road as a great center for 
the manufacture of coaches, and, in many 
sections of the country, famous not only 
for its coaches, but also for its w.agons and 
carriages of almost every description. 
Many shops throughout the country may 
claim to produce as finely finished work, 
but for durability and perfect action none 
have more justly deserved the enviable 
reputation they have acquired than the 
Concord manufacturers. One very im- 
portant reason of the superiority of their 
manufacture has been the quality of the 
axles used. It is claimed by Messrs. D. 
Arthur Brown & Co,, proprietors of the 
Concord Axle works, located at Fisher- 
ville, a village in the town of Concord, N. 
H., that the material used by them in the 
manufacture of axles is of a quality supe- 
rior to that usually employed for this pur- 
pose, and that by a process of manufacture 
peculiar to them, their axles wear longer, 
run truer, and carry a heavier load than 
any in market. The present firm com- 
menced operations in 1864, the business of 
the establishment having been previously 
begun in 1858. They are now manufac- 
turing from 200 to 250 tons of finished 
axles, besides about 300 tons of stove and 
other castings per annum. Their goods 
are sold extensively throughout New 
England, in many of the Western cities, 
and largely in California and along the 
Pacific Coast. 



An Improved CRUCinLE. — A crucible for 
melting metal has been invented,^ which 
consists in providing the ordinary cruci- 
ble of plumbago or other substance with 
a flue or passage from the bottom to the 
top, for allowing the heat to act upon the 
center of the mass of metal contained in 
the crucible more directly than it other- 
wise can. This passage is surrouniled by 
a shell or tube of the same material of 
which the crucible is made. The inven- 
tor also grooves, or indents, or constructs 
the sides of the crucible, both inside and 
out, so as to form projections to interlock 
with the paste or clay or other substance 
with which the crucible is coated, to cause 
the coatings to be retained much longer 
than they now are, thereby preserving the 
crucible much longer, and reducing the 
cost of melting steel or other metals. 



The substitution of slate for boxwood in 
engraving is found to be sj)ecially adapted 
for engravings in relief. It is stated that 
while blocks of slate are easily cut, they 
will Avear as well as electrotypes, and 
furnish OA'cr one hundred thousand sharp 
impressions without loss of detail. The 
plates are not affected by oil or water, do 
not vary with temperature, and never be- 
come Avarjoed, Avhich is the grand fault 
Avith box Avood under certain conditions. 



Eaising Silkworms. — Carret, of Cham- 
bery, by a peculiar system of Avarming a 
and ventilation, is said to have reduced the 
period of breeding silkworms to eighteen 
or tAventy days. As an evidence of the ad- 
vantages Avhich sericulture has derived 
from scientific research, M. G. Raulin 
states that an ounce of the eggs furnished 
by M. Pasteur yield about three times as 
much silk as an ounce of the ordinary 
egga- , 

A Bio eel in a water-pipe stopped a three 
hundred horse-power engine in Lancaster 
Mills, Clinton, a few days since. 



Doctors and their Fees. 

Only quacks advertise "No cure, no 
imy." All honorable physicians charge 
for their time and trouble in proportion to 
their talent and reputation, no matter 
whether the patient remains sick, or gets 
bettor, gets worse, or dies. 

Many physicians make a discrimination 
in regard to these charges, according to the 
wealth of the patient; and this appears no 
more than fair, as a poor man is unable to 
pay as much as a rich man. Not that his 
life is Avorth less; it may be Avorth more, 
for all that, as the poor man may perform 
useful labor, Avhile the rich man may be a 
useless consumer of the goods of creation; 
but that ought not to cause a physician to 
charge a rich man less, as the best rule for 
them is, to let the rich pay for the poor, 
and to help the very poor for nothing, as 
all respectable doctors actually do. 

The Medical Gazette reports that j^revi- 
ous to the thirteenth century the laAV reg- 
ulated the fee for doctors pi'oportionally 
to the rank of the patient; so for curing a 
bisliop or local chief, he had forty-tATO 
cows, and for a member of the lowest rank 
only six cows. This Avas for serious com- 
plaints; for slight comi:)laints, it Avas less 
in proportion, and if no cure was jjer- 
formed, there was no jiay. 

Dio Lewis declares that our present sys- 
tem of employing doctors is all Avrong, 
and advises people to make contracts with 
them at lS200 for each family, and a de- 
duction of two dollars for each case of 
sickness. This is the Chinese system. 
There every family of note has its i^hysi- 
cian, Avho has a salary of a certain sum 
per head, to keep them all in good health. 
The amount of this salary is according to 
the social condition of the family and the 
reputation of the doctor. As soon as a 
member of the family is sick, his share in 
the salary is stopped, and not commenced 
again before his health is restored. It is 
seen that the doctors in China are not en- 
couraged to protract the sickness of rich 
persons, as is the case with us. 

The Use of Camphor. 

When the mucous membrane of the nose, 
frontal sinuses, etc. , is affected by catarrh, 
a strong solution of camphor frequently 
and for some hours snuffed up the nose, 
and five or six drops taken internally on a 
lump of sugar, at first for every ten min- 
utes, then every hour, Avill usually put a 
stop to the affeotion. Ordinary cold and 
even influenza, if treated in this manner at 
the verij heginriirig of the attack, are gener- 
ally controlled by the same treatment. 

Attacks of incessant sneezing and pro- 
fuse running at the eyes and nose will gen- 
erally yield to a strong solution of cam- 
phor diligently sniffed upHhe nose. In 
summer diarrhoea no remedy is so effica- 
cious as camphor, if employed at the very 
commencement of the disease; later it is 
without effect. Its influence over cholera 
is equally remarkable. Dose: six drops of 
a strong alcoholic solution of camphor, 
given at first every ten minutes; after- 
ward, as the symptoms abate, less fre- 
quently. 

To Avoid the Ague. 

Editors Press: — There are a few mala- 
rious districts in California Avhere ague or 
chills and fever are more or less prevalent. 
A residence of 20 years in one of the most 
malarious districts of Michigan, and a 
close observation of cause and effect, con- 
vinced me that one of the best preventives 
to Avard off the attack of this troublesome 
malady, is found in fortifying the stomach 
with a full, hearty breakfast, as soon after 
getting up in the morning as possible, and 
before taking hold of any of the severe 
labors of the day. w. 

Treatment of Footsoreness. — The Lan- 
cet states that the Inspector-General has 
directed that every man suffering from feet 
blistered by marching is to be taken at eve- 
ning parade to the medical officer, avIio 
should cause him to Avash his feet, and then 
to pass a needle Avith a worsted thread 
through each blister, cutting off' the thread 
a little distance outside the blister at each 
side, and leaving a ]5ortion in it. The part 
is then to bo rubbed Avith common soap, 
the sock put on and Avetted over all promi- 
nent points, and the soap again rubbed over 
them freely. When properly attended to, 
no man should be unable to march the 
following day on account of blistered feet, 
unless the cuticle has actually been re- 
moved, leaving a raAv surface exposed. 



Biliousness. 

Persons inclined to biliousness should 
carefully avoid all mental disturbance or 
excitement at meal time, or just before or 
after it. It is wonderful with what prompt- 
ness in some individuals the least mental 
excitement or disturbance will stop diges- 
tion in the stomach; eating too hurriedly; 
a little vexation because the dinner is not 
ready or because it is not cooked to suit; 
being engrossed in some perplexing 
thought or revolving some wild scheme 
Avhile eating, are all so many injunctions 
on the stomach-work of sensitive bodies. 
Time to eat should be taken, and no more 
than on the sanctity of the family devo- 
tions, should anything else be allowed fco 
encroach. We ought at that time to con- 
sign to a momentary banisliment all petu- 
lance and bad tem]5ers, and be, for the 
time, smiles and benignity all over. 

The digestion of animal foods is not in- 
terfered with to nearly as great a degree by 
mental and nervous causes as that of vege- 
table origin; hence it is proper to eat quite 
largely of meats and milk, but they — the 
meats— should be carefully prej)ared with 
regard to digestion. 

We cannot but believe that the lining of 
the stomach which induces many of these 
attacks, is brought about by too frequent 
meals. Many do not allow time for diges- 
tion and rest for the organism between the 
meals, a second eating of hearty food is 
brought for digestion, before the first is 
fairly disposed of. People ought to arise 
early enough to take an early breakfast, or 
else they should take a very light one, and 
the supper ought to be postponed until at 
least six hours after dinner. 

For bilious attacks of spring we must 
regulate our diet to the changing of the 
season. Decrease the amount of fat pro- 
ducing, carbonaceous food consumed; eat 
less fat meat — better eat none at all; dis- 
card the ham— not the eggs, drop off the 
buckAvhcat cakes, and put away the syrup 
pitcher for another year, or use it very 
sparingly. Bring in instead of these — the 
eggs, lean meat, milk and vegetables, being 
always sure to have them cooked Avith most 
scrupulous care as to their digestibility. 
Avoid constipation, and keep the body well 
clad and protected against the chilling 
Avinds of the season. 

Replanting a Tooth. — When the tooth 
is somewhat loose, and painful to bite 
on, with swelling at the gtim, and suppur- 
ation, the tooth is taken out; all the dis- 
eased parts are scraped from the roots, and 
it is washed and disinfected in carbolic 
acid, but those portions of mucous mem- 
brane which are commonly attached to the 
neck of a tooth, and appear healthy, are 
not scraped away. The socket from which 
the tooth was drawn is also properly 
cleaned, and the tooth is put back in its 
former place, and in a number of cases 
takes root, and fixes itself firmly in the 
course of a fortnight, and then becomes 
as serviceable as the other teeth. This 
is a remarkable instance of vital force. 
By the small ])ortion of living tissue left 
adherent to the tooth, attachment to the 
jaAv is renewed; and though failures occui-, 
there is reason to believe that as in other 
surgical operations, they will become fewer 
as the operators acquire experience. The 
teeth are so important to life and health, 
that whatever tends to preserve them 
should be encouraged. 

In Fevers. — As long as the patient is 
able he should sit up out of bed, at least 
one hour of the day — longer, if he should 
not be raised Avhile he is perspiring. The 
bed should be constantly made every day, 
the sheets and linen should be changed 
every two days, taking, however, the great- 
est care that they are dry even as tinder. 
Nothing more induces to protract a fever 
than keeping the sick constantly in bed, 
and withholding a constant and regular 
supply of fresh linen. 

Healthful Effect of Atmospheric Pres- 
sure. — M. P. Bert has been experimenting 
upon the vital effects of varying atmos- 
pheric pressure. He finds that a sudden 
diminution of pressure to the extent of 15 
or IS centimeters speedily produces death, 
but if the diminution is gradual, the life of 
mammals may be sustained even under so 
low a pressure as 12 centimetres. The con- 
sumption of oxygen and the temperature 
of the body diminish Avith the diminution 
of pressure. 

The cundurango, alleged to be a cure 
for cancer, is not a tree, as has been sup- 
posed, but a vino similar to the grape, 
and its fruit is about twelve inches long 
and four in diameter. The sap of the 
vine is the color of milk, and this is be- 
lieved to contain the valuable elements of 
the vine. 



^ 



40 



^.g^mm ^w^^£ 3PBES8. 



[January 20, 1872. 




PI'ItLIHHKD BY 
A. T. I>EWEY. W. B. KWKB. G. U. STKONO. J. L. BOONE. 

Prinoipal EDiTiiK W. I!. EWER. A.M. 

Associate Editoh I. N. HOAG, (Sacramento.) 

Okkice, No. 3.38 Moutgomery street, S. E. comer of 
Ciilifdrnia street, where friends and patrons are invited 
to our SciF.NTiKir Puess, Patent Agency, Egraving and 
Printing establislimeut. 

SUBSCRIPTION AND ADVERTISING RATES. 

SuBscniPTiONS payable in advance — For one year $4 : 
six months, f'2.. ''id;" three months, $1.2.5. Clubs of ten 
names or more $3 each per annum. $5, in advance, will 
pay for 1 'a year. Kemittauces by registered Utters or 
F. O. orders at our risk. 
ADVEni'isiNG R.\TEs. — 1 Week, 1 montk. 3 monOii. 1 year. 

Parllne S.i .60 $2.00 $5.00 

One-half inch $1.00 $3.00 7..50 20.00 

One inch 2.00 5.00 14.00 36.00 

Large advertisements at favorable rates. Special or 
reading notices, legal advertisements, notices appearing 
in extraordinary type or in particular parts of the paper, 
inserted at special rates. 



SAN iFRANCtSCO: 

Saturday, Jan. 20, 1872. 



Our Weekly Crop. 

As visitors api)i-ii;uh tbo entrance to our farm 
this week they will meet with a rcprcsoutativo 
individual of one of the best friends of man, to 
be found in the animal kingdom, and some in- 
teresting information will be given "About 
Sheep in General," not often met with. They 
will also please take notice of the sensible ad- 
vice on the "Culture of Rjiisins, " and the"Policy 
of Keeping a Few Hens." Notwithstanding the 
irregularity of the the mails, our correspondence 
arrives promjjtly, and to-day we ha\e some in- 
teresting information about "Agrictilture in 
Montana;" "How to Keep from Freezing;" 
about the "Kemarkable Succession of Floods," 
ete. Our Mechanical department gives some 
information about another important triumph 
in that line, in the way of "A Successful Rotary 
Puddler;" while the lover of science will be de- 
lighted with an interesting lecture from Prof. 
Tyndall on "The Force of Life." 

Turning from these somewhat heavy subjects, 
we find a few valuable "Horticidtural" and 
"Farm Hints," and the latest report from "The 
Santa Clara Farmers' Club." After looking 
over our usual "Agricultural Notes," our atten- 
tion is arrested by some interesting facts with 
legard to "Planting Trees," and an improved 
"Farmers' Grain Sep.arator," which we have 
just set up. A "Table of .Altitudes" is placed 
for convenience next to "The State Geological 
Survey," after perusing which we listen to an 
interesting lecture by Prof. Carr. on the "Indus- 
trial and Agric\iltural Needs of the State," and 
gather up some further "Usefitl Information" 
about "Doctors and Their Fees," "Bilious- 
ness," etc." 

Our Editor next furnishes us some valuable 
and timely hints about "Sunflower Seed — Its 
Uses and Value," also about the practice 
of "Wet Plowing;" "Grafting Grape Vines, 
etc. Our head farmer has put up "Knowles' 
Patent Steam Pump," for irrigation and 
other farm purposes, and explains fully its 
uses and purposes. "We now pay a brief visit 
to the "Sacramento Farmers' Club," after 
which we drop into the "Homo Circle," where 
the poet of the family reads us a story about 
"The Wife of Brown," after which paterfami- 
lias tells us all about the "Market Value of Rose 
Leaves," about "Laughing Children," and 
about "The Switches Worn by Our Belles." 
The cook also reads us a very sensible les- 
son on the relation of "Cooking and Architec- 
ture," and gives us sundry other useful and 
interesting hints. 



Utilizing the Apples — Cider Vinegar. — Mr. 
N. P. Woodworth of Stone Point, snj's the Rus- 
sian River Flar/, has a cider mill of his own con- 
struction, with which, by the aid of a man and 
horse, he can make 300 gallons of cider per day. 
Mr. W. converts his cider into the cider vine- 
gar and ships it to this city. The house to 
which it is shipped should advertise through 
the Press where this genuine cider vinegar can 
be found. 

CoMMCNiCAXioNs RECEIVED. — "Faim House 
Chat;" "Proceedings lof Santa Cruz Farmers' 
Club;" "The Fluke Rot in Sheep." 



Sunflower Seed — Its Use and Value. 

No more ungraceful plant exists than the 
sunflower; still to those who have made its 
class a study there are few other plants, so 
easily made valuable. The sunflower is one 
of the most generous of the flower race 
in its yield of seed. The native and cul- 
tivated plant of the East carries a blossom 
about four inches in diameter which riisens 
over a toa-cup full of seed. The wild sun- 
flower found in some portions of California, is 
of course much smaller, being onlj' about one 
inch and a quarter in diameter; seed small, bdt 
extremely nutritious, being the favorite deli- 
cacy of swarms of wild birds and wild ducks. 

It is generally known that sunflower seed is 
fed to hens — they are fond of it, and fatten on 
it. From a gentleman in Wisconsin who has 
made the poultry business a specialty for 
nearly fifteen years, we have gathered a few 
facts by way of correspondence, upon the va- 
riety of food given to fowls. He has been in 
the habit of planting sunflower seed along the 
ditches and fences around his fields. The 
seed is gathered in the autumn before it hecomfs 
hard, and coarsely ground and put away in 
barrels, to be mixed with the feed for the 
poultry. It is considered the best fowl fatten- 
ing feed used, and also beneficial for layers. 
The stalks of the plant, after being threshed 
for the seed, are buried in the garden soil be- 
fore it freezes; in the spring they are decom- 
posed and are plowed into the soil, and con- 
sidered a choice mould, which greatly benefits 
garden produce, especially lettuce, radishes, 
and rhubarb. This knowledge has been ob- 
tained by careful study and patient experiment. 
Turkeys and Ducks. 

The sunflower seed is also used almost ex- 
clusively in the best Western heneries, for fat- 
tening turkeys and ducks. It has been 
observed that fowls carefully fed on this seed 
and fattened for the holiday markets in the 
Western States are tenderer, sweeter, and com- 
mand a higher price than those which are fed 
with other food. 

No soil or climate in the world is better 
adapted to the cultivation of the sunflower than 
that of California, especially the southern 
counties. Fine hedges can he made of the 
plant as well, and the seed may be used profi- 
tably for feed. People who complain of the 
lack or high price of feed for their fowls, would 
do well to try this experiment. Cut down the. 
plant as the seed commences to harden: thresh 
it out, coarse crush it. and mix it with other 
food. Your )>oultry will thrive and yield profi- 
table returns for the care and attention so easily 
given. Sunflower seed finely crushed is greatly 
relished by canary birds and quails also. It 
has no doubt a greater value as food than the 
generality of people are aware of. The loaves 
also make excellent fodder, and when fuel is 
scarce the stalks can be used to good advantage 
for cooking purposes. 

Other Uses. 

The cultivation of the sunflower is attracting 
special attention in India, and from a corres- 
pondence from that country we gather the fol- 
lowing valuable items. 

The oil extracted from the seed is said to be 
superior to both almond and olive oil for table 
use, and to be employed in manufacturing 
woolen goods, soap, and candles, as well as for 
lighting purposes. The leaves have been man- 
ufactured into cigars, having pectoral qualities, 
and might, perhaps, be found more efficacious 
than stramonium. The blossoms furnish a 
bright vellow dye, which stands well. Each 
acre will contain from l.'S.OOO to 20,000 plants, 
and the average quantity of seed will be .'iO 
liushels, each of which will give a gallon of oil. 
The quantity of seed will be much increased by 
dwarfing the plants, the best manure for which 
is said to be old mortar broken tip. The plants 
should be kept clean and free from weeds, and 
the quantity of seed required is about six 
pounds per acre. They should have sufficient 
interval between them for exposure to the stni 
as under such circumstances they become larger 
and more fully stored with seed. 

The sunflower is also extensively cultivated 
in Russia, where the annual product is said to 
be over thirty-three million pounds — 16,500 
tons. 



Japanese Silkworm Eggs. — Hon. Frederick 
Watts, Commissioner of the Agricultural De- 
partment at Washington, has been pleased, on 
the recommendation of Senator Cole, to for- 
ward to Secretary Johnston, of the California 
Cotton Growers and Manufacturers' Associa- 
tion, a lot of Japanese eggs. They are the 
Bombyx Mori variety. Amateurs and profes- 
sional silk breeders can have some of these 
eggs, if timely application shall be made either 
to James Dale Johnston, 107 Sansome street, 
or to President Ellsworth, at the salesrooms of 
the California Silk Manufacturing Company, 
Market street, near Sansome. 



Grafting Grape Vines. 

Many who have experimented are finding it 
to their advantage to give greater attention to 
the production of raisins, and one or more of 
these desire information on the feasibility of 
converting portions of their vineyards of the 
Mission, or as it is sometimes called, the native 
grape, into raisin vineyards, by engrafting the 
better varieties for that jiurpose upon their old 
stocks. Grafting the vine is nothing new in 
horticulture, and yet there are many successful 
operators in ordinary tree grafting, who are not 
experts in vine grafting. In ordinary tree 
grafting it is simply necessary that, in the case 
of cleft grafting, the cleft should be made as 
clean as possible, at the point of union between 
the bark and wood, the scion to bo made wedge 
shaped and smooth and tapered to fit the cleft, 
and then inserted so that the inner bark of the 
same shall come in conjunction with the inner 
bark of the stock, then cover with suitable 
bandage and all is right. 

In the case of the grape the same rule is to 
be observed where the stem will cleave freely, 
but with this difference: grapes succeed much 
better when the grafting is performed just un- 
der the surface of the ground, that when done 
tho earth may be drawn quite up and over the 
stock and scion, except a single bud at top. 

But there are many cases in which the stock 
is not sufficiently straight in the grain to admit of 
asmoothsplitorcleft; when this occurs the graft- 
ing can be performed with almost certain success, 
by first sawing off the stock below the surface 
of the ground, then with a smooth cutting bit, 
bore one or more holes as near to the outer 
edge of the wood as possible, and one and a half 
inches deep; let the holes bo a trifle smaller 
than the scion to be inserted, then with a scion 
of two buds, remove the bark from an inch and 
a half of the end and round off with a sharp knife 
till it will just fit the hole by a gentle down- 
ward pressure. Tho scion should strike the 
bottom of tho hole which prevents the undue 
accumulation of juice at that point. 

It is not as necessary that the bark of the 
stock and scion should come in contact as with 
hard w-ood trees, but having done as directed, 
draw up tho earth as before, around and over 
the scion and success is equally sure. The 
operetion by an expert graftsman is quickly 
performed and a large number of vines can be 
made to change their fruit from undesirable 
sorts to those in better demand; and the growth 
is extraordinarily rapid, producing in many in- 
stances fine crops of fruit the same year. 

Wet Plowing. 

A corresjiondont of the Bnlhtin takes excep- 
tions to an article in the Press, in which it was 
maintained that adobe lands should not be 
plowed when too wet, and the soil thrown up 
into luTips to remain till the slacking process 
— the work of mouths^reduced them. The 
Bullelin man says : 

"I have plowed adobe for fifteen years, wet 
and dry, and the time is to come yet for mo to 
see it lumpy in the summer time. In 18ij2 and 
'('>3 I plowed 200 acres of adobe the water tilling 
the furrow every bout. I harrowed my grain 
in about tho middle of February, it was in 
splendid order and you could not find a lump 
in the summer as big as a walnut. I got twen- 
ty sacks to the acre. In the fall of '70 I culti- 
vated 100 acres of adobe dry, for hay, tearing 
out lumps from the bigness of a hen's egg to a 
water-bucket. I ciit three tons to the acre and 
you could not find a lump. I should like to 
know what brick yard makes bricks out of 
adobe and not anything else." 

In support of our position we have the au- 
thority of every agricultural paper in the coun- 
try ; we have also the experience of a practical 
farmer in Sonoma county, wTitten over the sig- 
nature of "M.," in a former number of the So- 
noma county Journal; on the subject of plowing 
adobe land, he says: "2fever jylow or tramp your 
qround when wet. ' ' Again he;says : "By plowing 
in the fall and spring only, when the ground is 
in order, or not too we t, it will become more 
and more crumbly, and you will have an inex- 
haustible soil." Now who shall decide when 
"Practical Farmers" disagree? We did not 
say that bricks were made of adobe. 

The Gopher Ncisance has received a decided 
check by the late and continued heavy wet. 
Millions of the little ' 'varmints" have found wat- 
ery graves in tho low-lying lands along our 
river courses, and now, if the farmers will make 
common cause, in extirjiating them from the up- 
lands, where they have already suffered much, 
the State will be well nigh rid of a nui.sauce, 
the magnitude of which during the last three 
years of drouth has caused a much greater pe- 
cunary loss to the State than all the damage 
done bv the late storms. 



Irrigation Under DirnctiLTiEs. — "J. A. W.," 
writes from Holtsville, N. Y., that he thinks 
there is no part of the agricultural world, where 
the farmer need suffer severely from drouth, if 
he only makes the best use he can of the means 
within his reach for irrigation. He himself 
lives in a region whore, when he first located, 
he had to draw most of the water for his stock 
from wells four miles distant ; and the wells with- 
in a mile of his house were 80ft. deep. Under 
these circumstances he immediately set about 
constructing cisterns and reservoirs, not only 
to catch the rain fall from his house, but tho 
draiiUKje from his lands also— using the Ittter 
for irrigation purposes. His reservoirs were made 
tight by cement, so that they should not leak, 
while evaporation was checked by covering 
them from exposure to the sun. They were so 
constructed that the last bucket of water could 
be readily drawn from them. 



BaTTER.— A Lakeport correspondent asks if 
any of the readers of the Press can tell why it 
is that cream will not always make butter, and 
says "I have churned cream for two days with- 
out the least appearance of butter; tho rich.thick 
cream will by churning become as thin as 
water." 

A dairyman of large experience, just now at 
our elbow, says: Give the cows at all times all 
the salt they will eat, and never commence the 
churning if in winter, when tho cream is very 
cold; but warm it a little by sotting it near the 
fire or by the addition of warm water before the 
churning commences. 

Got 'em All. — A subscribc'r writing from 
Marin County is anxious that our traveling cor- 
respondent should visit his neighborhood and 
write it up — but one of our agents visited that 
region lately and got every man to subscribe, so 
that it would be of no use to send one there again 
on that business. Our agent should have written 
up the place when he was there ; but as we cannot 
make out the jirecise locality from which our 
correspondent writes, we are unable to say 
whether he has done so. 



Can't Get Along Without It. — \ subscriber 
from Colusa has failed to get his paper regular- 
ly since the late storms set in. He writes that 
he can't get along without it — had rather miss 
all his other papers than the Rdbal. Mi.ssing 
numbers sent. 



The San Francisco Co-operative Building 
A.SSOC1ATION. — The primary object of this asso- 
ciation is to enable its memWrs to acquire 
homes of their own on the easiest possible 
terms, and incidently offer an opportunity for 
the profitable investment of small or larger sums 
by the shareholders, on good real estivte secur- 
ity. This institution is calculated to do an im- 
mense amoimt of good to the working classes, 
and we would advise all such who are paying 
rent, to visit Ihe office of the association, at 
30C Montgomery street, get one of its circulars, 
inform themselves thoroughly with regard to 
its plans and advantages, and take immediate 
steps to secure, what everyone should have — a 
home of his own. The plan of co-operation 
has V>een thoroughly tried in Great Britiau, 
where there are about 3,000 associations, with an 
aggregate income of some fifty millions of dol- 
lars. It is also fast being introduced into our 
Eastern cities — in Phildelphia alone there are 
said to be about 300 such associations with an 
annual income of five and a half millions. 

Farmers' Club Essays. — In another column 
we publish to-day an essay, read before the 
Farmers' Club of Sacramento, on the subject of 
lilauting trees, generally, by J. S. Harbison — a 
gentleman of great experience in the business 
of which he writes. Another essay was read at 
the same meeting, by E. F. Aiken, on the Cul- 
tivation of Evergreens in this State, which we 
shall publish next week. .\s these subjects 
are now of immediate interest, both with those 
who may want to plant trees, and others, 
we feel confident our readers vrill all be pleased 
to find these essays in the columns of tho 
Rural Press. We shall also have something 
to say, editorially, upon the general subject of 
Forest Tree Culture, in our next issue. 



A Liquid Rennet. — We call attention of the 
farmers, and particularly mothers, to an 
advertisement in otir columns, of Dickey's Li- 
quid Rennet- This is said to be a most valuable 
preparation, and one that is so highly recom- 
mended, wo would advise our readers in need 
of the article to give it a trial. 

Tea Culture. — Col. HoUister, of Los Angeles 
county is making extensive preparations for the 
culture of tea. 



January 20, 1872.] 



41 



Effect of Climate on Cotton. 

The Industrial Society of Mulliouse, a town 
in southeastern France, having offered a prize 
to encourage the study of the cultivation of the 
long-staple cotton of our Sea Islands, with a 
view to its possible production in Algiers, 
where all attempts to produce it have hitherto 
failed, M. de Sibourg has written a long paper 
from which we take a few extracts, using the 
report published in La Propagation InditstrieUe. 

In reply to the question as to the causes 
of the tenacity of the fibre of Sea Island 
Cotton, or the peculiarities of culture to which 
it may be more particularly due, M. de Sibourg 
answers in substance : — • 

1. Carefully selecting the seed of the finest 
plants for sowing, and continuing this selection 
during a long number of years. The plants 
which produce the longest fibres produce also 
the most tenacious. That this process of selec- 
tion has had much influence, is proved by the 
fact that during the war of secession, when the 
planters were obliged to quit their plantations 
or leave them in unexperienced hands, the cot- 
ton degenerated in quality, and has not even 
yet been brought back to its former quality. 

2. Carefully adding to the soil (in the shape 
of manures, etc.,) those ingredients which are 
shown by chemical analysis to be necessary. 

3. Peculiar atmospheric conditions. The 
cotton is sown in places where it can receive 
the two requisites of plenty of heat and jjlenty 
of moisture. The lowest temperature of the 
Sea Island district is 0° C. (32" Fah.) the 
highest 37° C. (98° Fah.); the winter mean 
about 12° C. (54° Fah.), the summer mean 
about 30° C. (8G°Fah.) Kains in the spring 
occur and abundant dew in the summer and fall. 
The average amount of water absorbed by the 
earth in this region during nine years was : 

Spring 2.5.0 Centime trcs* 

Summer 44..') " 

Autumn 2fi..5 " 

Winter 19.0 

Yearly Total 11.5.0 Centimel ics. 

Besides the dews of summer and of the be- 
ginning of autumn, the fogs which arise from 
the ocean every night and are drawn over the 
land have undoubtedly an important influence; 
but the exact effect of these saline vapors is as 
yet unascertained. 

The nearer the sea the better the quality. 
If several seeds of the same plant are sowed at 
different distances from the ocean, the quality 
of the cotton produced degenerates with the 
distance, until that grown sufliciently far inland, 
away from the influence of the sea breeze gives 
a short staple cotton with seed like that of Up- 
land cotton. The converse is also true. In- 
land cotton planted by the sea improves in 
quaUty. Hence it is held that the long-staple 
and the short-staple cotton are morel}' hyper- 
trophic varieties of the same plant. 

The author, in conclusion, thinks the long- 
staple cotton probably can in time be produced 
elsewhere of good qualitj', but it would de- 
mand the greatest care and study. The atmos- 
pheric conditions are vei-y important, but most 
important are: The careful selection of the best 
seeds each year, care in cultivation, and proper 
preparation of the soil by means of manures. 

In further evidence of the important effect 
produced by climate upon cotton, we were re- 
cently told by a gentleman who hasbeen engaged 
for several year in raising cotton at the Fiji 
Islands, that he obtained his seed originally 
from the Southern States, but that with no es- 
pecial care, either in cultivation or selection of 
seed, his cotton has been steadily imjn'oving, 
until it is now worth $1 per jjouud in New 
York, or three times as much as cotton from 
the same original seed grown in Georgia. 

'A centimetre is thirty-nine one-hiindredths of an incli. 

Facts Prom Sherman Island. 

Editors Peess : We saw an item in your paper 
Jan. 13th, 1872, copied from the Alia, which is 
not correct, so far as it relates to the cause of 
the levees giving away on Sherman Island. The 
breaks which occured were caused by the bank 
of the river having been cut between the river 
and the levee. The most difficult one that we 
have had to manage, is where there is no ditch 
inside of the levee, and where all the material 
in the levee has been taken from the outside, 
between the levee and the river. 

The levees where all the material has been 
taken from the inside have showed no signs of 
giving away, and have not been damaged in the 
least. Mr. Walker or any one else irdcrested, if 
they will visit Sherman Island, will find these 
statements to be stubborn facts. During the 
past few days all theso breaks have been re- 
paired. The reclamation of Sherman Island 
has been carried on by the owners of said island 
under the superintendence of the Trustees of 
Swamp Land District Nos. 50 and 54, and not 
by any Reclamation Company. You will please 
call the attention of the Altii to this correction. 
S. H. Bkown, ) 
P. H. BoGGs, \ Trustees. 

A. J. BiGLOW, ) 

D. G. Pebey, Sec. of the District. 



Knowles' Patent Steam Pump. 

We give, herewith, a representation of an 
old and well-tried portable steam pump — com- 
pact, effective and durable, and at the same 
time a very simple machine for forcing water 
from springs or wells to hotels, private resi- 
dences, railway stations, etc. It is also spe- 
cially adapted to irrigation puriJoses, raising 
water for stock, or for any other pui'pose for 
which water is required to be raised to a great 
hight. Several of these machines have abeadj' 
been sold in this State for irrigation piu-poses. 

The machine is portable, calculated to be 
placed at or near the point from which water is 
to be taken, and force it to any distance that 
may be required. 

Its simplicity is such that very little skill is 
required to operate it; it has no cranks, fly- 



mittee of Five of the most thoroiighly practi- 
cal machinists on this coast, it was awarded the 
first premium over all competitors — the com- 
mittee reporting that it lost but 11^ per cent.; 
while some pumps which were tested lost as 
high as 40 per cent. 

It also received a diploma and medal at the 
last State Fair at Sacramento, which evidences 
of merit may be seen at the company's offices in 
this city. 

The Central Pacific Railroad has 19 of these 
pumps in use along the line of the road for fiii-e 
engines and for pumping water for shop and 
station use. 

A. L. Fish, at No. 9 First street, is the agent 
for their sale in this city. 

California Brandies. 

The Wine Dealers' Gazette for January, 
commenting on the values and qualities of 
California Brandies, undoubtedly compar- 
ing them with those of other countries, ar- 




KNOWLES' PATENT STEAM PUMP. 



wheel or dead-points, and is always ready to 
start as soon as steam is turned on. 

It is made in regular sizes, so that all parts 
of any one machine of a given size will fit in 
its place in any other machine of the same 
size ; thus in case of wear or accidental break- 
age, an order to the agent in this city by 
mail or telegraph can be promptly fiUed with- 
out the necessity of visit in person or the as- 
sistance of a machinist to adjust the broken 
part. 

The headquarters of the Company are at 92 
and 94 Liberty street. New York. One of the 
proprietors of this paper recently visited the 
warehouse in that city, and had the pleasure 
of a personal inspection of the extensive busi- 
ness done by the firm in this line, and of the 
admii-able order and system with which every- 
thing is accomplished. The company is said 
to have one of the largest stocks of pumps in 
the country — embracing all sizes, and calculat- 
ed for every conceivable character of work. 

The pump herewith shown took the highest 
premium at the two great Mechanics' Fairs in 
the country in 18G0-the Massachusetts Pair at 
Boston and the American Fair at New York. 

The pump was also exhibited at the late Fair 
of the Mechanics' Institute in this city, 
where, after a trial of steam pumps, by a Com- 



rives afc a favorable conclusion in relation 
thereto, and adding a cheering word for 
the producers ; it says : A few of them un- 
derstand their business well, and make an 
article of brandy that will command a sure 
and profitable market after they shall have 
had time to gain the reputation which 
they deserve. Many circumstances give 
our State peculiar advantages for the pro- 
duction of brandy, and our people will not 
neglect a resource so important. "When a 
more libei-al policy has lightened the bur- 
dens and vexations now imposed on the 
distillers, when experience and study have 
improved their skill, and wealth and re- 
duced interest enable them to ripen their 
brandy before selling, will drive the best 
French cognacs from the markets of the 
Western world. 



The Overland Tea Tbaffio. — In 1870 only 
1,700,000 pounds of tea passed over the Cen- 
tral Pacific Railroad; while 15,000,000 pounds 
passed over that road during the year just 
closed. 



Soap.— The soap trade is improving, in viiw 
of tbe prospect of an early advance in the article 
on account of the recent advance in sodas and 
high jirice of rosins. 



Sacramento Farmers' Club. 

The Club met at Sacramento on Saturday 
afternoon, and was well attended. W. R. 
Strong, C. W. Reed, A. Menke, J. Rutter and 
W. B. Ready joined the club. The discussion 
of the subject of tree planting was continued. 
Harbison read an essay on planting trees, and 
Aiken read one on the cultivation of evergreen 
trees — the former of which will be found in 
another column. 

Dunning of Michigan, Miller, Secretary of 
the Bay IJistrict Horticultural Society, and 
Reimer, an extensive nurseryman of Sau 
Francisco, were introduced to the club and in- 
vited to take part in the discussion. 

C. W. Reed had noticed in his experience 
that fruit trees planted with the tap root on 
had a tendency to grow too high. The taj) 
root being cut off, the tree sjpread better and 
formed better top. 

Aiken suggested that Nature teaches a good 
rule as to tap roots. In dry, hard soil the 
roots shoot down for moisture, while in loose 
or damp soil the' roots spread more on the 
surface. 

Williamson thought Aiken had made a mis- 
take in recommending the importation of trees. 
We have better evergreens in our moun- 
tains than can be imported for cultivation 
here. Some of our nurserymen were engaged 
in propagating these valuable evergreens, and 
ought to be encouraged by patronage. Tlic 
redwood was a most valuable timber, as also 
the sugar pine for cultivation — more valuable 
than any Eastern timbei' — and if the Legisla- 
ture or any one would ofl'er any inducement, 
our nurserymen would engage in their culti- 
vation extensively. He would contract with 
any responsible parties to grow 1,000,000 red- 
wood trees this year for $2 per thousand, to 
be delivered one year old. 

Maulove thought it would be very difficult to 
import evergreen trees from the East, as the 
roots contained a resinous sap which if once 
dry they would not grow. Aiken had imported 
the small tree by mail and succeeded well. 
A great deal of care and skill was required. 

Miller was of the opinion that the Eastern 
cDniferous tree was not well adapted to our cli- 
mate. The redwood was adapted to the damj), 
foggy climate of the coast and would not as a 
timber-making tree grow well on our dry 
plains. The sugar jjiue would do well in the 
mountains where it was found, but not in the 
valleys. But the cultivation of artificial for- 
ests was not likely to be engaged in without some 
inducement by the Legislature, or from some 
other source, held out to our people, and 
he was in favor of these societies, such as the 
Farmers' Clubs and Agricultural and Horticul- 
tural Societies, taking steps to secure an act of 
the Legislature for this purpose. He hoped 
this club would move in the matter. 

Aiken believed the difficulty of growing trees 
in any climate was found lo be more in the 
germination of the seed and growing the tree 
when only young and tender, than in climatic 
or soil adaptation after they had some age. 
Until within a few years, it was supposed to be 
impossible to cultivate evergreens on the plains 
of the Western States, but experience had cor- 
rected this idea, and they are now being suc- 
cessfully cultivated by millions. So it would 
be found that the redwood and sugar pine 
would grow when once started on the plains, as 
well as in native mountains. 

Williamson thought with Aiken. At Smith's 
gardens, before the flood washed them awiiy, 
were growing as fine specimens of redwood as 
any could be found in the Coast Range. At 
twelve years old they were twelve inches in 
diameter, straight and well grown. .Johnston 
thought it would do very well to talk about 
cultivating forests here for firewood, but the 
climate was not cold enough to make good tim- 
ber for manufacturing machinery; that required 
tough, hard timber. Timber to be grown strong 
wanted to grow slow with fine grain. 

W. B. Ready is a wagon-maker, and from his 
experience the locust and elm grown here were 
better than any imported. He had also noticed 
that the second growth of California oak was, 
if cut when the sap was down, very tough and 
good timber. He was convinced, from experi- 
ments with good varieties of timber grown here, 
that this was as good a climate for hard timber 
to grow in as any in the world. 

On motion a committee of five members of 
the Club was elected by ballot to draw up a bill 
for the encouragement of forest culture and 
present the same to the Legislattire and urge 
its passage. Hoag, Haynie, Manlove, Harbi- 
son and Aiken were elected as such committee. 

Haynie read a bill for a trespass law, which 
was also referred to the same committee. 

The subject of " Fruit Culture in California" 
was selected for consideration at the next 
meetirg. C. W. Reed and Robert Williamson 
were ai^pointed to read essays on the subject. 

The meeting adjourned to meet at the same 
place on Saturday (to-day), at 1 o'clock i>. m. 

A New Teade. — Several months since an ex- 
perimental shipment of doors and sugar jjine 
lumber was made from this port to Melbourne. 
The last steamer from that port brought news 
of the result of the venture, which is sufficiently 
favoraVile to warrant further and larger ship- 
niciits of the same kind. Heretofore, Boston 
lias almost niouniioli/cd the Australian market 
for doors, sash, blinds, and jjine lumber, and it 
is a matter of considerable importance to find 
that San Francisco will henceforth be able to 
control a portion of (his trade. 



42 



i IS s s « 



[January 20, 1872. 




The Wife of Brown. 

With a haiigbty head, a stately tread, 

And a dainty silken sweep 
Where speotral tiowers and twilight hours 

Of phantom summers sleep; 
With a flaunt of plume that beckons "room!" 

She sails the pavement down, 
AVhile every eye turns to descry 

The splendid wife of Brown. 

The weary grace of a faded face, 

The smear of a horrid wrong. 
The labored guile of a wanton smile 

Crawls next amid the throng ; 
But a wioked brawd's mad masks and gauds 

Invoke the passer's frown, 
And backward strays a blander gaze 

To the splendid wife of Brown. 

To one he spate and left the ache 

Of a heart's dishonored trust; 
He pledged her all;— but gave but_gall 

And a refuse in the dust. 
And that public ban of the courtesan 

That clenches woman down; 
Laughed o'er his crime and said, " 'tis time 

To find a wife for Brown!" 

AVith a meek advance, a flush and glance. 

The other lured him on, [gold 

Till his love was told, through his wretched 

Forestalled his plea and won; 
Out she lisped the lie of love's fealty 

And at the finest church in town 
And Fashion's tongue wagged loud and long 

Of the splendid wife of Brown. 

Still, I should say, in my stupid way, 

That no nuptial compact cures 
AVhat a God of Love records above 

As unwomanly, wicked lures; 
For I know the slirae of the gi-eater crime 

Despite the admiring town. 
Thro' her laces oozes and in fine, sufifuses 

That silken wife of Brown! 

Yet her fingers hid in the balmy kid, 

Were first to rear the blame 
And fiercely pelt, not the wretch who dealt. 

But the girl who moans the shame. 
Fools! See her, banned by so stern a hand. 

In the gutter writhe and drown, [sjwuses 
And from out God's houses lead forth such 

As that prudent wife of Brown! 

Come, sleek, wealthy Turk by the altar lurk, 

Where may woman's stealthy palm 
On your ledges fall as its ritual, 

To barter every charm; 
And its waxen splendor, so coy and tender. 

Will her honor dare discrown. 
For the marble brow chills off the vow 

Flushed on your Madams Brown! 

For the want of a ring — that pagan thing — 

Two paupers once were wed 
By the rusty round of a key they found 

As a symbol in its stead; 
And to-day I see a mystic key, 

Clutched by that wife, you clown. 
To thieve as sweetly and as discreetly 

As do other Madams^Brown ! 

Somehow I fret with odd regret 

That the world should damn as worse 
That maiden frail than a leman's sale 

Of her life for a jingled purse ; 
And 'twere, should I raise in kind dispraise 

This hat from oft' my crown, 
To the wasted pearl of an honest girl. 

And not that wife of Brown! 

■ — SatioHiil ]i<}i. 



A Maiden's Trust. — Very beautiful says 
Leigh Hunt: — There is nothing more 
lovely in this life, more full of divine 
courage, than where a maiden goes from 
her past life, from her happj' ehiklhood, 
when she rambled over every field and 
moor around Ler home — when her mother 
anticipated her wants and soothed her lit- 
tle) cares; when her brothers and sisters 
grew from men-y playmates, to loving trust- 
ful friends; from Christmas gatherings and 
romps, the summer festivals in bower or 
garden; from the room sanctified by the 
death of relatives; from the secure back- 
grounds of her childhood, girlhood and 
maidenhood — lookij out in the dark and 
uuilluminated future, away from that, and 
yet, unterrifiod, undaunted, leans her fair 
cheek upon her lover's breast, and whis- 
pers: — ''Dear heart, I can not see, but I 
believe. The past was beautiful, but the 
future I can trust with thee." 



Some of the most trusted of light- 
house keepers on the Atlantic coast are 
women.' 



Boston sends $2,000,000 worth of flow- 
ers to New York every year. . 



Unfinished. 

Two little tired hands fall listlessly from 
their work. The little curly head is too 
sleepy to puzzle longer over the ruffles 
and jjufl's of dolly's new dress, so it is put 
away till to-morrow. 

To-morrow! Many to-morrows have 
come and gone, and a fond mother lingers 
over the little unfinished garment, forc- 
ing back the tide of anguish which swells 
to break her aching heart, as she thinks 
of a little life unfinished— a young life but 
just venturing forth on this world's great 
stage cut oflf, uncompleted, unfinished! 

All over the land are those who to-night 
are sighing "unfinished!" It is the history 
of a whole life-time in one brief word. 
We may wander back to Qur day's first 
dawning, the bright morning of our ex- 
istence, before the darkly hovering shad- 
ows of advei-sity had clouded our young 
hopes — and even there in those bright 
gilded visions of childhood is the word in- 
delibly impressed on every joy and hap- 
piness. 

The youth, with high ambitions, looks 
to the future with sunny anticipations, 
and bis wildest dreams may all be realized. 
He may be crowned with honor, and live 
wliat the world calls a successful life; but 
when his voyage is almost ended, and "he 
rides at anchor" for a time "between the 
hurry and the end of life," he looks back 
on the busy tempestuous past and finds 
his life-long task not yet accomplished — his 
hunger not yet appeased. 

Will there not be a great finishing day 
sometime ? Will there not, in the grand 
hereafter, be a time when the aching 
hearts wliich'for long years have been es- 
tranged, shall be united? When crushed 
and vain regrets shall fade away into per- 
fect life and the longings of" the immortal 
satisfied, made jjerfect, finished ? 

" Labor with what zeal we will. 
Something still remains undone; 
Something uncompleted still, 
Waits the rising of the sun." 

Alice Thorn. 



Laughiog Children. 

Give me the boy or girl who smiles as 
soon as the first rays of the morning glance 
in through the window, gay, happy and 
kind. Such a boy will be fit to "make 
up" into a man — at least, when contrasted 
with a sullen, morose, crabbed fellow, who 
snaps and snarls like a surly cur, or growls 
and grunts like an untamable hyena, from 
tlie moment he opens his red and angry 
eyes, till lie is "comforted" by his break- 
fast. Such a girl, other things being fa- 
vorable, will be good material to gladden 
some comfortable home, or to refine, civil- 
ize, tame, and humanize a rude brother, 
making him more gentle, affectionate and 
lovable. 

It is a feast to even look at such a joy- 
inspiring girl, such a woman-bud, and see 
the smiles flowing, so to speak, from her 
parted lips, displaying a set of clean, well- 
brushed teeth, looking almost personifi- 
cation of the beauty and goodness, singing, 
and as merry as the birds, the wide-awake 
birds that commenced their morning con- 
cert long before the lazy boys dreamed 
that the glorious sun was approaching and 
about to pour a whole flood of joy-inspir- 
ing light and warmth upon the earth. 
Such a girl is like a gentle shower to the 
parched earth, bestowing kind words, 
sweet smiles, and acts of mercy to all 
around her— the joy and light of the house- 
hold. 

It has been well said, that "there are 
two muscles to raise the upper lip, as in 
laughing, and only one to draw it down; 
therefore, we should laugh twice to cry- 
ing once." There may be time for weeping, 
and even for mourning and melancholy; 
yet cheerfulness, good nature and joy, 
are far more favorable to the health of the 
body and mind. Excessive gi'ief often ar- 
rests the action of the stomach produces 
disease. The cheerful and hopeful are 
far more healthy than the morose, the 
sour, the fretful, and the scolding mor- 
tals, who never see the sunlight of cheer- 
fulness or sociability, but who scowl and 
frown, "look daggers," and feel two edged 
swords towards all who dare to come with- 
in reach of them. — Oliver Optic's Mag. 



Thk Gypsies have a "Parliament which 
meets once in every seven years, with del- 
egates from all the countries in Eurojje. 
There are no real gypsies in this country; 
l)ut in Spain there are 40,000, in England 
1«,000, Austria '.)7,0()0, and in Moldavia 
and Wallachia 200,000. Their next Parlia- 
ment convenes soon at Cronstadt, Germany 
and the inhabitants are already taking pre- 
caution for the protection of their hen- 
roosts, spoons, and other light valuables. 



Names of Nom-de-Plume Writers of Note. 

AVe find the following list of nom-de-plume 
writers passing ciurent in the Eastern and 
Western Press: 

Artemus Ward " Charles F. Browne. 

Barry Cornwall AVilham Proctor. 

B. Dadd J. H. Williams. 

Cousin ^lay Carleton Miss M. E. Earle. 

Country Parson A. 11. H. Boyd. 

Carrie Carleton * Mrs. Washington Wright. 

Currer Bell * Charlotte Bronte. 

Daisy Howard Miss Myra Daisj» McCnun. 

Disbanded Volunteer. ... Joseph Barber. 

Edmund Kirke J. K. Gilmore. 

Funny Fern Mrs. .James S. Parton. 

VAui Orlou Jlrs. M. M. Pomeroy. 

Florence Percy Mrs. Elizabeth Akers. 

Gail Hamilton Miss Abigail E Dodge. 

George Eliot Miss Evans. 

Grace Greenwood Mrs. Lippineott. 

Howard Glvndon Miss Lama C. Kedden. 

Ike Marvel", Duuald G. Mitchell. 

Josh Billings Henry W. Shaw. 

Jennie June Mrs. Jennie Croly 

Jeemes Pipes Stephen Massett. 

K. N. Pepper James M. Morris. 

Lisle Lester Mrs. L. P. Higbee. 

L. E. L. — Mrs. Laudon. 

Lounger Geo. W. Curtis. 

Mary Clavers Mrs. C. N. Kirklaud. 

Max Sloper, Esq C. G. Leliuid. 

JMark Twain Samuel Clemens. 

Miles O'Keilly Chas. W. Halpine. 

Mrs. I'iutiugton P . B. Shillaber. 

Marion llarland Mrs. Virginia Terhune. 

Ned Buiitline E. Z. C. Judson. 

Owen Meredith , Bulwer, Jr. 

Orpheus C. Kerr Kobert H. Newell. 

P. B. Doesticks Mortimer Thompson. 

Petroleum V. Nasby D. R. Locke. 

Paul Crayton I. T. Trowbridge. 

Peter Parley I. C. Goodrich. 

George Sand Madam Dudevant. 

Timothy Titcomb Dr. J. G. Holland. 

A'illage Schoolmaster Chas. M. Dickinson. 

W. Savage North Wilham S. Newell. 

Widow Bedott * Miriam Berrv. 

AVaif Woodland Mrs. C. P. BlaiV. 

' Deceased. 



The Switches 



that are Worn by Our 
Belles. 



The first switches were made in Central 
Falls, Khode Island, by a workman in one 
of the flax mills. For a long time all that 
were used — the number of which at first 
were quite small — were made there. After- 
ward a firm in Providence commenced the 
manufacture, under the style of the Japan 
Switch Company, manufacturing largely. 
The i^rice then was from $7 to SO, realiz- 
ing a large jjrofit to the manufacturer. 
Switches then retailed at §1.50 to $2 are 
now sold at 2.'i to 37 cents. Several par- 
tiea soon started in Boston employing from 
ten to forty men each. Some idea of the 
amount manufactured can be found from 
the experience of the largest of the Boston 
manufacturers, employing forty men hack- 
ling and finishing the jute, and fifty or 
sixty girls in the manufacture of chignons, 
using ten bales of three hundred pounds 
each and three thousand pounds of hair 
per day. 

The above firm used over six hundred 
bales (170,000 i)ounds) in less than three 
mouths, ofttimes producing three hundred 
and fifty dozens per day of switches alone. 
There are also many switches made of 
fine glazed cotton thread, also of silk dyed 
without washing out the gum, which gives 
it the nearest resemblance to hair of any 
article used. Much of this hair silk is 
woven the same as ribbons, and afterwards 
braided like wood in chignons. Jute in a 
great measure superseded this article, ow- 
ing to its extreme cheapness. 

Market Value of Rose Leaves. 

A lady having asked the Farmers' Club 
of New' York city if rose leaves, used so 
much in the manufacture of perfumes, 
miglit not be gathered and dried with 
profit, and whether there is not a market 
for them, Andrew S. Fuller responded:— 
"Rose leaves are imported by our drug- 
gists, and cost about §1.50 a pound. It is 
not, however, our common garden varie- 
ties that furnish the rose leaves of com- 
merce, but the red damask rose, so largely 
cultivated in some portions of Europe, 
from which the oil of roses is made. If 
the writer of the .above commuuioatiou 
wishes to go into the rose-leaf business, 
she w^ould first have to establish a reputa- 
tion for producing a good article before it 
would bo in any great demand. I think 
the price of labor in this country would 
greatly interfere with the profits." If the 
dried leaves bring but 81.50 per pound, 
what wages could a woman make per day 
gathering them? 

And wli.at a revenue would accumulate 
to the State of California alone wlien we 
have such a profusion of roses and such an 
extensive blossoming season — nearly the 
year through. Sacramento city is frequent- 
ly called the "City of Roses." 



YoJfq pGLKs' GoLjp/lji. 



Catching Santa Claus. 

One dump, rainy morning, when Christmas was 

near, 
A shout from my nursery fell on my ear; 
There, romping and playing in merriest glee. 
Was the happiest group you ever did see. 
There was llarry and Julia, Lucy and May, 
To say nothing of Puss, and her kittens, or Tray. 
When I oi)eued the door, such a sight met my 

view ! 
I wish I could paint it and show it to you. 

The little ones there, all armed with long sticks. 
Were poking and prying, high up in the bricks 
Of the chimney, — because they said that they 

knew 
Santa Claus was up there; they declared it was 

true; 
For while they were playing and dancing about 
The soot and the ashes came tumbling out: 
T'was Santa Claus peeping, to see them at jilay. 
And knocking it down as he scrambled away ! 

"And, O mother!" cried Lucy (the baby was 

she,) 
" / saw him, 1 know it! I saw his big foot, 
And t'was covered all over with ashes and soot; 
We'd have pulled him right down here, onr dear 

Old St. Nick! 
We never would hurthim,buttreat him sof/()0(7. 
And wash his face clean, and give him some 

f ood ; 
And we would'nt put any bad soap in his eyes, 
And he should have half of my cakes and my 

pies; 
And he'd give me a doll with bright yellow hair. 
And a rabbit and cat and a big candy pear. 

mamma! do just call him, I know he's up 

there!" 

1 bade them be patient — in time he'd be here, 
With his bag and his sleigh and his tiny rein- 
deer; 

And the stockiugs of good little children he'd 

stuff 
With candies and toys, till they cried out, 

"Enough!" 
But to bad ones, who cried, quarrelled or fought, 
A bundle of switches was all that he brought. 
And I especially begged for the sake of my floor. 
That they'd throw away sticks and molest him 

no more. 
By let him stay quietly, just where he pleased. 
That the more he would give them the less he 

was teased! 

— Our Young Folks. 

Our Franky. 

A lovely lady was near death, and as her 
little friend, Franky, came into the room, 
she called him to the bed, told him of the 
bright home up in heaven, where she was 
soon going, and told him he must remem- 
ber her and what she said to him. 

Although he was but three years old he 
remembered the conversation distinctly 
several months. The lady died, and the 
husband married again, and brought his 
bride to visit at the house of Franky's 
father. 

The young wife took the child on her 
lap and began to talk to him. Franky did 
not answer", but fixing his eyes earnestly 
on the lady's face, and with childish sim- 
plicity, innocently asked: — "When did 
you come down ?" 

Oddities. 

Time on the jump — Leap year. 
Election fruit — the candy-date. 
The world in arms — the babies. 
Wise men learn by others' harm. 
A still tongue makes a wise head. 
Smooth words make smooth ways. 
High-tied — the old-fashioned top-knot. 
Arms have they, yet toil not — chairs. 
Hands have they, yet steal not — clocks. 
Legs have they, yet walk not— tables. 
Teeth have they, yet chew not — combs. 
Lips have they, yet kiss not — pitchers. 
Eyes have they, yet see not — needles. 
Hearts have they, yet pity not— cabbages. 
Ears have they, yet hear not — old book 
leaves. 
Tongues have they, yet taste not — buckles. 

Spicy Sayings. 

A little Waterbury shaver was sitting 
near his mother, who was picking over rai- 
sins, when she was called out of the room. 
As she left, she said: — " Now, Charley, 
don't touch any of these raisins when I am 
gone." Presently the mother returned 
and inquired: — " Well, Charley, did you 
take my raisins?" " No, mamma." " You 
know if you did, God saw you." " Yes, I 
know he did, but he won't tell." 

" Give me a pound of oysters," s.iid a 
man to an oyster vender who was going by. 
" I sell by measure, not by weight," said 
the oysterman. " Then give me a yard of 
them," said the man. The oysterman 
shook his head dubiously and passed on. 



January 20, 1872.] 



43 



lOMESTIC 



,CONOMY. 



Cooking and Architecture, 

Perhaps one of the greatest treats that a 
cook could enjoy is to be served with a din- 
ner cooked by some one else. The reason 
of this is that the constant smell of cooking 
nauseates the stomach, making it, by the 
sympathetic action of the several nerves of 
the system, disinclined to receive what it 
has so long anticipated through the action 
of the senses. In some instances the smell 
of dinner will be pei-ceivable in other parts 
of the house to a greater extent than in tlie 
kitchen. To a delicate person this is suffi- 
cient entirely to destroy the appetite, and 
it is due solely to defective construction. 

The cook is too often blamed when the 
architect is in error; and, while few know 
where to assign the fault, fewer still know 
how to remedy it; but it may be taken for 
granted that the evil will not disapjiear 
from amongst us until the art of house 
construction is based ujion a more scien- 
tific principle than it has liitherto attained. 
Art and decoration and the convenient 
arrangement of accommodation occupy in 
the present day far too much of the consid- 
eration of the architect; whilst sanitary ar- 
rangements are neglected, and the health- 
fulness of buildings suffers in consequence. 

In order to arrive at a true appreciation 
of the causes that lead to the kitchen being 
a nuisance in the house, instead of, as it 
should be, the means of imparting pleas- 
ure and comfort, we must consider first 
what is a smell and how it is conveyed. A 
saaell, then — and here we are referring, it 
will be understood, to a smell that ought 
not to exist — is matter in a wrong place, 
and consequently it is dirt; and not only 
is the smell of cooking when it pervades a 
house, dirt, in a scientific sense, but it is so, 
absolutely. 

The smells arising from cooking, consist 
of minute particles given out from food of 
all kinds, owing to the partial decomi^osi- 
tion which takes place during the ap])lica- 
tion of heat and which are carried ofl" and 
mixed with the surrounding air by steam 
or other vajiors arising therefrom. AVith 
a properly constructed kitchen range and 
flue, these will all be conveyed up the 
chimney, and carried away from the house. 
In such a case they are harmless and be- 
come immediately, so to say, deodorized by 
admixture with a preponderating amount 
of atmospheric air. 

When, however, they are permitted to 
escape into the house, they do not meet 
with a sufficient quantity of air to render 
them inocuous; and, upon condensation 
of the vapors by which they are conveyed, 
they will settle upon the interior walls and 
gradually cover them with a coating of 
grease and vegetable matter. These, if 
not constantly removed, will accumulate, 
and in time decompose, giving off still 
more objectionable and unhealthy smells, 
but which are not so noticeable in conse- 
quence of the more powerful odors arising 
from a continiiance of that evil from which 
they first had their origin. 

It will repeatedly be found that the 
smell of cooking is strong in other parts of 
the house and esijecially upon the floor 
immediately above the kitchen, whilst the 
kitchen itself is apparently free — or almost 
so — from the inconvenience ; and the reason 
of this is, upon a little consideration, inade 
perfectly clear and intelligible. — Fuod 
Journal. 

Powders, Perfumes and Flavoring. 

A charming recipe for scent powder to 
be used for wardrobes, boxes, etc., far finer 
than the mixtures sold at shops, is the fol- 
lowing: Coriander, orris root, rose leaves 
and aromatic calamus, each one ounce; 
lavender flowers, two ounces; rhodium 
wood, one fourth of a dram; musk, five 
grains. These are reduced to a coarse 
powder. The scent on the clothes is as If 
all fragrant flowers had been pressed in 
their folds. 

A perfume for note paper said to be that 
used by the Queen of England is made of 
powdered starch, one half ounce; ottar 
roses, ten drops. Put this iu bags and 
keep in the desk with j^aper. 

All delicate flavors may be improvised 
by keeping the delicate substance in deo- 
dorized alcohol. How deodorized? filter- 
ing through animal charcoal or bone black 
in powder, the black may be used many 
times over; a thick flannel bag with wire 
on the top will answer for a filter. Fill 
it with the black dust and pour the alcohol 
in it, leaving it to settle through. Have 
wide mouth bottles with glass stoppers 
ready, and fill with alcohol; then fill with 
powdered lemon peel, peach leaves, 



almonds, slices of pineapple, raspberries 
or fresh cherries, and she will have a finer 
assortment of flavors than any manufac- 
turer will furnish her. If she wishes, 
however, flavors which are out of reach, it 
is best to use compounds of which she is 
not ignorant. 

Banana may be imitated with oil of jas- 
mine and a very little tartaric acid. 

Strawberries with a strong tincture of 
orris and a very little acetic ether — one 
ounce of the tincture and one eighth of 
ether. 

Strong tincture of orris root resembles 
raspberry. 

Pineaj^ple is made of butyric ether, the 
acid itself coming from the transformation 
of rancid butter by a chemical process. 

Very little of these preparations is need- 
ed to give the desired flavor. 

Four ounces of the tinctures mentioned 
will supply flavor enough for constant use 
during an entire summer.— f/ar^er's Ba- 
zaar. 

Cooking Ham. — The late Gen. Winfield 
Scott, an acknowledged authority in the 
culinary art, was of opinion that few cooks 
knew how to cook a ham, because they did 
not boil it until soft enough to be eaten 
with a spoon ! A great artist once told the 
writer never to serve a ham under one year 
old; it was then to be soaked all night in 
soft water, and, if possible, running water; 
it was then to be put on the fire in a large 
l^otof cold water, and slowly boiled at least 
twenty minutes for ever pound it might 
weigh; and as for skinning a ham, he held 
it to be an outrage, a sacrifice to mere ap- 
pearance, which no sensible man should 
be guilty of. If your ham is to be served 
cold, as is always done in Europe, it should 
be souzed in snow or ice-water immedi- 
ately after coming from the pot, because 
the sudden cold arrests the flow and escape 
of the juices. 

How TO Make a Baeeel of Apple But- 
ter. — A thirty gallon boiler or kettle of 
cider right from the press, to avoid fer- 
mentation ; boil down to one-half, then 
add eight bushels of apples to the cider by 
degrees as they boil down ; cook the mass 
for twelve hours, straight ahead, when it 
will become of a dark brown color ; stir 
with a paddle all the time of the boiling ; 
then add the following spices, to be well 
stirred in with the paddle : One ounce of 
cloves, two ounces of cinnamon and let it 
boil half an hour longer, when the process 
will have been completed. It is safest to 
put it in jars immediately after the work 
of boiling is finished ; the jars should be 
tied up securely so as to exclude the air. 
For a larger or a smaller quantity take 
the proper proportions of the above in- 
gredients. The apples must be pared, the 
cores taken out and then cut up in small 
pieces or thin slices, the more readily to 
dissolve in the course of boiling. 

Keeping Stoves, Etc., Clean. — Few 
housekeepers, says some one, have time to 
blacken their stoves every day, or even 
every week. Many wash them in either 
clean water or dish-water. This keeps 
them clean, but they look brown. After a 
stove has been blackened it can be kej^t 
looking very well for a long time by rub- 
bing it with paper every morning. If you 
occasionally find a drop of gravy or fruit 
juice that the paper will not take of, 
rub it with a wet cloth, but do not put on 
water enough to take off the blacking. 
Rubbing with i:)aper is a much nicer way 
of keeping the outside of a tea-kettle, cof- 
fee-pot, tea-pot, bright and clean, than the 
old way of washing them with suds. The 
inside of coffee-pots and tea-pots should be 
rinsed in clean water, and never in dish- 
water. 



Cooking Steak. — A lady correspondent 
of the Ohio Farmer, who knows, advises — 
First, get tender steak; no matter what 
part it is from, so it is tender; let it be 
three fourths of an inch thick. Cook it at 
the last moment, when every other dish is 
ready to be set on the table. Use a wire 
broiler if you can get one. Have a hot 
fire and when it is crisped on one side, 
turn it over and crisp it on the other. If 
fat drops and blazes, throw a pinch of salt 
on the coals. Don't do anything else while 
it is cooking. Have your plate hot and a 
lump of butter melting in the bottom. 
Put butter on the upper sides and eat it in 
five minutes after cooking. More steak is 
spoiled by slow cooking than by any other 
fault. 

It is said that buckwheat flour of excel- 
lent quality is made by crushing instead 
of grinding the grain. 

ToFaemehs. — How n^any clods make one 
■wiseacre. 



Domestic Receipts. 

Caeeot Pudding. — Take a half pound of 
grated carrot, one pint of new milk, a quar- 
ter pound of soda biscuits, three ounces of 
sugar, and half a small teaspoonful of pow- 
dered cinnamon. Wash and scrape the 
carrots very clean, grate them into half of 
the milk, cold; boil the other half pint of 
milk, and pour it upon the biscuits, broken 
in small pieces; cover it with a plate, and 
when cool, mix well with the carrot and 
milk, adding the sugar and cinnamon, and 
bake it in a buttered dish in a moderate 
oven. 

Another Carrot Pudding. — Take a half 
pound of grated carrot, a half pound of 
bread crumbs, one pint of new milk, half 
a pint of cream, six eggs, four ounces of 
sugar, and two ounces of butter. Wash 
and scrape the carrots very clean, grate 
them quite fine, mix the pulp with the 
bread crumbs, sugar, nutmeg, or mace, 
and a little salt; add the eggs, well beaten, 
and bake it in a puff paste, in a moderate 
oven. 

Pig's Head', Boiled. — This is a very 
profitable dish, though not so pleasant to 
the jjalate. It should first be salted, which 
is usually done by the butcher. It should 
be boiled an hour and a quarter. It must 
be boiled gently, or the meat will be hard; 
serve with vegetables. 

Pig's Head Baked. — Let it be divided 
and thoroughly cleaned ; take out the 
brains, trim the snout and ears; bake it in 
an hour and a half; wash the brains thor- 
oughly, blanch them, beat them up with 
an egg, pepper and salt, and some finely 
chopped or pounded sage, and a small 
piece of butter; fry them or brown them 
before the fire; serve with the head. 

Baked Ham. — Most persons boil ham. 
It is much better baked, if baked right. 
Soak it for an hour in clear water, and 
wipe dry; next spread it all over with thin 
batter, and then put it into a deep dish, 
with sticks under it, to keefj it out of the 
gravy. When it is fully done, take off the 
skin and batter crushed upon the flesh side, 
and set it away to cool. 

Mince Meat for Pies. — Six pounds of 
beef, finely chopped, four pounds sugar, 
six pounds apjiles, chopped, two pounds 
citron, three pounds currants, one pound 
suet, one quart sherry wine, one pint bran- 
dy, half a cup of salt, two tablespoonfuls 
of ground cloves, two of allspice, two of 
cinnamon, add sweet cider enough to make 
it very damp. A few thin slices of butter 
laid over the mince as the plates are filled, 
is preferable to the suet. 



Mechanical Hints. 

A New Zinc Paint. — M. Artus, connect- 
ed with the Belgian Zinc Company, has 
preiJared a zinc white, made up with sili- 
cate of potassa or soda and used to paint 
zinc and other objects. The cement is 
something in the nature of a cement or ar- 
tificial stone, and will withstand the action 
of the air, sun and water. It can be em- 
ployed to advantage on metal roofing, also 
on plaster, brick and wood. Its chief value 
will be in rendering wood, paper and tis- 
sues uninflammable, and for this purj^ose 
ought to be generally known. The value 
of the mixture for cements will also attract 
attention to it, and we shall probably hear 
of its extensive use as a constituent of ar- 
tificial stone. The heat of rooms under 
roofs painted with this mixture was found 
to be 10 degrees less than under the paint- 
ed metal. 



Salt Water in Steam Boilers. — Engi- 
neers using salt water in their boilers 
should be provided with a Salinometer, 
having four made jjoints measured on the 
scale, one for fresh water, one for sea water 
(water containing 1.32 of salt) one for 
water containing '2.32 of salt and one for wa- 
ter containing 3.32 of salt. When the spe- 
cific gravity has increased from the mark 
1.32 to 2.32, it is a proof that the propor- 
tionate quantities of salt and water is such 
that the amount of salt is double that of 
sea water. This iti considered the limit; 
and when this point is j)assed, it is time to 
blow off water. As a saturated solution of 
salt in water contains 37 per cent, of salt, 
or aboutone-third, it is clear that engineers 
blow off' long before the j)ointof saturation 
has been reached. 



Paper Box Manufacture. — There were 
in 1840 but five paper-box manufactories 
in this country, with an aggregate busi- 
ness of $20,000 per annum. Single ostab 
lishmcnts now turn out millions of dollars' 
wortW of goods annually, and it is said that 
an average of seventy-five new shops are 
started every year. 



The error of a moment is often the 
cause of sorrow for a life. 

It is better to lose a good coat than a 
good conscience. 

Some men make an impression only by 
falling in the mud. 

Men can no more 'be perfected without 
adversity than a gem can be polished 
without friction. 

As distrust is sometimes the mother of 
safety, so security may be the gate of dan- 
ger. 

Woman is a divine creature only when 
distinguished by virtue and mental eleva- 
tion. 

Poverty would not be so much of a 
misfortune if the world didn't treat it so 
much as a crime. 

He who has a good son-in-law has found 
a child; he who has a bad one has lost a 
daughter. 

A virtuous effort may fail, but not a vir- 
tuous life. 

Books are embalmed minds. Fame is a 
flower upon a dead man's heart. 

Many idle men seek enjoyment as men- 
dicants beg their bread — from door to 
door. 

If a man cannot readily recognize merit, 
it is very certain that he has none him- 
self. 

Roses of pleasure seldom last long 
enough to adorn the brow of him who 
plucks them, and they are the only roses 
which do not retain their sweetness after 
losing their beauty. 

Where Our Thoughts Come From. 

The human mind is like a ponderous 
engine upon a railway track. A small 
point of iron at a switch will turn it to 
the right or left — sending it on its proper 
course, or perchance causing it to go over 
an embankment, or into another train, 
crushing both in shapeless destruction. 
The sight of some object, a word spoken 
or road, will give one's train of thoughts 
a new direction, or some direction quite 
different from what it would otherwise 
have taken. Upon very small things de- 
pends all one's future course in life. Pa- 
rents, teachers, guardians, in fact every 
one, may well ponder this. We are all 
influencing each other, giving direction to 
thought, eveiy day, every hour, every mo- 
ment. 

One hint in this connection: A family 
read a journal (say like this) for a year, 
and, at the end of that time, do not recall 
any particular advantage therefrom. But 
how many 7ieio channels of thought have 
their minds been led into by what they 
have read! How much of vacancy there' 
would be if they blot entirely from their 
minds all the information they have 
gained, and all tlie new ideas and plans 
of their own, suggested only, and indi- 
rectly at that, by what they have read du- 
ring the year! The truth is, one cannot 
read and think to much about his daily la- 
bor. If he get not one new positive 
piece of useful information, the thinking 
developed by roadiEg other men's views 
and ideas can but be useful in stimulating 
him to reasoning, to intelligent labor — 
that labor in which his head aids his 
hands. Labor without intelligence is 
merely brute muscle in exercise. 



^ 



A Holy Lifein Little Things. — A holy 
life is made up of a number of small things. 
Little words, not elocpicnt speeches or 
sermons, little deeds, not miracles, nor 
battles, nor one great, heroic act, or migh- 
ty martyrdom, make up the true Christian 
life. The little constant sunbeam, not the 
lightning, the waters of Siloam, "that go 
softly" in their meek mission of refresh- 
ment, not 'the waters of the river, great 
and many,' rushing down in torrent noise 
and force, are the true symbols of a holy 
life. The avoidance of little evils, little 
sins, little inconsistencies, little weakness- 
es, little follies, little indiscretions, and 
imprudences, little foibles, little indul- 
gences of self and of the flesh; the avoid- 
ance of such little things as these, goes far 
to make up at least the negative beauty of 
life. 

The following gem is from the pen of 
Rev. Chapin:— The letter of the Scripture 
may be questioned and argued, but you 
cannot question the love of the Father nor 
the gift of tho Son. I\[y heart felt this 
when I laid my beloved child to rest, and 
your Science, or all its turning axles can 
not grind from my heart all the comfort 
God's love gave me then. " 



44 



[January 20, 1872. 



Tobacco Culture. 

At tlio recent fair of the Mecklenburg 
(Va.) Agricultural Society, Mr. Evans 
Tanner was awarded a prize of §10 for the 
following essay, entitled : 

A Plan for Preparing Land and Cultivating To- 
bacco for Shipping. 

In 'the fall I fallow my land with a 
two-horse plow, following the turning 
plow with a good coulter, as deep as pos- 
sible. As soon after the 1st of January as 
the weather will admit, I burn my plant 
land, having previously prepared my 
wood in the month of December, or earlier, 
if convenient, burning the land well. Af- 
ter the burning I cover the land well with 
stable manure and Peruvian guano, or 
other fertilizers, and hoe it in, not very 
deep, without turning up the soil. After 
sowing, tread or root the land well, and 
cover well with brush, regulating the 
covering by the kind of land ; if wet, cover 
thin ; if dry cover heavily. After the 
])lants are up, if the flies dei)i-edate feed 
them upon tobacco seed; it is the surest 
antidote known to me. After the plants 
get about five inches high I commence 
the jjreparation of my land in the follow- 
ing manner : I attach two mold-boards to 
a common trowel hoe, which I prefer to a 
turning plow ; into this furrow I drill my 
manure and fortilizars. I then run one 
furrow on each sidu with a single-horse 
l)low, covering the manure. On tliis 
ridge I plant, after marking and checking 
the ridge with a stick or small ])olo, about 
three feet for ordinary land and three and 
a half feet for highly improved. The plant 
may be inserted in the mark made by the 
stick or ])ole, or a sliort distance from it. 
This makes the row both ways. After six 
or eight days depending on the weather, 
I throw out the row, or rather I run two 
furrows; this will leave but a small i^lace 
to weed, if done by a careful hand. 

About the time I desire to apply a lit- 
tle dirt to the plant, I run close to the to- 
l)acco with a bull-tongue plow and api)ly 
tlie manure or fertilizer the second time, 
then throw out the row with the turning 
l)low. Two furrows generally suffice. The 
hoe hand has but little to do, merely jjut- 
ting a little dirt to the plant. The last 
time I work it I use the trowel hoe with 
two moldlioards once in a row, then hill it 
with a large, high hill, which prevents 
drowning. I prime low, not above the two 
first large leaves, and top at ten leaves, 
not higher, and let it jiet thoroughly 
ripe, when I commence cutting. I get 
hands enough to cut and fill a twenty-foot 
barn in a day. The next morning I put 
small fires, increasing them every morning 
for five da^^s, which is generally sufficient 
to cure the tobacco By ])ursuing this, 
mj' yield is generally about four plants to 
the pound. I may say that if any young 
farmer will adopt this plan, I venture he 
will never repent it. I forgot to mention 
that if the tobacco ripens yellow it will 
cure up yellow, and rice ve^'sn. 

Hop.s \YiTHoiiT Poles. — A correspondent 
of the Country Gentlamnii waites as follows 
Eight years' experience has proved that; 
we can jiick our hops as clieaply and much 
neater, by using baskets to pick from 
the vine, trained horizontally and low, 
without cutting any i)art of the vine, thus 
leaving it to mature and ri[)en the root for 
nest year's use; when the hop yard is 
trailed in this way, no hills die, but the 
plant is more vigorous each year, as long 
as it is well taken care of, with one-fourth 
the manure that is required if the vines are 
cut. Many of our hop growers are not 
aware of the gre.at outrage they are com- 
mitting upon the first principles of vegeta- 
ble physiology by severing such a mass of 
vines and foliage, as is done in all eases 
where the hop is trained high and the vines 
cut to pick. I have seen yards of luxur- 
iant growth and great yield picked early, 
bleed so as not to produce the next year; 
tiie ground around the hill would be'kept 
wet for days by the flowof saji from cut- 
ting. 

Volcanic Eruptions — In the eruption 
of Vesuvius, A. D., 79, the scoria and 
ashes vomited forth, far exceeded the en- 
tire bulk of the mountain; while in IGGO, 
..Etna disgorged more than 20 times its own 
mass. Vesuvius has sent its ashes as far 
as Constantinople, Syria and Egypt. It 
hurled stones, eight pounds in weight, to 
I'ompcii, a distance of six miles, while 
similar masses were tossed uj) 2,000 feet 
above its summit. Cotopaxi has projected 
a block, 109 cubic yards in volume, a dis- 
tance of nine miles; and Sumbawa, ISl.'}, 
during the most terrible eruption on re- 
cord, sent its ashes as tar as Java, a dis- 
tance of 300 miles of surface; and out of a 
population of 12,000 souls, only twenty 
escaped. 




DOMESTIC PRODUCE AT WHOLESALE. 



[The prices piven below are those for entire consignments 
from tir»t hands, unless otherwise specitied.J 

San Fkancisco, Thurs., a. m., Jan. 18. 

FLOUR— We note an active local demand with 
a good enquiry for export. Sales reported 
emhnice 5,0U0 bbls. Cal. extra, 10,000 do. Cal. 
superfine, and 3,000 Oregon extra. AVe quote 
prices as follows: 

Superliue, S-5.75@G.00 ; extra, in sacks, 
of 190 lbs. $0.75@7.00. Standard Oregon 
brands, extra, may be quoted at $U.75@7.00. 

WHEAT — The business has been largo diy- 
iug the week under review, several large hold- 
ers liaviug sold tlieir stock. Sales a>,'f;rigiite 
50,000 sacks fair to choice at $2.-J0(«'2.30 ^j 
100 lbs. Quotable at close at $2.15(a>2.30 per 
100 lbs. 

The latest Liverpool market quotation comes 
through at 12s. 'JJ. per cental. 

BAllLEY— Has been firmer duiiug the past 
week, at unchanged rates. Sales embrace 
5,000 sacks ordinary coast to choice bay, at 
§1.50(a'1.75, which is the range at close. 

OATS — Demand has been moderate during the 
week under review. Sales 3,000 sacks ordinary 
coast to choice bay, at $1.50@1.75 per 100 lbs. 
whifh is the range at close. 

COltN—Is quotable at $1.75@2.00 for yel- 
low and white respectively '^ 100 lbs. 

COHNMK.\L— Is quotable at S2.75(ai$3.25 
P, 100 lbs. from tlie mill. 

BUCKWHEAT— Is jobbing at $2.50 per 100 
lbs. 

RYE — According to quaUty is quotable at 
!!:2.37%@$2.40 ])er 100 lbs. 

STR.\.W— Quotable at $7.00@$8.00 per ton 
by the cargo. 

BK.A.N — Selling at $31 per ton from the mill. 

MIDDLINGS— For feed, are seUiug at $137.50 
per ton from mills. 

OIL CAKE MEAL— In good demand at $40 
from the mill. 

HAY — Receipts have been free, and prices at 
close are !f 19. 50(323.00 for fair to choice ^;ton. 

HONEY' — We quote Los Angeles comb at 
12%(rt;15c. Potter's in 2-tt) cans, §1 per doz. 

BEESWAX— In good demand at 40c '0 lb. 

POTATOES — Market has been quite heavy 
during past week owing to free receipts. Sher- 
man Island, 40((550c.; Bodega, Tomales and 
Petalnina, 6.5(SJ5c.; Humboldt, 80(rt95c. "^ ctl. 

SWEET POTATOES— Are seUing at igl.OO 
@1.25 'f), 100 lbs. 

HOPS— The range is 45@C0c. 

HIDES— During past week 1,5CC Cal. dry 
sold at 18@19 and 1,3'JO salted at 8(aj9%c. 

WOOL — The market has been quite light 
during the week imder review, and transactions 
few; sales of 20,000 lbs. are reported at current 
rates. Prices for good to choice shipping grades 
are 22@28c per lb. Sales of extra choice at 
30c.; burry 17(ai21. 

T.VLLOW— Market quiet at 8X@9c Ig lb. 

SEEDS— Flax 3c.; Canary, 5@7c., Alfalfa, 
\T>(w\lt:; Mustard — California Brown, 3@6c; 
Cal. White 3^4C«;4%c. ~^ lb. 

PROVISIONS— California Bacon 13^@14c; 
Oregon, 14^@15c; Eastern do. 133^@14c; 
for clear and 14® 15 for sugar-cured Breakfast; 
Cal.HamsU@14%; Oregon,15i^@16c; Califor- 
nia Sugar-cured Hams, lG^2@17c; Oregon do. 
17(aJ18c; Eastern do, lS(a;20c; California 
Smoked Beef, 13(ajl4c. per tt). 

BEANS— Market continues fair. The follow- 
ing are jobbing rates: Pea $3@3.15; small 
White $2.75^!$3.00; small Butter S2.50@2.75, 
large ?3.00@S3.25; Pink i?3; Bayo, $3.40(«;< 
$3.60; Navy $3.50 ^ 100 lbs. 

ONIONS— Fair to choice, $1.00®!. 50 '^ 100 
lbs. 

NUTS— California Almonds, 8@I0c. for 
hard and 18@25 for soft shell; Peanuts, 5@ 
8c; Pecan, 25c ~§> lb Walnuts, new, 12%c; Hick- 
ory, 12c; Brazil, IGc; Chili Walnuts, 10c. ; 
Coeoanuts, $(i.00(7r8.00 per 100. 

FRESH MEAT— Market has remained firm 
sineu last report. We quote slaughterer's rates 
as follows: — 

BEEF— American, 1st quaUty, \(i@,no'!^'6>. 
do. 2d quality 9@10c '^, ft.; do. 3d do. 7@8c. 

VE.\L— Quotable at 10@,12J^c. 

MUTTON— 10(a! 12 ^^c. f, »>. 

LAMB— 12^^c 1^, tt). 

PORK — Undressed grain-fed is quotable at 
G@6%c. dressed, grain-fed, 9%(2j9;^4c. per lb. 

POULTRY— Live Turkeys, 18®,20c. '^ lb.; 
dressed, 22J.^c. per lb.; Hens and large Roos- 
ters, $9.00 per dozen; Spring Chickens, $7.00@ 
8.00; Ducks, tame, $9.00® 10.00 per doz.; Geese, 
$1.'>@$18 ^ dozen. 

WILD GAME — Dealers pay the following 
prices for lots from the country : Hare, $3.00® 
$3.50 per dozen; Rabbits, $1.25®$1.50; Quail, 
$1.7.">(«i2.00; English Snipe, $2.00@$2.50; Mal- 
lardDucks, $3.0(i(o $3.50; Small Ducks, $1.50; 
WildGtcse $2.0og$3.00 p, doz. 

DAIRY PRODUCTS— Fresh Cahforuia But- 
ter, common to good in rolls, is in free supply, 
and prices tending downwaid; it may be quoted 
at 3o®45c; California firkin butt(.'r, 27^^®30c. 
Pickled, 25@30c. Eastern tirkin, 20®30c. '^ lb. 

Cheksk — Califomia,15@19e, Eastern, lG@18c. 
per \\>. 

EoGs— In free sujiply. California fresh, 57J/^ 
@GOc. % doz. 

LARD-CaUfomia 12%@13V^; Oregoninbbls. 
and kegs 12%@13c.; Eastern in cases 14^@15 
do in tcs. 12J4® 13c. per lb. 



FRUIT. 

Mex. Orangcs.M.JSS Otxaas 001 Cal. do ^ 100 2 60® .'! 00 

Calllorniado .. IS 00®25 00 Bananas,^ bunch 2 »%) 3 60 

Limes.'SM 10 Oi>(3;IS 00 Aiiplcs, eating, lix 1 t!<(g^ 2 50 

AustliiLenions.bx * UOiai — do cookini;, bx 1 Ofl(oi 1 50 

Sicily do^bx S (W(3>10 00| Pears, ^ box.... 73ia» 3 00 

DRIED FRUIT. 



^ 9c I Pitted, do^ m... 

ilO |Rai!iin>. ?» lb 

j)10 Black Fig,, 5* B).... 

y Sij White, do 

M 



@22 
®15 
(§12 



15 ®2U 



Apples. "9, ft 8c I 

F'ears.'^m 8 

Peaches, %> lb 8 

Aiiricois, ^ft lb 8 

l'Iums,^Ib 6 

veot:tables. 

Cabbage. ?>. ft I ((5, 1 ViMurft. .Squa.sli,tou S1000@$15 

Garlic, ft 1 (y; — I 

GENERAL MERCHANDISE. 
AGRICULTURAL IMPLEMENTS— Dealers 

report a good demand for seasonable articles 
tinder this head. 

BAGS AND BAGGING— There is only a 
moderate demand for any kind at present, and 
prices remain largely nominal. 

BOOTS AND SHOES— There has been a 
fair demand during the week under review for 
goods in this line at unchanged rates. 

BUILDING AND FENCING MATERIALS— 
The local trade has been fair, and only moderate 
demand for export. Dealers pay for cargoes 
of Oregon as follows: Rough $1G; do 
dressed$30; Spruce $17@18; Redwood SIG® 
$30, for rough and dressed. Redwood Lum- 
ber Association's prices are as follows: 

Morchantablo worked rustic $:il 00 to $;32 50 

Refuse do do 20 00 to 21 ."iO 

I\Ierehantable surfaced and rough clear 28 00 to 30 00 

Refuse surfaced and rough 1 8 00 to 20 00 

Merchantable beaded flooring 28 00 to 30 00 

Refuse do do 18 00 to 20 00 

Merchantable rough 16 00 to IB 00 

Refuse do do 11 00 to 12 00 

Fancy Pickets 22 50 to 2.'i 00 

RoughPickcts 15 00 to 16 00 

The mill price for cargo lots from Northern 
Ports is $9.00@$10 for timber, and $I7.50®> 
$20 for flooring. 

COFFEE— Costa Rica 20%c; Guatemala 19c; 
Jav.i 25>^c; ManiUa, 19^^; Rio 19i^®20. 
Ground Coffee in cases 30c.; Chiccory, 12 V^. 

SPICES— Allspice 14@15c. Cloves lG®17c. 
Cassia35@3Gc. Nutmegs $1.00@,$1. 10. Whole 
Pepper 19c. GroundSpices — Allspice $1.00 "^ 
doz.; Cassia $1.50; Cloves $1.12J^2; Mustard 
$1.50; Ginger and Pepper, each $1.00 '-^j doz.; 
Mace $1.50 ^ lb. ; Ginger 15c '^ lb. 

FISH — We quote Pacific Dry Cod in bun- 
dles at 5c., and in cases at 8@8J'^c; S.almou, 
in bbls. $5.50®7..50, hf do, $3..50®.4.50; Case 
Salmon, $2®3 ^^ doz for l@2-lb cans respec- 
tively; Pickled Cod, $4.50 in hf bbls and $8 in 
bbls; Puget Sound Smoked Herring, G0@85c 
per box; Mackerel, hf bbls, new, per rail, 
$12; do in kits, $3; extra mess do, $5; 
Smoked Salmon, 7®7^c per ft). 

NAILS — Quotable at $5 50@7.75 for invoice 
lots ex ship. 

PAPER — Cahf ornia Straw Wrapping, sells at 
$1.50 fi,ream. 

P.4.INTS— We quote AVhite Lead at 10® 12 J^c; 
Whitening, 2c; Chalk 2}^c "^ ft>. 

RICE— Sales of China No. 1 at8J^@8>^c and 
No. 2 a.illi@'l%c "% lb; Siam, quotable at 7® 
7 %c in mats; ^Carolina, Table, 9%®10; Hawai- 
ian, 8}/^® 9 per tt). 

SUGAR— We quote Cal. Cube at 14J^c; Cir- 
cle A Crashed, 14%c, and Granulated 14c; Yel- 
low Coffee and Golden C, 12)/^®13c; Hawaiian 
8® 12c as extremes ^ lb. 

SYRUP — Prices may be given as follows: 
82^c in bbls, 85 in hf bbls, and 90c in kegs. 

SALT— California Bay sells at S5®$15; 
Carmen Island, in bulk, $13; Liverpool Coarse, 
$18® 20; do Stoved, $22.50 "^ ton. 

SOAP — The prices for local brands are 5® 
lOo, and CastUe, 12® 15c ^ B). 

TEA— We quote Hyson at C0@75c ; Gun- 
powder and Imperial, 95c®,1.05 ; Young Hy- 
son and Moyune, 90c@1.15; FooChow Oolong, 
50® 90c; Pouchong, 37J^'^@45c; Souchong, 50 
@75c; Japan 40®75c. ^, Iti. 

San Francisco Metal Market. 

[Corrected weekly by Hooker 4 Co., 117 and 119 Cal. street.] 

PRICKS FOR iwoins 

Jobbing priet» ruU from ten to jiftmn per cent, hightr than the 
/ollouiiitQ gwttaH'ms. 

Thuusdat. January 18, 1872 

"sco'toh andJEnglish Pig Iron, H ton $52 ."iO @ 5.5 00 

White PiK, t* Ion ^... 45 00 (gi 

Refined Rar, bad assortment, Ijtft — M (9 — 04.'i 

Refined Bar, K"od assortment, %( ft — 05 © — 0.5>4 

Boiler. No. 1 to 4 — 05 li 

Plate, No. 5 to 9 — — @ — 05 

.Sheet, X<i. lOto 13... — 05's(3» 

Sheet, No. U to 20 — OB (gi 

Sheet, No. 24 to 27 —OS (g) 

llorseShoes 1 JO 

Nail Rod 1" 

Norway Iron 8 

Rolled Iron .■■.■••■.■.: •'' „ 

Other Irons for Blacksmiths, Miners, etc. 4 @ 6 

Copper.— 

Sheathing.g ft 

Sheathing, Yellow 

Sheathing. Old Yellow 

Composition Nails 

Composition Bolts 

Tin Platks.— 
Plates, Charcoal, IX t* box 

Plates, 1 C Charcoal 

Roofing Plates 11 00 

BancaTin, Slabs, '^ ft 

Steel.— English Cast, ¥ ft — 16 

Drill 

Flat Bar 

Plough Points 

Russia (for mouldjboards) 

Quicksilver.— TiA ft 

tE.\D.— Pig, t* ft 

Sheet 

Pipe 

Bar 



San Francisco Retail Market Rates. 



-24 @ - 26 



24 

— U 

— 24 

— 24 

12 00 
10 00 



16 

17 
3 75 

-08 
— » 
08 



24 



10 50 

— 45 

— 17 
17 
20 



ZiNC.-Sheets, f ft. 

Borax.— Refined 

Borax, crude 



— 65 

— OK'i 

— Hii 

— 10 

— 09 

— lO's' 
— ii - 30 



.. — 10 



In Town.— L. P. McCarty, the travdhng 
correspon(lont and agent for the "Pacific Ec- 
KAL Pkkss, ' ' paid us a visit yesterday. Sir. Mc- 
Carty is canvassing the State Ihoronjfldy for 
his pajier, and coiTesj)onds riKidnrly for it each 
week. The "Rurai, Pkkss" is devoted entirely 
to the interests of the farmer, and is decidedly 
a very valuable paper for them. It is pubUshed 
by Messrs. Dewey & Co., San Francisco, every 
Saturdav. Terms four dollars a year. 



Butter, Cal fr. ft .55 ® CO 
Pieklcd.Ual. ft 40 ® 



Thuhbdav Noon, .January 18th, 18<2 
MISCELLANEOUS. 

Wheat-sks. 22x36 12 @ 13 

Potato G's Bags. ?2 @ 2t 

Second-hnddo 15 (4 15 



Deer Skins, t* ft. 15 ® 22 
Sheep sks. wl on .50 ® 75 
Sheep sks. plain. 12H^ 25 
Uoatfkins.each. 25 ® .50 

Dr> Cal. Hides. "" 

Salted do. ... 

X)vy Mex. Hides 

Salted do ... 

Codfish, dr.v, ft. 

Live Oak Wood. 9 .51 ®l0 00 

TalloH- S>i9 9 



do Oregon, ft. . ® 

Honey. %i ft 25 ® 30 

Cheese, ¥ ft 20 ® 25 

Kggs, jperdoz... ® 6(1 

Lard, Ie* ft 18 @ 20 

Sugar. er.,«'< ft.l 00 ® 

Brown, do,^ ft 10 (<B 13 

Beet, do 1 90 « 

Sugar, Man. ft. 25 ^ 30 

Plums, dried, ft. 15 @ 30 

Peaches, dried, • 15 (y^ 3t) 

Wool Sacks, new ® 

Seeond-hnddo £7^® ^70 

PRODUCE. ETC. 

Flour, ex. •J*bbl..7 fO ® — 

Superfine, do .6 :0 ®7 00 

Corn Moal.lOII lb.3 00 ®3 .50 

Wheat, Y 100 ltis.2 40 (a2 00 

Oats, %» 100 fts...l 75 G)l 90 

FRLITS. VEGETABLES, ETC 

Pine Apples, +. .5 00 fci9 00 [Cress. W do?, bun 20 

" g) SJ Dried Herbs, b'h 25 

(ai 20 ■■ 
(Sd 00 

(ajl 25 

(&1 25 

8 



i»'ii» 10 

9'-6@ 
10 (% 12'^ 



Barley, cwt 1 85 (S!2 20 

Beans, cwt 3 .V) ^4 .50 

Dry Lima Bfans '|* ft .S 

Hay, f( tun . ..25 00 ®30 00 
%Vcll .. 75 %»1 12Ji 



Bananas, %4 biich 30 

Cal. Walnuts, ft. 

CranbelTies, jJ K 75 

("ranben-ies, 0,1 

Pears, taWe,^ bx 75 

Plums, t'berry.*. 6 (a# 

Oranges,"!!* I0iltl..3 1 00 (g; 

Lemons, V h'O. 5 UV (0/7 00 

Limes, per 100. . .1 .50 ^ 

Figs, dried, %* ft . («i , 

Asi>aragU8, wh.* (a^ 75 .Pickles,^ gal. 

Artichokes, doz. .50 (j^ 75 .Rhubarb, !« ft.. 

Brussers sprts, • 10 (u> 12'a Radishes, + buns 



5 (ill 

IS 15 
12 (gj 25 



Garlics . 

■Green Peas, 1^ ft 

iLettnce. >* do/... _ 

iMushrocoiis, JH ft 12'i;(ai 15 

'Uorseradish.tift l(j) 2<P 

|Okra, dried, "r' lb .50 («( 75 

Pumpkins. V. ft. 3 (a) 4 

Parsnips, tbuchs 20 la^ 2.5 

jParsley . - - ... 



Beets, ^ doz 20 

Potatoes, %( ft... 2 (a> 
- ■ . @, 



Red, do 
_ Marrowfat, do. 

Potatoes, sweet,* ^ 5 i Hublxird, do.. 

Broccoli, 1(> doz. 1 SO (ii2 On :Dry Lima, shl... 

Caulillower, t .. lad .50 Spiuage. '^ bskt. 

Cabbage.>(doz..l 00 fail .50 Salsify, r* bunch 

r.,..>..n»u a] Af^V 111 f/T. ■><; ''r.,..n:,..; "M li^-. 



Carrots, %! doz... 10 gi 25 
Celerj-.liidoz.... 75 @1 00 




ITurnips,^ doz. . 20 (9 25 



POULTRY. GAME, FISH, MEATS, ETC. 



Chickens, apiece «7.'4(a>l 00 
Turkeys, "ii* ft.- 25 («) 30 
Ducks, wild, 1* p .50i5,.l 00 

Tame, do 1 75 (ft2 00 

Teal, 1^ doz.... 3 00 

Geese, wild, pair 75 (ri I 00 

Tame. {* pair. .2 .50 • (5.^ 00 

Hens, each 75 (^l 00 

Snipe, '^ doz ..1 -50 (a 2 00 

English, do.... 2 50 (a 3 00 
Ouails, in doz ...2 25 (ii2 50 
Pigeons, dom. do3 "0 (a3 .50 

Wild, do 1 50 (5i2 00 

Hares, each ... 40 iui .50 
Rabbits, tame.. 75 lw\ 00 

Wild.do.-fdz.! 75 Si.2 00 
Squirrel, f* pair. 25 ^ 8S 
Beef, Und. B ft. 20 (S 25 



Corned. *¥* ft. 

Smoked. E^ ft 

Pork, ril), etc., ft 



10 (01 12 
15 m 18 
2.'4^ 



Pork, ril), etc., ft 12'4® 16 

Chops, do, ^ ft 15 ® 20 

Veal, (« ft 15 ® 20 



Cutlet, do...-. 
Mutton chops,* 

Leg, ^ ft 

Lamb, f* ft 

Tongues, beef, ea 
Tongues, nig, ea 
Bacon, Cal.,^ ft 

Oregon, do 
Hams, Cal, 1^ ft. 



15 (t 



9 20 



18 

18 

® 18 

® 75 

(at 15 

18 @ 20 

18 (Si 20 

18 ® 20 



Hams, i '.tons' s c — (^ 25 

Choice D'ffield — (at 25 

Whitlaker'b .. — § 25 

Johnson's Or. . — (q^ 25 

I lounder. "fi ft... — (aj 25 

Salmon. >< ft . . . 18 ® 20 

Smoked, now,* 10 Cm 12 

Pickled, F» ft.. 6 (3> — 

Rock Cod, %( ft.. — S 15 

Perch, s water,ft — fg^ 10 

Fresh water.ft — (.q) J5 

Lake Big. Trout* — ® 37 '1 

Smelts. laigelift — (<u 15 

Small do 15 (0) 18 

Soles, r* Bi 30 (9 3.i 

Hernng. fresh.. 5 {n| — 

Sm'kd, |.cr 100 — ®l 00 

Tomcod, j< ft... :!0 ® — 

Terrapin, %* doz.4 00 l»5 IW 
Mackerel. p'k,ea 

Fri'sh, do — @ — 

Sea Bass, ^ tt. . . — ® — 

Halibut. — ® — 

Sturgeon. TJ* ft.. 5 ® — 

Oysters, f I0O...I 00 ®l 25 

Chesp. i(* doz.. — ®l 00 

Turbot — ^ 75 

Crabs Vi doz....l OU gl 50 

Soft Shell — 9 .50 

Shrimps 12 & IH 

Prawns — to! — 



• Per lb. t Per dozen. T Per gallon. 



Leather Market Report. 

[Corrected weekly by Dolliver & Bro., No. 109 Poet «t.l 
San Francisco, Thursday, January 18. 

Sole Leather.— The demand is still equal to the supply, 
and prices still continue rtrm. 

City Tanned l.*ather. 'H ft 2<i®29 

Santa Cruz Leather, f, ft 2«»'j29 

Country Leather, ¥ ft 2.V"j28 

The market is well supplied with Vrencn stocks, and 
prices have .a downward tendency. Heavy California skins 
are lirm, w ith an upward tendency. 

Jodot,8 Kit, per doz tUll 00® 

Jodot, II to 19 KiL.perdoz 76 Ofl(iij 9.5 00 

Jodot, second choice, II to 15 Kil. ?( doi. m ooeij 80 00 

Lemoine, Iti to 19 Kil , "tji doz 95 INltu 

Levin. 12 and 13 Kil., per doz 68 00i« 70 00 

Cornellian, Hi Kil., per doz 7U (KKgJ 

Corneilian, 12to 14Kil., perdoz 60 0OQ( »( 00 

Ogerau Calf. ^ doz .54 OO'g) 

Simon. 18 Kil., T* doz 65 00 

Simon, 20 Kil. V doz. t« "0 

Simon. 21 Kil. V <»oz 72 00 

Robert Calf, 7 and 8 Kil 35 00(^40 00 

French Kips, T.< ft 1 Mje 1 30 

(California Kip, r> doz WOOtoSOOO 

Krincli Shiep, all colors, ¥ doz 15 00 

Eastern Calf for B.icks.'^ ft 1 1.5® I 25 

Sheep Koana for Topping, all colors, ¥ doz. ... 8 OU® 13 00 

Sheep Roans {or Linings. T* doz 5 SO® 10 .50 

California Russets Sheep Linings 1 75(|j) 5 50 

Best Jiidot Ca f Boot Legs, %( oair 5 2.5 

Good French Culf Boot Legs, VliaT 4 S""® * 10 

French Calf Boot Legs. "t* P»'' * ""^ 

Harness Leather, ¥ ft 30(3 ^IHr 

Fair Bridle Leather, ■» doz 48 00® i2 00 

Skirtingl.eather, ¥ lib ijfi 37'^ 

Writ Leather. « doz SO 006 50 01) 

Buff Leather, f( foot 17® 21 

Wax Side Leather. ¥ foot 180 W 



Wool Prices in New York. 

Brown's Cincui.AR, Janmr.v, 1871. 
DOMESTIC FLEECES. 
New York, Michioan. Indiana and Wisconsin. 

Choice Sct'd Saxony Fl. (^ iQuarter-bld Fleece B1(16S 

Saxony Fleece Mr«6S Common F'leece tti^W 

ij and'Full-bld Merino. h3''B7 Combing Fleece 70(8(75 

llalf-bld Fleece (iV(i 7ol 

Ohio, Pennsylvania and Vircinia. 

Choice Sct'd Saxony F1.73fi«77j Quarter-bid Fleece S.5<a70 

Saxony F'leece (Xf*72 Common Fleece R!®t)K 

^1 and 'lull-bid Merino.(>Hf« 70 Combing Fleece 72&i7 

lialf-bld Fleece (S6..72I 

Iowa, Vkrmont and Illinois 

H and Full-bid Merino (i0''tt65|(>uarter-bld Fleece ti0fiia5 

Half bid F'leece (iO@t>.5l(Jombing F'leece 6K®72 

MissoCRi, Kestockv and Tennessee. 

■Washed Fleece IBOfiS] rnwasbed Combing,. . .57®!* 

Unwashed F'leece ,50(i.5(i I (.'anada F'leece 65875 

TUB-WASHED WOOL. 

Choice 82 "SW! Interior and Bum 68(872 

Fair 77«i«2| 

PLLLED WOOL. 
N. Y. City extra Pulled...53«.5S 



Country extra Polled.. eo«»r7 

,. . 'U..II I i;t.^-ft 



Country super Pulled.. ti5i« 70 
Country No. 1 Pulled. ..■5<lfo,.55 
Canada Pulled (>5&70 



N. v. City super Pulled .83'S 65 
N. Y. City No. J Pulled 48'.. .52 

Lambs' Wool (i3.n (i(j 

Western super and ext 0U(^(j7 

CALIFORNIA. 

Spring Clip, fine 42«I7 iF'all Clip, Iw gds <t b'ry .^5r.-..40 

Spring Clip, medium. ...42«i47 Extra Pulled 5r'»(i5 

Spring Clip, lwBd8Abr.3(iff.40 Super Pulled mr-M 

Fall Clip, A 1 40'.. 42; Low Pulled 45^.50 

TEXAS. 

F'ine 45.»48|lnferinr 

Medium 4.5(4^48 Verj. Burry.... 

Low 4'2(»15l 

F'OBEIGN WOOLS. 

Capo ofOeod Hope l2<a45,Buenos .\yres Merino. ..37(S40 

Mestiza Pnlleil. X A X X.^lHrtWII Buenos Ayrea Mesliza. .Tita. 40 
Mesliza Pulled, low Br.7ll(!480i 



.... 38ia40 
iHsJS 



Give Your Old Apdress when you want the paper 
sent to a new one. We cannot afford to look over sev. 
oral thousand names to stop it ut the furuicr P. 0. 



January 20, 1872.] 



45 



Daily Record, 



By the U. S. Army Signal Service, for the week ending 
Wednesday, January 17, 1872. 







S 


'a 


o 


- o 




go 


-1 

:^ Estate of 


Date 

Plac 

Observ 






« 


5 


;>s 




o ^ 

as 


15 Weather 




3D.il 


.■>! 


MO 


s. 


33 


High. 


4-4 


.14 


\A. Rain 




:iii . 1 1 


.it 


'^l 


S. K. 


6 


Fresh 


4-4 




Thre!it'(,1 


^ Saturday 


:iO,l» 


.14 


93 


Calm 






4-4 




Hvy Fog 


t? Sunday.. 


■jua: 


;>4 


93 


Calm 






4-4 




Cloutly 


g Monday. 


30.16 


4!l 


99 


N. 


13 


Fresh 


4-4 




FoKKV 




30. 2.1 


.Ml 


93 


N.W. 


II 


Fresli 


1-4 




I'alr 


o Wed "day 


30.19 


•W 


'i3 


IV. K. 


10 


Fresh 






Clear 


,„ Thurs.... 




















g? Friday . . 




















f^ Saturday 




















O Sunday.. 




















S' Monday. 




















^ Tuesday. 




















■ Wed 'day 




















<i Thurs.. . 




















r;' Friday... 




















f^, Saturday 




















*° Sunday. . 




















^ Monday. 
^ Tuesday. 


30 Oil 


12 


SI 


E. 


3 


Gentle 






Clear 


■2!l.()i 


31) 


90 


Calm 






4-4 




Cloudy 


^ Wed 'day 


30.05 


'i 


iK 


iM.K. 


3 


Gentle 




.5 


Clear 


Thurs... 




















— , Friday... 
o Saturdav 




















30.24 


::; 


SO 


Calm 






■4-4 




Cloudy 


2 Sunday.. 


:;i).3J 


i.i 


SO 


N.W. 


6 


Fresh 


•2-4 




I'itir 


g Monday 
o 'J'uesday, 


30.30 


1 


79 


N. K. 


6 


Fresh 






Hazy 


30.03 


•'>( 


79 


Calm 






4-1 




Threat. 


Wed'day 


30.33 


iH 


76 


M. 


8 


Fresh 






Clear 


Thurs... 




















O Friday... 






















30. OH 


M 


72 


3. 


4 


Gentle 






Clear 


^ Sunday. 


30.01 


11 


IK 


W. 


2.5 


Brisk 


4-4 




C:oudy 


Monday. 


30.31 


19 


It 


Calm 










Ck'ar 


g Tuesday. 


2!) 97 


■l.i 


.1 


Calm 






4-4 




Cloudy 


Wed'day 


30.13 


a 


13 


N. 


26 


Brisk 


4-4 


.30 


Lt. Snow 


Thurs... 




















Friday. . 




















^ Saturday 


30.14 


';( 


H6 


Calm 










Clear 


g Sunday.. 


30.00 


!;! 


71 


S. 


6 


Fresh 


2-4 




Fair 


S Monday. 


30.36 


,'>! 




S. 


.■i 


Gentle 






Clear 


^ TuesdikV. 


30.01 


'H 


H'f 


N. E. 


3 


Gentle 


2-4 




Fair 


Wed'day 


30.16 


*^ 


94 


iN. 


12 


Freslx 


4-4 




Lt. Snow 


Thurs.... 




















Friday... 




















g Saturday 
^ Sunday.. 


30.19 


,« 


<(i 


N.W. 


7 


Fresh 






Clear 


30 34 


l.i 


H2 


s. 1.;. 


4 


Gentle 


\-i 




Cloudy 


g* Monday.. 


30.18 


31 


lis 


iN.W. 


2tl 


Brisk 


4-i 




Cloudy 


. Tuesday. 


30.31 


13 


SI 


Calm 










Hazy 


Wed'day 


30. as 


■/« 


7.'> 


S. 


4 


Gentle 


4-; 




Cloudy 


O Thurs.... 




















g Friday. . . 




















2 Saturday 


30 1'^ 


33 


69 


N.W. 


7 


Fresh 


4-1 




Cloudy 


,g Sunday.. 


30.. ^S 


16 


s;] 


Calm 










Clear 


o Monday. 


'ffl .W, 


33 


Ht 


W. 


11 


Fresh 


4-^ 




Cloudy 


T*- 'J'uestlay. 


30.31 


l:i 


7i 


N.W. 


9 


Fresh 






Char 


^ Wed'day 


30.4.1 


12 


79 


Calm 










Clear 



Sacramento. 

[By T. M. Logan, M. D., Secretary State Board of Health. 

Jan. 10, 1872. Kainfall for the season to date. .1.5.4.')7 inches 
" 17, " " from Jan. 1 " " ...0.970 •• 



Total for the season up to Jan 10, 1872 16.4.')1 inohs. 

Rkmarks.— Tlie indications of approaching fair weather, 
pointed out in last week's report, iire being fully realized ; 
and a inoderale northerly wind with a steady r se of the 
Barometer would lead to the onnclusion of its continnance 
for a while. It will be observed in our published tables 
that prior to the 1st of Jan. we have rec'd 12.421 inches of 
rain. It is not probable, accordiug to the theory broached 
in this paper last year, will be more than tho aranunt sub^e- 
nuently to the 1st. of Jan., which would m.ike the total for 
the season about 24 inches. On this 1 think we may safely 
calculate, as wi- have already received 16.421 inches, four 
inches of which lias fallou this mouth. 



A Good Binder for $1.50. 

Subscribers for this jmirual can. obtain our Patent 
Elastic Newspaper File Holder and Binder for $1..')U— 
containing gilt title of the paper on tho cover. It pre- 
serves the papers completely and in such shape thai 
they may be quickly fastened and retained in book form 
at tlie end of the volume, and tho binder (which is very 
durable) used continuously for subsequent volumes. 
Sent postage free. It can be used for Harper's Weekly 
and cither papers of similar size. If not entirely pleased, 
purchasers may return them within 30 days. Just the 
thing for libraries and reading rooms, and all who wish 
to file the Press. lambp 



The Fruits and Fruit Trees of America, or 

the Culture. Propafjation, and Management, in the (har- 
den and Orchard, of Fruit Trees generally, with descrip- 
tions of all the finest varieties of Fruit, Native and 
Foreign, cultivated in this country. By A. J Downing 
Illustrated; 109S pages; 1869. The best authority, and 
only complete work. Price, in cloth and gilt, %b, post 
paid, by Dewey &, Co., this office 
New American Farm Book — originally by R. L. 

Allen; revised by Lewis F. Allen, 1871. Embracing in- 
formation on all general subjects pertaining to Farming 
and all branches of Husbandry— a wide range, yet very 
fully and ably treated. 526 pages. Price S3, postpaid. 
Address Dewey & Co., this othce. 
Harris (Joseph) on the Pig. Breeding, Eear- 

ing. Management and Improvement. lUus., 2.'iO pages, 
1870. Interesting to all readers ; instructive and full of 
hints to raisers. Price $2, post paid from this office. 

Cranberry Culture, by a Practical Grower in 
N. J., Joseph J- White. A special treatise of 126 pages. 
Post paid from this otlice, SI. 7.'). 

Farm Imjilemeuts and Farm Machinery, and 
the principles of their construction and use. Withsimijle 
and practical exjilanations of the Laws of Motion and 
Force as applied on the Farm; by John J. Thomas; 2S7 
illustrations and 302 pages. Sold by Dewey Sa Co., post- 
paid, for $1.75. 



Farmers and others 
for the Bubal Phess 
them promptly once 
adding as many new 
If you like the pajier, 
strength, and we will 



Renew 

Your 

Clubs. 



who got up clubs 
last year, can renew 
more at $3 per year, 
names as possible, 
renew its sinews of 
give you a better 



one next year. Oiu' hand to the plow will not turn 
backward. We hope none of our early friends will 
falter from our army of progression until entire success 
is carried and a thoroughly defined system of improved 
agriculture is understood and adopted throughout the 
coast. Cash up to the man who took your subscription 
last year, whether he calls on you or not. Don't wait 
for a more favorable time. Any reliable person may got 
up a club for us without further authority. Sample 
copies and list of present subscribers furnished for any 
neighborhood on application. Commence work, and 
send for list at any time. We must help one another. 
Your efforts will not be forgotten by DEWEY & CO. 



Our A-grcnts. 

Otib Fbiends can do much in aid of our paper and the 
cause of practical knowledge and science, by assisting 
Agents in their labors of canvassing, by lending their 
influence and encouraging favors. We intend to send 
none but worthy men. 

Wm. F. Spencer— California. 

W. H. MuKEAY — General Traveling Agent. 

C. H. DwiNELLE— Special Corresponding Agent. 

I. N. HoAG— Sacramento, General Agent. 

F. M. Shaw — San Diego. 

L. P. McCarty — California. 

M. B. Stabr — Pacific Coast. 

A. C. Knox, City Soliciting and Collecting Agent. 



Our Printed Mail List. 

Subscribers will notice that the figures found on the 
right of the pasted slips, represent the date to which 
they have paid. For instance, 21sp70 shows that our 
patron has paid his subscription up to the 21st of Sep- 
tember, 1870; 4jy72, that he has paid to the 4th of 
January, 1872; 4J173, to the 4th of July, 1873. The in- 
verted letters (t ? }i i , etc.,) occasionally used are marks of 
reference, simply for the convenience of the publishers. 

If en'ors in the names or accounts of subscribers oc- 
cur at any time an early notice will secure their imme- 
diate correction. Please notify us if you are not prop- 
erly credited within two weeks after paying. 



FOR 25 CENTS we will send, postpaid, four 
sample copies (recent numbers) of the Press. This, 
we believe, will induce many to subscribe who have not 
yet read our paper. It is a cheap and valuable favor to 
send a friend anywhere. 



VOLS. I AND rr 

Of the Pacific Rhkal Press can now be had, com- 
plete, for $3 per volume. Bound, $5. A few files only 
have been saved. 



UKrvEBSiTY OF CALIFORNIA. — The Prcparatoiy Depart- 
ment is under the charge of five Professors of the Uni- 
versity, and six tvitors. 

Besides the studies of the public schools. Algebra, 
Geometry, Latin, Greek, German, French, Spanish and 
Book-Keeping are taught. 

Terms; Board and tuition, 4 weeks, $30. Students re- 
ceived at any time. Georoe Tait, Oakland, Jlaster 
Fifth Class. se'Jbptf 

$5 TO $20 PER Day and no Eisk.— Do you want a situ- 
ation as salesman at or near home to introduce our new 
7- strand White Wire Clothes Lines, to last forever. 
Don't miss this chance. Sample Fi'ee. Address Hud- 
son River Wire Works, 75 William street, N. Y., or 1 
Dearborn street, Chicago, 111. 23vl-12mbp 



The People's Pbactical Poultry Book. — A 
work on the Breeds, Breeding, Bearing and 
General Management of Poultry, by Wm. M. 
Lewis. Illustrated with over 100 Engravings. 
New York, 1871: Sold by Dewey & Co., at 
this office, for $1.75. Post paid, $2.00. 

Go to the Best. — Young and middle-aged men 
should remember that the Pacific Business College it 
the oldest and most popular and successful Business 
Training School on this coast. Upwards of Three 
Thousand Students have attended during the past six 
years, many of whom now hold prominent positions in 
the first banking and mercantile houses of this city. 
This is the model trainino school for business on this 
coast, having tho greatest corps of Professors and 
Teachers, and the greatest number of students in at- 
tendance, of any institution of the kind. Young men 
flock to this College from all parts of the Pacific States 
and Territories, British Columbia, Mexico, Sandwich 
Islands and South America. Wo shall bo pleased to 
send our College Circular, giving full information, to 
all who send us their address. When you write, mention 
that you saw this notice in tho Pacific Rural Press. 
M. K. LAUDEN, President, San Francisco, Cal. 



Ladies Desiring to Procure a First-Class Sewing 
Michino against easy monthly installments may ajiply 
to No. 294 Bowery, 157 E. 2Gth, 477 9th Ave., New York 
Good work at high prices If desired. 21vl-12mbp 



Annual Meeting. 

The Annual meeting of the STATE AGRICULTUEAL 
SOCIETY, for the election of ofllcers for the ensuing 
year, and for the transaction of other business, will be 
held at Agricultural Hall, comer 6th and M streets, Sac- 
ramento, on the 24th instant, at 12 o'clock noon. 

A general attendance is requested. By order of the 
Board. I. N, HOAG, Cor. Secretary. 



Dickey's Lig.uid Kennet, 

For making Slip, Curds, Whey, Custard, Etc., and for 
preparing Infants' Food, 

It is prepared from tho lining membrane of the 
stomach of the calf, and is invaluable as a corrective to 
render cow's milk digestible when it is found to disa 
gree with the tender infant. Full directions accompany 
each bottle, which Is sufficient for eight gallons of milk. 

For sale by all druggists and grocers. lT3-3m 




f^^ BRYAN! 

■Business: 



NT« STRATTON 



SANFR^NciscO' 




Nineteen Years in the Nursery Business in 
California. 

A. D. ^R YA L, 

]N" Lir s ery man. 

Three Miles North of Oakland, on the 
Temascal Creek, 
One Mile from Temascal R. R. Depot, 
Offers for sale a good assortment of 
Frxiit ari<l Forest Ti^ces. 
Including Blue Gum, Monterey Cypress, Pines, Orange 
and Lemon Trees. 
A large assortment of choice varieties of 
English Gooseberries, Currants of all good sorts. Bar- 
berries, Roses and Climbing Plants, of 
new and old vari ties. 
Also the largest collection of Lilacs in the State. A 
fine aesortment of choice Bulbs at low prices. 

All orders directed to Oakland P. O., Cal., will be 
promptly attended to. ja20-lm 



NATIONAL LIVE-STOCK JOURNAL, 
lished at Chicago. $2 a year. Specimens frei 



NATIONAL LrVE-STOCK JOURNAL, Pub- 
lished at Chicago. $2 a year. Specimens free. 



BEST PAPER FOR STOCK BREEDERS, STOCK 
Raisers, Dairymen, Poultry Fanciers and Apart- 
ans. Devoted exdunivfl;/ to improvement of Live-Stock 
and advancement of Dairy interests, and contains no 
matter uot relating to these interests. Unquestionably 
superior to all papers of its class. Geo. W. Rust & Co., 
Publishers, Chicago, TU. ja20-lm 







IS THE LEADING COMIVIEHCIAL SCdOOL OF THE 
Pacific. It educates thoroughly iov business. Its course 
of instruction is valuable to persons of both sexes and 
of any age. Academic Dcpaitmcnt for those not pre- 
pared for business course. Open day and evening 
throughout the year. Students can commence at any 
time. Full particulars may be li.ad at the College 
Office, 24 Post street, or by sending for Heald's Col- 
lege Journal. 

Address E. P. EEALD, 

President Business College, San Francisco. 

3v3-cowbp 



"'^-^^ ^,.„J -paq 

The First Edition of Two Hundred Thousand copies 
just published. It is elegantly printed on tine tinted 
paper, in Two Colors, and illuKtr.ited with over Three 
Hundred Engravinos of Flowers and Vegetables, and 

TWO COLORED • PLATES. 
The most beautiful and instructive Catalogue and 
Floral Guide in the world — 112 pages, giving thorough 
directions for the culture of Flowers and Vegetables, 
ornamenting grounds, making walks, etc. 

A Christmas present for my customers, but forwarded 
to any who apply by mail, for Ten Cents, only one- 
quarter the cost. Address JAMES VICK, 

dec30-3t Rochester, N. Y. 



Fruit, Shade and Ornamental Trees. 

The undersigned has now on hand the <f^^ 
LARliFST AND BEST COLLECTION «1^. 
of Fruit, Shade and Ornamental Trees 
in this city, and is prepared to fill all 
Urdirs for every article in the line. Parties abi.ut 
planting would do well to call and examine our stock 
before purchasing elsewhere. 

All orders from the country promptly attended to and 
packed with care. 
Agent for B. S. FOX, San Jose. 

THOMAS MEHERIN, 

Cor. Oregon and Battei-y sts., opposite P. O., 
3v3-2m SAN FRANCISCO. 



H. M. BALCH, 

432 Kearny St., S. E. corner of California st. (up stairs, 
SAN FRANCISCO. 

Repairs and Tunes 

ALL KINDS OF 

MUSICAL INSTRUMENTS, 

Either Brass, Beed or String. 

Speci.ll attention given to PIANOS 
ORGANS, or MELODEONS. 

Mr. B isapractical workm.an of twenty- 1,^ 
five years experience, and employs none 
but experienced workmen. _ 

ORDERS from the country attended promptly 
8v23-3msa 




CLABROUGH & BRO., 
O XJ IN ]VX A li in K S , 

89 BATH STREET, BIRMINGHAM, ENGLAND. 

San Francisco House- No. 630 Mont- 
gomery street. The only California 
House that arc ACTUAL MANUFAC- 
TURERS. 

We macufacture in England for our California trade, 
to the order of our resident partners, every description 
of 

Sporting- and Defensive Firearms. 

Sporting Goods and Gunsmiths' Stock of all kinds 
constantly on hand. Wholesale or Retail. 3v3 3m 



HOP ROOTS FOR SALE. 

I have a lot of Choice Hop Roots for sale at Lowest 
Rates. The suckers, instead of being cut off from 
the stock, were covered with earth, thus promoting the 
growth of the " laterals," which are used for planting. 
I can also furnish healthy Lawton Blackberry Plants at 
S3 per thousand. Orders may be addressed through 
Dewey & Co., of the "Rural Press;" Drake .t Emerson, 
521 Sansomo st. , San Francisco; W. R. SiiiONO, 8 and 10 
J St., Sacramento; or direct to me, 

25v2-3m-16p CALVERT T. BIRD, San Joso, Cal. 



SILK WORM EGGS. 

FOR SALE— A few ounces of Choice Silk Worm i;g( 
(French Annual) . Apply at 
ja20-2w Room 32, Merchants' Exchange. 



HER8TINE. 

— ¥ 

The largest, handsomest, best and most productive 
Hardy Red Raspberry. Grown by WM. PARRY, 
Cinnaminson, N. J. Send for Catalogue, ja20-3t-cow 



Farms for Nothing in Montana Territory. 

Send $2 (greenback) to H. W. MAGUIRE, Bozemau 
City, Montana, and get full particulars about the 

Lands and General Business Prospects 
On the line of the U. P. R. R. Special questions care- 
fully answered, and investments made for non-residents. 
References, Editors Rural Press. 3-»3-3m 



STUDEBAKER WAGO 




iSliell "i^oiir Corn. 

The LITTLE GIANT shells four bushels of corn pel 
hinir, and costs only $1.50. If you ever buy one, 
and it fails to give pirfect satisfaction, you can get your 
money back by returniiig the ShcUer. We would recom- 
mend lazy men and women not to buy it, for it is an 
enemy to both. Local or traveling agents will be sup- 
plied with Shellers at low prices, a ud given sole 
agencies to sell in their town or county. 

WIESTER & CO., 
n New Mor.tgomery street, San Franciico. 



Have become 

The Standard Wagons of the Pacific Coast. 

For Quality, 

Durability, 

Light RuiraiNO, 

Good Proportion, 

AND Excellent Style, 
TJioy Ha-v-e no l^oer. 
Iron Axle, 

Thimble Skein and 

He.»der Spring Wagons, 
Of all sizes, with heavy tires rivited on, always on 
hand and sold for SlOO to $105. 

Having established a Manufactory to build Wagons, 
Beds, Brakes and Seats, I am better ijrepared than 
ever to furnish 

Just the Kinds of Wagons Needed, 
As I make a specialty of the wagon trade. 

The attention of Deaiers is esijecially reqiiested. 
Send for Circular and Price List. 

2v3-3m E. E. AMES, General Agent. 

Factory and Depot, 217 and 219 K street, Sacramento. 




Single copy 15 cts.— $1.50 per anntim. 
Address 0. F. & W. J. YOUNG. Box 1501, San Fran- 
cisco, California. Iv3-tf 



Farmers and Gardeners, Attention. 

Do you w^ant to buy 

SEEDS AND PLANTS 

that you may surely rely on ? Go to 

SEVIN VINCENT & CO., 

the well-known Seed Dealers, ^ 
605 Sansome St., between Wash- ^^aS^^^ 
ington and Jackson streets, San flfS'3<?«3sa. 
Francisco, and Brooklyn, Ala-.^ 
meda county. Mr. Sevin Vin- "' 
cent is the only Seed Grower of 
California. He guarantees the superior qual- 
ity of his seeds, and all those imported he 
tests with the greatest care before selling. 
Be sure he will sell you the btst and 
g5 cheapest. jrl3.2mst 



GREATEST NOVELTY of 
the age, now on exhibition at 
208 Montgomery street.^ 
!,H WEED'S PATENT CARPET 
::' \\ SWEEPER, Broom and Dust- 
'^ 1 pan combined. A child can 
sweep a large parlor carpet 
in three mm ites without 
raising any dust. Call and 
io:amine them. Cheaper than 
brooms at hve cents apiece. 
DORSEY & LOWERY, Agents 
C for California, Nevada, Ore- 
gon and Idaho. Agents wanted in every county of the 
State. Exclusive right to sell Weed's Sweeper in Oregon 
(or sale. No. 208 Montgomery street. Iv3-ef 





AVERILL'S 

ciiem:ica.il, i»Ai]>fT, 

Of any desired Shade or Color, 

Mixed ready for application, and sold by the gallon 

It is Cheaper, Handsomer, more Durable and Elastic 
than the best of any other Paint. 

Office, corner Fourth and Townsend streets, 
Francisco. HELY & JEWELL, Agents. 

15v23-3m 



THE 

PEOPLE'S PRACTICAL POULTRY BOOK. 

A Work of 221 pages on tho 

Breeds, Breeding-, Rearing- and General 
Manag:ement of Poultry. 

By WM. M. LEWIS, Now York, 1871;- with over Oiie 
Huudred Engravings. Sold at this oQice for $1.75, or 
sent postage page for $2.00. 



FARMS AND STOCK RANGES, 

On Government, State and Railroad Lands, 
IN NEVADA. 

Having snrveyed a large portion of tho public domain 
in Northern Nevada, I am prepared to select, locate and 
obtain title for parties desiring to secure such lands, in 
quantities to suit, and on the most favorable terms. 
Address or apply to A. J. HATCH, 

22v2-3m8a U. S. Deputy Surveyor, Reno, Nov. 



McDOTJGALL & MARaXJIS, 

Architects, 

IVo. 33S IVIontg-omory Street, 

San Fbahoisoo, Cal. 
Iv3 3m 



San Francisco Wire Works, 

NO. GG5 MISSION STREET, 

Near Third Street San Frauci.sco. 

C. H. GRTJENHAGEN & CO. 



46 



*PjR,!ES! 



[January 20, 1872. 



HILL'S PATENT 

EURE KA GANG PLOW. 




The iindKi-sigued, llanufartnrcrs of "HILL'S PAT- 
EST EUREKA GANG PLOWS," take this method of 
calling the attention of A gricultiirists throughout the 
Pacific States and Territories to the merits of the above 
named Plows, and offer the following ri'.isonfi wliy they 
are entitled to preference over any other PUw in iise. 

They are made of the best material, and every Plow 
warranted. 

They are of light draught, easily adapted to any 
deplh, and are very easily handled. 

They will plow any kind of soil, and leave the ground 
In perfect order. 

FIRST PREMIUMS! 

These Plows took the First rreraium at the State Fair 
In Sacramento, in 1870: at the Northern District Fair in 
Marvsville, 1870 and 1871; and at the Upper Sacramento 
Valley Fair, Chico, 1870 and 1871. At the Mechanics' 
Fair, held in San Francisco in 1871, a Silver Jledal was 
awarded these Plows; and the State Agricultural So. 
ciety, at the last Fair, offered a premium of $40 for the 
best Gang Plow. The committee was comjiosed of 
practical farmers from the agricultural counties, who, 
alter a fair test and thorough competition with the 
leading plows o( the State, awarded the premium to the 
Eureka (tang Plow. From this it will be seen that 
these cel'-brated jilows still maintain their reputation 
over all competitors. Patented Sept. 7, 1809. 

Ohampion Deep-Tilling Stubble Plow, 

which took the First Premium over all competitors at 
the State Fair, 1871. It turus a fmrow W inches deep 
and 24 inches wide. 

This Gang Plow combines durability with cheapness, 
being made entirely of iri>n by experience<l workmen, of 
the best material. Over three h\indred are now in use, 
and all have given entire satisfaction. 

Manufactured and for sale at the corner of Third 
street and Virgin Alley, Marjsville, by 

HILL & KNAUOH, 

And also by most leading Agricultural Dealers in the 
State. AH others are invited to apply at once for 
Circulars, prices, etc. I<>v2:i-tf 



MATTESON & WILLIAMSONS 




o 



Took the Premium over all at the great Plowing 
Match in Stockton, in 1870. 

This Plow is thoroughly made by practical men who 
have been long in the business and know what is re- 
quired in the construction of Gang Plows. It isquickly 
a<ljusted. Sufficient play is given so thatthe tongue will 
pass over cradle knolls without changing the working 
position of the shares. It is so constructed that the 
wheels themselves govern the action of the Plow cor- 
rectly. It has various points of superiority, and can bo 
relied upon as the Best and Most Desirable Gang Plow 
in the world. Send for circular to 

MATTt-SON & WILLIAMSON, 

14v2-3m Stockton, Cal. 




FIRST PREMIUM AWARDED at the State Fair of 
1870; also First Premium at Mechanics' Fair, San Fran- 
cisco, 1871; ami Silver Medal and First Premium for 
best Farm Wagon, and First Premium for the best im- 
proved Thimble Skein at State Fair, 1871. Also State 
Fair GOLD MEDAL for 1871. 

E. SOULE, 

Corner Tenth and I streets, 
Sacramento. Cal. 



ap22-3m 



JACKSON MICHIGAN WAGONS. 



The large sale of the above WAGONS has induced a 
number of persons to try and sell other Eastern-made 
Wagons, none of which have any proof that they will 
stand in this dry climate. JACKSON WAGONS have 
the highest certificates lYom use for ten to fourteen 
years, c nsequently the buyer runs no risk in purchas- 
ing the Jackson Wagons. All sizes for sale low by 

J. D. ARTHUR & SON, San Francisco. 

N. B. — Warranted for three years. 21v2-3m 

BEAIiERS AND CONSUMERS 

Are hereby notified that 

THE STANDARD SOAP COMPANY 

Continue to uiuuufaoture the foUowiug Stiiudanl 
Preparations : 

Detersive, Prize Medal and Laundry Soaps ; 

Kane's Condensed Soaps; 

Thomas' Cool Water Bleaching Soaps; 

Standard and Eureka Washing Powders ; 

Madame Balcear's Washing Fluid and Liquid 
Bluing. 

Adamantine Candles, and a general assort- 
ment of Family, Laundry, Fancy and Toilet 
Soaps. 

■T* Manufactory, 201 and 'i06 Sacramento street, San 
Francisco. 2lT2-3m 




ATWOOD & BOD-U^ELL, 

MANUFACTURERS OF 

EXCELSIOR AND GOLDEN STATE WIND MILLS, 

Little Giant and Excelsior Horse Powers, 

PUMPS AND WATEPw TANKS. 
Nos. 211 and 213 Mission Street, SAN FRANCISCO. 

We are ihe Largest Manufacturers of Pumping Machinery 
on the Pacific Coast. 

N. B. — We have made the manufa< ture of Windmills a specialty the past ten years. 
During the last live years we have manufa -tared and put in operation a greater number of Mills than any other 
firm in the State ; and we believe that in the last tw.i or three years, more than any other two firms; which fact 
IS the Ixst proof in the world of the superiority of our machines. We ou.vr.intke all our work, and we have 

NEVEB FAILED TO FtTLFILL OCK GUABANTKES. 4v2-lam3m 





EUREKA 




AND 

Patented November 23, 1869. 

These Mills have stood the test and received the First 
Premium at the Mechanics' Fair in this city, and we 
challenge the world to produce their equal in point of 
Beauty, Strength, Durability and Simplicity. 

They are the most easily controlled, run with the 
lightest wind, and are the least liable to get out of order 
of any Mill yet before the public. 

We use the best material, and our workmanship is 
superior to all other in the State. All of the above we 
guarantee. 

ECLIPSE HORSE POWER. 



ECONOMY. 





Windmills of all sizes, Horsepowers and Tanks, by W. I. TUSTIN, 

Pioneer Windmill Manufacturer, Corner Market and Beale streets San FaAKcisco. 

sel(l-lam:jin 



BAKER & HAMILTON, 



J. R. ANDREWS 



Saoramcnto andl^an Francisco, 



— nrpoRTEm of— 



SUCCES80B TO 



»IA.:?r.»9l3LL & CO., 



4i 
Second St. 

LELAND STANFORD 

X*roNltlent. 
H. F. HASTINGS, Vice Presideni 
JOS. CRACKBON, - Secretari 

^cncial j/jKJ/j^ ^ame &^/u^ 

v2 3m 137 Montgomery street, San Francisco. 



WAOHHOEST'S TOWN OLOOZ 
.TEAVELRTE" STORE. 



HATir)T\"A]RE, [ Housc and Sign Painters, 
Farming Implements 



CD 
Q 



< 

O 

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en 
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IMLa cliiues. Etc., Etc. 

Oangr Plows, 

Sins^le Steel Plows, 
Iron Plows, 
Harrows, 

Cultivators, 

Seed Sowers, 

Grain Drills, 

Etc. Etc. 



412 PINE STREET, S.iS FE.\NCISCO, 
Three doors above Montgomerj- st. 



F. MAN8ELL still superintends the Fancy and Orna- 
mental Sign Work. 



Country Or<lors A-ttontlocl to 

With Punctuality, Cheapness and Dispatch. 

2f.v23-3m-bp 



Gang and Single Plows. 

I am prepared to furnish my popular Gang and Single 
pl<>w8, of the lightest draft (best Plow to scour in sticky 
soil) , and thi: most efficient Plow made My leverage for 
raising the gang has no equal— a thirteen year old boy 
can work it with ease. I make any pattern of mould 
desired, to order. Twenty years experience in plow- 
making enables me to demonstrate all I say, and every 
Plow IS warranted to do all I recommend it to perform. 

Send your orders early, and tor further information 
apply lo A. ELLISON, Patentee and Manager. 

26v2-2m Marysvllle, Cal. 



CO-OPERATIVE MARBLE WORKS. 

JOHN DAn£eL & CO., 

Manufacturers of and Dealers in 

Monuments, Headstones, Tombs, 

M.VNTEL PIECES, ETC., 

421 Pine street, between Montgomery and 

Kearny, San Francisco. 

21v2-ly 



J. BREUNER & CO., 

Imiwrtcrs, Jobbers and Manufac- 
turers of 

FINE FURNITURE, 

BEDDING, MIRRORS, ETC., AT THE 

Very Lowest Prices. 

Nos. 166, 168 and 170 K street SACRAMENTO. 

lBv2-3m 



CHICKERING & SONS' 

PIA.IVO FORTE»!!, 



Mason & Hamlin's Cabinet Org-ans. 

L. K. HAMMER Agent. 

Also' Importer of Sheet Music. Music Books and Mu- 
sical Instruments. Finest Violin and Oultar Strings. 
No. 230 J street, SACRAMENTO. 16v2-3m 




m 

t 

m 
r 
;n 
•< 

> 

z 
o 

CO 

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< 
m 

> 
m 



THE LARGEST AND FINEST STOCK OF GOODS 
AT THE VERY LOWEST PRICES. 

Every article of Jewelrj- bought in this establishment 
Waebanted strictly as represented. 

Watches, Jewelry and Clocks Repaired 

BV THE BEST WOBKMEN. 

All orders from the country promptly attended to. 
7v2-3m 



Flora! Guide for 1872. 

Containing sevinty-two pages and Two Beautiful 
Colored Plates nicely illustrated, giving plain directions 
for the cultivation of nearly a thoiisand vahietiks of 
Flowers and Vegetables. Full bound with your name 
in gilt, post paid, 50 cts. Paper cover and one colored 
plate, 10 cts. 

Address, M. Ot. REYNOLDS, 

22T2-6m Rochester, N. Y. 



R. IRELAND, 

The old Pioneer Broom Factory — Established Au- 
gust, '56. No. 82 J street, between Third and Fourth, 
Sacramento. All kinds of 

"Wood and "Willow Ware. 

Manufactxirer of Brooms, Brushes, Baskets, Matches 
and General House Furnishing Goods, and sells Nichols 
* Falvy's Tubbs and Palls. 16v2-3m 



J. ROSS BROWNE, 
Oifice, ^o. 4:7% Aloiiticomcrv Itlock, 

San Fba>-cisco, Cai,. 



THE GREA-T 
RETAIL DRXJCi IIOXJSjSE 

OF THE PACIFIC COAST I 

JAMES G. STEELE & CO., 
Chemists and Apothecaries. 

fSr Import and sell directly from Eastern and Euro- 
pc-u Markets. 

NO. 521 MONTGOMERY STREET, 

San Francisco. 

Manufacturers and Sole Proprietors of 
STEELE'S GLYCERINE LOTION 

— AND — 

GRINDELLA LO'HON, 

For the Cure of Poison Oak. 
21v2-3m 

SAN JOSE REAL, ESTATE 

FOR SALE. 

Farms from $12 to $100 per acre. 

Garden Land from $100 to .f3il0 per acre. 

City Li)ts in San Jose or Santa Clara on easy terms. 

Well Improved Suburban Homesteads and Desirable 
City Property for sale by 

J. A. CLAYTON. Real Estate Agent. 

Office on Santa Clara street, opposite .\uzeraiH House. 

Rents collected. Tax paid, and Money invested on 
first-class security. iX)v3-3m 



January 20, 1872.} 



47 



KELSEY'S NURSERIES. 




OAKLAND. 

Established in 1852. 

CITY l>EI»OT, 

317 Washington Street San Fbancisco. 

The Proprietor having upwards of 
100 ACRES OF NURSERY GROUNDS, 
well stocked with all the leading and best varieties of 
Fruit Trees and Fruit Bushes; also Evergreen and De- 
ciduous Trees and Shrubs, including the rarest of Coni- 
fers, can fill all orders on the most reasonable terms 
and with dispatch. 

Choice Roses and Pot Plants 

of every variety. Trees and Plants securely imcked to 
travel any distance. 

FOREST TREES 

of Australia, Europe, China and Japan; in fact, we aim 
to have and to get all and everything desirable. 

Parties planting can find in this establishment what- 
ever may be wanted, for use and beauty, in furnishing a 
place without being obliged to go from one Nursery to 
another. W. F. KELSEY, Proprietor. 
21v2-3m 

J^ew York Seed Warehouse, 



C. L. KELLOG-G-. 

427 Sansome Street, near Clay, 

SAN FRANCISCO, CAL., 
Importer and. Dealer in 

Garden, Field, Fruit, Flower 

AND TREE SEEDS, 
Kamio Plants. 

Pure Alfalfa, Mesquite Grass, Etc, 

X>UTCH BULBOUS KOOTS, 

Imported Direct from the 
First Flower Niirseries, in Vozelenzang-, 
23v2-3m HAARLEM. 



Seeds! Seeds! 

New California raised ALFALFA CLOVER SEED, 
sold in quantities ut J. P. SWEENEY & CO.'S 

Seed, Tree and Plant "Warehouse, 

40a and 411 Davis street, San Francisco. 



Surprise Oats, 

At $8 per 100 lbs. All kinds of 
Seeds, at Wholesale and Retail, 
Sold by J. P. SWEENEY & CO., 

409 and 411 Davis street, S. F. 



Ramie ! 

UOOXED PLAIN TJ-J, 

Of the above valuable textile, raised in this State, fcr 
Bale by the undersigned, in lots to suit, where further 
Information in regard to Soil, Cultivation, etc., will be 
given. 



Inquire of 


J. P. SWEENEY & CO., 




Seedsmen, 409 Davis street, S. F., 


Or of 


JOSEPH GRAHAM, 


22-v2-3m 


Haywards', Alameda Co., Cal. 



J. ROCK'S NURSERIES, 



©AN aosE. 



Fruit and Ornamental Trees. 



The attention of every Planter, Nur- 
seryman and Dealer is called to our ^i^ 
large and superior stock of 



Fruit and Ornamental Trees, 

Grape Vines and Small Fruits, 
Shrubs and Plants, Etc., Etc., 

IN LARGE QUANTITIES, AT LOWEST RATES. 

Catalogue furnished on application. 

21v2-tt JOHN ROCK, San Jose, Cal. 



Garden Seeds. 

I have on hand and will be constantly receiving an 

Assortment of Garden Seeds, 

To which I invite the attention of my customers and 
the public generally. Will also receive orders lor 

Trees, Plants, Shrubs, Etc., 

Grown at Oak Shade Nursery Davis^llle. 

ARTHUR FLEMING, 

Apothecary and Druggist, San Leandro, Cal. 
22v2 3m 

!Ka:niie Roots for !!<alc, 

IN LOTS TO SUIT. 

BY JOHN S. DRURY, 

At 0. F. Richards k Co.'s Drug Store, S. W. comer of 
Clay and Sansome streets, San Francisoo., 

And by W. W. DRURY, at RAMIE NURSERY, 

n American River, near Central Pacific RaUroad Bridge 

south aide, Sacramento. 

21v2-3m 



TREES 

AND PLANTS FOR SALE AT THE 

LIBERTY NURSERIES, 

Petaluma, CaL 

The stork I offer for sale this season is as varied and 
oomplete as can be found at any Nursery on the Pacific 
Coast. It consists of 

Apples, Pears, Plums, Peaches, Apricots, Nectarines, 
Figs, Quinces. Cherries, Oranges, Pouigranates, Mul- 
berries, Grapes, Currants, Gooseberries, Blackberries, 
Raspberries, Strawberries, etc. 

Almonds, English Walnuts, California and Eastern 
Black Walnuts, IJutternuts, American, Japan and Span- 
ish Chestnuts. 

Locusts, Maples, Elms, Poplars and Willows. 

Evergreen Trees and Shrubs in great variety. 

Deciduous Flowring Shrubs in variety, including a 
choice collection of Roses. 

Also a choice collection of Bedding and Conservatory 
Plants, selected from the best new varieties (importa- 
tion of 1871). 

For complete list send for Descriptive Catalogue. 

The above stock of Trees and Plants will be sold 

At the Lowest Market Rates 

of the reliable Nurserymen, and guaranteed to be true 
to name and label. 

8^ All orders from unknown persons must be accom- 
ponied with the Cash. 

TREES packed in the best manner and delivered to 
Railroad or Boats in Petaluma for shipment to all parts. 



Address 
21v2-3ra 



W. H. PEPPER, 

Petaluma, Cal. 



FRUIT AND ORMAMENTAL TREES. 

ONE MILE EAST FROM SACRAMENTO. .2E 

My stock enjbraces all the celebrated varieties that 
are favorably known, including the justly cck'brated 
" H.\LE'S EARLY PEACH," the Salwav, Freemason and 
other new varieties. Also, GRAPEVINE AND CUT- 
TINGS of the leading sorts: 10ii,000 Blackberry and 
Raspberry plants of the most jjopular kinds, warranted 
true to name; Mulberry Trees, for feeding jilkwornis, 
in quantities to suit. All offered at low prices. 

Orders sent by mail to the Proprietor will be promptly 
filled. 

2v3-3m E. F. AIKEN, Proprietor. 




1857. SEEDS. 1872. 

15 Yeai-s Estal>ll!SliO(l. 

W. R. STRONG, 

8 and 10 J street SACRAMENTO. 

Garden, 

Flo-wer, 

Field, 

Friiit, 

Tree and Shrub, 
Grass and Clover Seeds, 
Fresh, Pure and True to Name. 

Seeds forwarded by mail to any part of the United 
States at 8 cents per pound. 

Myannual catalogue is ready and will be forwarded 
on application FREE. 

ALFALFA. 

50,000 pounds California Alfalfa, grown by J. Wil- 
coxson and others of the most careful and reliable pro- 
ducers. 

Kentucky Blue Grass, Red Top Timothy, Red and 
White Clover, Mesquit or Gramina Grass, etc. 

Seed Potatoes. 

Early Rose, Bruze Prolific, Climax, Excelsior and 
other of the best tested varieties. An Eastern Agricul- 
turist ofl'ers $l,ouo for a potato superior to the Excel- 
sior in good qualities. 

W R. STRONG, 

2v3-3m 8 and 10 J Street, Sacramento. 



TREES AND PLANTS 

By the 100, 1,000 or 100,000, both 

Wholesale and Retail, at the 

Lowest Market R-nfos, at the CAPITAL NURSE- 
RIES, Sacramento, Cal. 

Fend for Catalogue, Price List and printed directions 

ROBERT WILLIAMSON, Proprietor. 
Office aid Tree Depot at U street, between Fifteenth 



and Sixteenth streets, Sacramenlo. Cal. 



22v2-lm 



FRUIT AND SHADE TREES. 



T^v-orgr»'<'<^»i«. Oriianiontal, ■=«=• 

and FLOWERING PLANTS, and all general productions 
of the Nm-sery and Garden. 

All varieties of Fruit, from the earliest to the latest in 
cultivation. All warranted true to name. 

Prices to suit the times. Wholesale and retail. 

Call and examine stock at Depot, J street, between 
Seventh and Eighth, next to P. H. Russell's grocery 
store. E. PARSONS, 

3v3.3m Nurseryman and Florist, Sacramento. 



SHADE TREES! SHADE TREES! 

M LOCUST, LOMBARDY, POPLAR, CIRCASSIAN 
iind States Mulberry, California and States Black 
Walnut, Wild Cherry, Weeping Willow, etc., grow- 
infic in my Nursery, 3!4 miles below Sacramento (Near Sut- 
terville), and which 1 now ofler to Planters and the Trade 
at prices to suit the times. Trees delivered to cars or 
steamers, or to any part of the city, without additional 
charge. Orders by mail or express promptly attended to. 

2v3-3m J. S. HARRISON, Sacramento. 



Orange Trees ! Orange Trees ! ! 

I now offer to Planters and Dealers a large iind splen- 
did stock of ORANGE, LEMON, LIME, and ENGLISH 
WALNUT TREES. Also, a limited amount of 

Grafted Orang-e on Lemon Stock. 

At Lowest Market Rates. Address P. O. Box 2G5, Lo 
Angeles, Cal. 
13v2-t;m THOS. A. GAREY. 



BEI6GS & BKOTHEE'S 

CATALOGUE OF 

Flower and Vegetable Seeds, 



SUMMER FLOWERING BULBS, FOR 1872; 

Now ready. Consisting of 130 pages, on rose-tinted 
Iiaper, with upwards of 4f'0 separate cuts, and Six Beau- 
tiful Colored Plates I Cover, a beautiful design in 
colors. The richest catalogue ever published. Send 25 
cents for copy, not one-half the value of the colored 
plates. In the^rs^ order, amounting to not less than 
$1, the price of catalogue, 25 cents, will be refunded in 
seeds. New customers placed on the same footing with 
old. Free to old customers. Quality of Seeds, size of 
packets, prices and premiums oflered, make it to the 
advantage of all to purchase seeds of us. See Cata- 
logue for extraordinary inducements. 

You will miss it if you do not see our Catalogue be- 
fore ordering seeds. 

Either of our two Chromos for 1872, size l<ix21— one 
a flower plate of Bulbous Plants, consisting of Lilies, 
etc.,— the other of Annual, Bieunial and Perennial 
Plants, guaranteed the 

Most Eleg-ant Floral Chromos 

ever issued in this country. A superb parlor ornament; 
mailed, post-paid, on receipt of 75c.; also free, on con- 
ditions specified in Catalogue. Address 

BRIGGS A BROTHER, 

[Established 1813.] Rochester, New York. 
2v3-lm 



SEEDS ! GARDEN SEEDS ! 

H. CONSTINE, No. 175 J st.. Sacramento. 

WholfcKiile and Reluil Dealer in 

.Vll I^iiKlw of liarilt*!! fSoccl.**, Ciras*s 

Seeds, Seed Wheat, Seed Barley, Seed Potatoes. 

Also, ALFALFA, of California growth and of best qual- 
ity. All at Lowest Prices. 
All orders from a distance filled with dispatch, and Seeds 
\ warranted Pure and Fresh. 3vy-i(ni 



Seed ! Seed ! Seed ! 

"Wheat— Algiers, Australian, Sonora, Club Chile, 
Oregon. 
Oats— Norway, Oregon, Surprise, Coast, Wild. 
Peas — Canada, Windsor, Waco. 
Buckwheat — Oregon, Chatfleld, Humboldt Co. 
Corn— Southern, Eastern. 
Flax Seed— California, Oregon. 
Potatoes— Early, of all kinds. 

IN LOTS TO SUIT, BY 

R. M. CHAMBERLIN & CO., 

N. E. Comer Clay and Davis streets, Produce Exchange 

Building, San Francisco. 

«»" Depot for the Pacific Oil Cake Meal. 19v2-3m 

W. R. STRONG, 
Commission Merchant, 

And Wholesale Dealer in every description of 

S*« E E 13 !-i , 

California and Tropical Fi-uits, Nuts, Honey, 

and Agricultural Produce, 

Nob. 8 and 10 J Street, Sacramento. 

Ord' rs for all classes of Merchandise filled and for- 
wank'd with dispatch. 5v2-3m 



Genuine Mesquit Grass Seed, 

For sale at low rates in quantities to suit, and will be 
forwarded by Mail or Express. 

ORDERS SOLICITED. 

Also, full assortment of GARDEN, FIELD, FLOWER 
AND TREE SEEDS. 
2Gv2.1m S. D. TOWNE, 

Petaluma, Cal. 



MAMMOTH CUCUMBERS. 

SEEDS OF THE MAMMOTH CHINESE CUCUMBER 
(which attains a length of six feet and a circumference 
of 9)4 inches) , will be mailed by the subscriber to any 
address on receipt of price, viz., 25 cents each or $2.50 
per dozen. D. W CURTIS, 

Box Hi. Helena, M. T. 

2v3 Im 



1871. 1871 

Farmers, Look to Your Interests. 

GRASS, CLOVER AND FIELD SEEDS 

On hand, in lots to suit, at lowest market rates. Genuine 
Alialta Califoruia grown. Red and White Clover, Tiniotliy 
Seed (Oreeon and Eastern grown), Genuine Norway Outs. 
Al.'^o, clioice varieties Seea Potatoes, Peas, Beans, Cab- 
bage, Onion and Melon Seeds. Aiiiiresfi JOHN, C. DALY, 
No. 2.'> Front street, Sacramento. P. O. Box, No. 519. 
I6v2-3m 

!&j«e<l»i, ITi-ultK, Jl»la-iit«. 

Our Descriptive Ciitalogues and Price-lists of GAR- 
DEN, FIELD, and FLOWER SEEDS, SMALL FRUITS, 
SPiED POTATOES, etc., etc., ready in January, and 
mailed Free to all on application. We know the value 
of pure and true Seeds and Plants, as we grow Fruits 
and Vegetables for market ourselves. D. H. BROWN 
& SONS, Cherry Lawn Farm, New Brunswick, N. J. 




"^ 



CALIFORNIA COTTON GROWERS' 

— AND— 

Manufacturers' Association. 

INCORPORATED APRIL 10, 1871, FOR TWENTY-FIVE 
YEARS. 

Capital StockL$500,000, in Shares of $20 
Each. 

The Company's Plantation of 10,000 Acres is situated 
at and surrounding the town of Bakersfield, in Kern 
County. The Association has recently purchased of 
Messrs. Livermore & Chester, Real and Personal Proii- 
erty to the amount of 5200,000. The Company's stock, 
independently of the profits of raising Cotton and Man- 
ufacturing the game, is fully secured by Real Estate. 
OFFICERS : 

L. H. BONESTELL. San Francisco President. 

JAMES D. JOHNSTON, San Francisco Secretary. 

JULIUS CHESTER, Bakersfield, Kern County Vice 

President and Resident Director. 

BANK OF CALIFORNIA Treasurer 

LEONIDAS E. PRATT, San Francisco Law Adviser . 

23v2-tf 

10,000 Acres of Land, 

Situated upon 

GRAND ISLAND, 

Twenty miles south of Sacramento, 

KOR LEASE ON SHARES FOR ONE, TWO OR THRF.K 
YEARS. 



The construction of the levee is now going ahead. 
This land CANNOT BE EXCELLED IN PRODUCTIONS. 

Shipments can be made from any portion of tlie 
island by all classes of vessels. 



10 Beautiful Flo-wreringr Plants for $1.00, 

By mail, postpaid, from a splendid collection. Seeds 

and Bulbs FRI'.E in every package. 
Send Stamp for Catalogue. H. A. CATLIN, 
jal3 4w Corry, Fa. 



TJIFLES, SHOT-GUNS, REVOLVERS, Gun 

it Mat'Srial. Write for Price List, to GREAT WEST- 
ERN GU.i WORKS, Pittsburgh, Pa, Army Guns, Re- 
volvers, Etc.. u/* or traded tor, AgenU Wanted. 
ev2 urn 



Apply to 



Or to 
16v2-tf 



G. D. ROBERTS, 
401 California street, San Francisco. 

WM. GWYNN, 
Lime Merchant, Sacramento. 



H. K. CUMMINOS. 
1858. 



J. M, MAXWELL 

1871. 



HENRY K. CUMMINGS & CO., 

Wholesale Fruit and Produce Commission 
House, 

ESTABLISHED 1858. 

•415 and 417 Davis street, cor. of Oregon, San Fi-ancisco. 

Our business being exclusively Commission, we h.ive 

no interests that will conflict with those of the producer. 

4v23-ly 




Will change gray hair to its youthful color with a few 
applicati ins. Suits all shades of color and complexion. 
Will neither stain hands, scalp or clothing. No sedi- 
ment; clear as crystal. No sulphur or other bad smell, 
but delightfully pcrtumed. As a hair dressing it has 
no equal. It makes th" hair rich in appearance, glossy 
and curly; cures dandruff and all other in-itations of 
the skin, and prevents the hnir from falling out. Lib- 
eral discount allowed dealers. Address orders to J. F. 
FUGAZI, or H. C. Kirk & Co., Sacramento; Hug & 
Schmidt, Agents, 535 Commercial street; Heathtield, 
Bogel & Co., '206 Battery street, San Francisco. Sold by 
all Druggists. dcl0-3t 



AVTT^ COX'S 

IMPROVED STEAM WATER LIFTER, 

With neither Engine, Piston, or Plunger. 

The most Simple, Durable, and in al 
respects the most E'.'Onomical of all 
Steam Pumps. Uses the same steam 
twice instcud of once. Any person can 
run it. They are used on the Central 
and Western'Paciflc RR. from Oakland 
■- j^ mjia to Ogden. They are used for Water 
Works, Mining, Irrigation, and all other ordinary pump- 
ing Send for Descriptive Circular and Price List. Ad- 
dress ALLEN WILCOX, No. 21 Fremont street, San 
Francisco. 16v2-3ui 




MANUFA'TURKE OF 

Oillee, !S!<Oiool Fiiri»iture 

AND SETTEES, 
And all kinds of Oificc and Cabinet Work to order. 
Ottice, No. (;o7 Clav street, near Montgomery, San 
Francisco. SILVER iVIEDAL awarded for the best Cali- 
fornia-made Olhcc and School Furniture, at the Eighth 
Mechanics' Fair, 1871. 19v2-3m 



48 



PA^sirit 



[January 20, 1872. 




'Uss 






The following, from the iuilex of o\u- last halt 
volume, i-umpn^ing only the division of one letl 
tho aliihahet, will give some idea of the variety 
jects and amount of information furnished in tb^ 
during six months : 

PAGK. 

Silk JVIaiiufacture 17 

silk Culture 57,97, 408 

lingular Tillage 5 

slate Biioks 291 

Slaj ingthe Rooster. .fw 

•Smoke, Oaiisumin(;--..._. ^27 

Snakes 87. 1W3 

♦Snow Plant B9 

*Sn()W Flakes , •'*>i 

Soap 43 

Soap Co, Standard 3,W 

Social Honor 1S6 

Soil. Absorbent Tower.... 2i:t 
Si>ilH, I'roductivcncss of.. 91 

Soil, Calllornia 30» 

SonomaAg. Notes 69 

Scinora Ag. Niites 5 

Song for Harvest 282 

Song ol Birds 3l() 

Sorrel, How to Kill It. . . . 409 

Span, The 21.S 

Sponge, The .Hai 

Spontaneous Combustion. 3il 

313. 

Squirrel Skins 273 

stand Like an Anvil, 

(foetrv) 11 

Stanislaus Co, Xoteson... 179 

i:A. 

steam. Care with 242 

steam Pump, Automalie 294 
Steel, Treatment of.. .178, 33S 

*Stock. Horned 2.')7 

stock tor Oregon yiti 

Stock at Fairs 88 

Stomach', Boiling out 247 

story for Boys 42 

heep. Impure Water for 390S 

stone Age, Relics of. 9 

Stone Saw, Emerson's ... 40! 

Stove, the Air Tight 419 

Straw for Fuel 385 

Submarine Experiments. 322 

Subsoiling 20 

sugar irom Grapes 313 

Sugar Beet Factor}' 31.') 

Sugarie, Beet in Sac'm'to 406 
'•ummer in the Va leys.... 273 

Summer Scene 17 

Sun, Explosion in 29? 

Sutler's Fort 33 

mp Lands 35, 76 

•uming 391 

Swindle on Farmers. .... 76 

It is one of the Largest, best Illustrated and most Original 

and Enterprising Aericultural Journals in America, 

and has no rival on the western side ol tlie 

Continent. Its circulation is Rapidly 

Increasing, and it is Very 

Popular with its 

Patrons. 

A. NEW IIUSI5A.1VOI1Y, 

as it were, is required on the Pacific Coast, on account of its 
peculiar seasons, soil, climate and topography. The new 
discoveries, ideas, and useful hints evolved in its rapid 
progress, are to be observed with interest, and read, as re- 
ported in the Pacific Rural, with profit by practical and 
progressive agriculturists everywhere. Sample copies of 
the Press, post paid, 10 cts. Subscription, $4 a year. 

DEWE'y & CO., Pu'blishers, 

No. 33S Montgomery St., San Francisco. Cal, Nov., IR71 



PAGE 

Sacramento, Upper 5 

•Sad Iron Handle .294 

Sau-e Brush Ashes 36(1 

Sa^e, White Zl.s 

Salt as Manure 22 

Salt Ell'cct on Axles 2'J6 

•Salt Lake, Notes from. 44, 72 

S3. 

Santa Clara Fair 150, 1S6 

"Santa Clara Co, Notcsou 27.') 

■.'91, 307, 3U9, 323, 339, 355, 371 

387. 
Santa Cruz Farmers' Club 1 

■20. 22, 52, 84, 131, 196, ^2^7, 356 

372. 
Santa Cruz Railroad... 
Santa Crn/., Notes on.. 196, 212 

2i:i, 2-i8. '.'46. 
San Joaquin. Climate of. 259 
San Joatiuin Co, Ag. Notes 21 

37. 

San.Ioaqnin Fair 1C8, 188 

San M;ileo Co, Notes on.. 180 

School System 106 

Science vs. (J hosts 369 

Scatter ITour Crumbs, 

(Poetry) 74 

•Seal Rocks 1 

Seed S.iwing 360 

Seed Time 312 

•Seeder ,4 Cultivator Com- 
bined 97 

Self Interest 25'i 

Seed & Flowers 346 

Sewing Machine, Improv- 

ed 

Sexes, The Two 42 

Sexes at Will r 

Shad, California 9,12, 1U2 

Shears. Creighton'sPrun 

ing 153 

Sheep Kaising 4 

Sheep in Australia 17 

•Sheep. Sijuihdown 2111 

•Sheep, Scab in 27il 

Sheep, .Mortality .tmong.. 325 

siiee'p Poisoned S41 

Shoes for Women 378 

•Skate Roller. Cook's 116 

Silk, Cal. .M. Co 39i: 

Silk from Osage Orange.. 104 
Silk 41 



The Scientific Press, 

Established in 18G0, is now the Largest, Most 
Original, Best Illustrated and most Ably and 
Carefully Edited Practical Mining Journal on 
the Western Continent. Its contents are made 
up of fresh intelUgence in a condensed and inter- 
esting style, easily appropriated by the reader, 
who finds its columns replete 'with new facts 
and ideas not obtainable in the books of the 
past or in any one other of the journals of the 
day. 

Varied in its carefully compiled and con- 
veniently arranged departments, representing 
the special and leading industries of the Pacific 
States — Mining, Mechanism, Manufacturing, 
Building, Improvements and Inventions — it 
becomes a weekly informant to all Scientific, 
Mechanical, Manufacturing and Industrial 
Progressionists on the coast, an immense list 
of whom testify to its pleasant, profitable and 
elevating influence. 

The progress of our journal has been steady 
and unvarying. Encouraged by a liberal 
class of readers 'who exhibit their appreciation 
in a substantial 'way, we shall, ■with our in- 
creasing facilities, experience and information, 
make each coming issue superior to its prede- 
cessor. 

Let every friend of Science and Industry on 
this side of the continent take pride, not only 
in sustaining, but accelerating the advancement 
of a faithful representative of its highest inter- 
ests by subscribing for it and urging its patron- 
age by others — now, 'without delay. 

Subscription $4 a year, in advance. Addi'ess 

DEWET & CO., 
Publishers and Patent Agents, 338 Montgomery 
St., S. E. corner CaUforuia St., S. F. 

JOHN J. NEWSOM, 

Architect, 
No. 430 Montgomery street, over the U. S. Treasury, 
26v2-6m San Feancibco, 



EIES PATENT GilNG PLOWS -PRKES REBIK'EO. 




"^•^-^^^.o- 



HUIE'S PATENT GANG PLOW. 

Having purchased the Gang Plows imported by Treadwell & Co., at very lo^w figures, we are enabled 
to offer them at greatly reduced prices — below the cost of importation— giving a Uaug cunibiuiug 

Simplicity, Utility. Durability and Low Price. 

They are selling very rapidly and we would advise early orders. This is the cheapest GOOD Gang offered. 
Being boxed, the transportation is low. 

Price of Steel Gang:, $60. Price of Collins' Gang, $75. Without Extra Shares. 

For &n order of five Huie Steel Gangs we will take off ten per cent. Address 

BAKEit &L h:am:ilxo]V, 

Manufacturers and Importers of all kinds of Agricultural Instruments and Hardware, 

San Feancisco and Sacramento. 



WILLCOX & GIBBS 

Family Sewing Machine 

IS THE BEST IN THE MARKET. 

It is the Most Simple, 

Easy to run (a child can operate it) , not liable to get out 

of order, sews the heaviest or lightest goods, and 

is remarkable for the great variety, pertec- 

tion and durability of its work. 

It is the only Machine 

Making the triple-threaded seam, with the twisted loop 
s'itch, the strongest and most elastic made. 

The Willcox & Gibbs 

Received the only honorable mention and strongrecom- 
mendation at the last Stockton Agricultural Fair. 

Its "Work Received the First Premium 

it the San Francisco Mechanics' Institute Fair, 1871. 

I>oii't Fail to !E2xa.iniuc. 

»ar PERFECT SATISFACTipN GUARANTEED. 

Other Machines taken in part payment. 
Call on or address 

WILLCOX & GIBBS S. M. CO., 

113 Post Street, S. F. 

•2'Jv'2-9m 



TREES FOR SILK ! S 

3J[ixlticaiilis, 

1 year old, $20 per Thousand. 

Do. 2, 3 and * years, $25, $35 and $40. 

ALBA AND MOKETTO, 2, 3 and 4 years, $10, $50, $C0 

CUTTINGS of all kinds $2.50 per thousand. 

TREES FOR SHADE! 

Finest and Cheapest in the State. 

Wliite and Blacli ]Mxill>eri-y 

From 1 >^ to 3 inches diameter, and 15 to 20 feet high — 
from $25 to $30 a hundred, or 30 to 50 cents each. 



FRUITING MULBERRY ! 

From 50 cents to $1.50 each. 

Silkworm Eggs and Silk Manual. 
Liberal discount to the trade. 



2ev2-3m-lf.p 



I. N. HOAG, 

Sacramento, Cal. 



NORWAY I S.tsn^^ed^SrhlK lOATS ! 

land, by one of the proprietors of this jovirnal, can be 
had at this otUce. 



LINFORTH, KELLOGG & CO., 



IMPOETEKS OF 



HA-HDW^J^RE 



and 



AGRICULTURAL IMPLEMENTS. 



The attention of Farmers is respectfully called to the 
following Superior 



Wliich we now offer as the best hitherto made : 

PACIFIC RAILROAD, 

MONITOR, 

EUREKA. 

General Agents for the Pacilic Coast for the Celebrated 

WORLD MOWERS AND REAPERS, 
BALL'S OHIO REAPERS, 

TORNADO THRESHERS. 

Rumsey's Lift and Force Pumps, 

WOOLWORTH HANDLE WORKS, 

LEARY RAILROAD LANTERN, 
Etc., Etc., Etc. 

IRON PIPE, RUBBER HOSE, RUBBKR AND 

LEATHER BELTING, ROPE AND FENCE 

■WIRE, ALL AT LOWEST 

MARKET RATES. 

3 and 5 Front Street, San Francisco. 



TO 



The Publishers of the PDCAT 
PACIFIC RURAL UHtH I 



rUb I - now offer to the Post- IllUUut- 

MASTERS. T^^:i:^\'X" MENTS. 

tiirou^'hoiit tho Pacific States exceedingly liberal terms 
for HOliciting subscriptions to such a weekly as th* y 
can with all confidence recommend with pride, thus 
promoting home industry; and subscribers will thank 
and honor you for it. Be cautious of recommending 
journals which you are not positive are up to the wants 
1)1 subscribers on this coast. Bear in miud, too, that .■i 
monthly journal of equal size to ours, ut $1 a year, is 
far dearer than tho Ei'ral Press at $4, with OnrUni 
issues every quarter. Get up clubs for your home paper. 
It has a greater varl- PCX IID ety of fresh and 
live reading, which Ut I Ul can be heartily ap- 
preciated liere, than PI IIDC any oth>r HOME 
AND FAIIMINO l/LUDO. JOURNAL. Its 
popularity with its readers is unsurpassed. Send for 
sample copies and rates to agents. Get up lists this 
year and you can easily renew them next. Sei' siili. 
scription rates on Sth page. Work commenced at once 
will not be regretted. DEWEY & CO., Publishers. 



FRESH GARDEN SEEDS. 

ALSO, 

Grass and Clover Seeds. 

ALFALFA. 

Trees, Plants, Roots, Etc., 

For Sale at Wholesale or Retail by 

GEO- F. SsSILVESXEK, 

No. 317 Washingiion Street, 

t^ Send for a Catalogue. 

GUANO. 

100 Barrels Guano for Sale, 

In quantities to suit purchascra. 
6vQ.ly.l6p GEO. F. SILVESTER. 



GEO. B. BAYLEY, 

Comer Sixteenth and Castro Streets, OAKLAND. 




Importer and Breeder of 
CIIOIOE POULTKY. 

Every variety of Fancy Poultry constantly on hand 
and for sale. 
Address, -with stamp, P. 0. Boi 659, San Francisco. 

Fine Imported Poultry, 

CONSISTINO OF 

Dark Brahmas, Light Brahmas, Buff 
Cochin, Patridge Cochin, and Houdans, 

Guaranteed Pure, and bred direct from the finest im- 
ported stock in America. 

EGGS 

Of the above varieties for sale carefully packed. 
Poultry Yards at San l«andro, Alameda county, Cal. 

Address W. FORD THOMAS, 

Custom House, 
lv3-3m San Francisco. 

FINE CHICKEN EGGS. 

THE UNDERSIGNED IS NOW PREPARED 
to furnish EGOS for breeding of the follow- 
ing varieties: Dark and Light Brahma; Buff 

Cochin, Partridge Ooeliin, La Fleche, Silver 

Spangled Hamburg, White Legliorn, White Face Span- 
ish, and Silver Laced Sebright liantam. 

.Ul these Chickens are imported price birds, and have 
not their superior in this state. 

Orders left at WM. BOFEK & CO.'S, filO Sacranaento 
street, can be filled immediately. A. MABQUABD, 
2v3-lm Importer a nd Breeder of Fancy Fowls. 

Cheap Fruit Trees and Plants. 

Apple Grafts on whole roots $10.00 per M. 

Pear Grafts on whole roots IH.OO per M. 

One Year Apple Grafts 40.00 per M. 

One Year St. Pear '•''•*' Per Jj- 

Wilson Strawberry Plants 2.50 per M. 

Quince and Currant Cuttings, Cheap. 
Address "WILL & OIjARK, 

ja20-lml6p Fayetteville, N. X. 

0:Xt.Y 81. OO EA-CII 

For postpaid collection of FLOWER and VEGETABLE 
SEEDS Or send stamp for Catalogue and select for 
yoOTself. SARAH H. MARTIN, 

ial3-2w Marblehead, Masg. 





Volume III.] 



SAN FRANCISCO, SATURDAY, JANUARY 27, 1872. 



[Number 4. 



Design for a Small House and Barn. 

We present herewith a design for a ueat, 
home-like farm residence, with barn, stable, 
etc., connected, and conveniently arranged, so 
as to form a pleasing and tasteful exterior. It 
may be covered with rustic, clapboards, or 
with vertical siding, and neatly battened, as 
shown in the illustration. The front entrance 
is through a neatly constructed piazza, which, 
together with the windows, may be ornamented 
according to the taste and means of the owner. 
The api^roaches to both house and barn may be 
made by gi-avelled drive ways and or- 
namented with shrubbery and flowers, 
as the taste of the proprietor may see 
fit. If there are native forest trees 
njpon the site selected, the house 
should be so set as to take the best 
advantage of thom for shade and or- 
nament. 

Keferring to the ground plan, No. 1 
is the front entry 6 feet square, open- 
ing into the parlor. No. 2, which is 

14 feet by 15, and into a bed room. 
No. 4, 12 feet by 15. No. 3 is the 
kitchen, 14 feet by 15, opening into 
a bed room, back entry and through 
a passage into the parlor. No 5 is 
the back entry, 6 feet by 16, contain- 
ing stairs to cellar and chambers. 
No. 6 is a pantry, 5 feet 6 in. by 8 
feet, opening into the yard. No. 7 is 
a store room; No 9 a scullery or back 
kitchen, 12 feet square. No. 8 is a 
porch over the rear entrance, and No. 
10 is a wood shed, connecting direct- 
ly with the barn, which is 40 feet 
scjuare and contains two horse and 
three cow stalls. 

No. 11 is a passage in the rear of 
the stalls, with an opening to throw 
manure into the pig-styes— Nos. 12 
and 13. No. 14 is a carriage room, 
with double doors opening into the yard. No. 

15 is a barn room for storage, 24 feet by 39. 
The space for hay is in the second story, which 
is well ventilated at the top, as shown. The 
stairs to the hay loft are at the side of the car- 
riage room, and under them is a harness closet . 

The second story of the house contains three 
bed rooms, with a large closet in each, besides 
a large clothes press in the entry. 

State Agbiculttjbal Society's Kepokt.— 
Wo are indebted to I. N. Hoag, Corresponding 
Secretary of State Agricultural Society, for a 
copy of the Biennial Report of the State 
Board of Agriculture for the years 1870-1. It 
is replete with information on various subjects 
connected with the Agricultural interests of 
California. Its annual fairs, land monopohes, 
immigi-ation, the fence question, forest culture, 
irrigation and -reclamation, live stock, fruits, 
and general farm products; these subjects are 
all discussed in a manner that cannot fail to 
interest the reader, and the Report, of only 28 
pages, should be in the hands of every farmer 
in California whose money has helped pay the 
State Printer for getting it out. 

Seedling Apple.— From Mr.'t). B. Shaw, of 
Sonoma, we have received liberal samples of an 
apple cultivated by him under the name of 
Cook's Seedling, it being a seedling raised by 
his friend Mr. Cook, from the seed of the Gen- 
neting. It is an apple above medium size, and 
where exposed to the sun on the tree, a pale 
yellow beautifully striped with red ; of rather a 
sharp, acid flavor; that while suiting the tastes 
of many, would not rank as a decidedly rich 
apple; though possessing to a more than usual 
degree that fullness of taste and flavor found 
in many of the Atlantic apples. It seems to 
possess excellent keeping qualities, being in 
prime eating condition at the present time, and 
gives promise of becoming a valuable acquisi- 
vion to the list of CaUfornia seedlings. 



Sackamento Faemees' Club. — We commend 
to the attention of our readers the rather volu- 
minous report of the proceedings of this club 
at their last meeting. It is full of good, prac- 
tical hints and observations on the culture of 
forest and shade trees along our highways ; the 
cultivation of special fruits and the mode of put- 
ting them upon the market. The kinds of 
fruits best adapted to particular purposes; and 
particularly the best way of drying and pre- 
serving them, will be found of peculiar interest 
to many engaged in the production and 
drying of figs and raisins. Such discussions as 



The Aetesian Wells of Santa Claea. — We 
call the attention of our readers to an interest- 
ing article on another page of this number, on 
the Artesian Wells of San Jose. There are a 
few, possibly many, who believe that the numer- 
ous wells of that valley have a tendency to 
make drier than it otherwise would be, the sur- 
face soil in that vicinitj% It is eridently the 
object of the writer of the article to show — and 
we think he does it quite clearly — that an im- 
pervious strata of clay or "hard pan," as effect- 
ually cuts off all descending moisture from the 
surface downward, as it does the water in the 




PERSPECTIVE VIEW OF A SMALL HOUSE AND BARN. 



are now weekly held by the clubs of Sac- 
ramento, San Jose and others, are, we are in- 
formed, particularly interesting to many of 
the readers of the Ruteal, who, remote from 






underground channels from ascending to the 
surface except where tapped. 

That the rising of the water in the wells to a 
hight considerably above the surface, must be 




GROUND PLAN OF HOUSE AND BARN. 



the larger centers of population, have no 
other means of arriving at or being benefitted 
by, the experience of others. Farmers' Clubs 
will please send in their reports to the Rural 
as early after their meeting as possible. 

Beet Sdoae in Ma.ssachusetts. — They are 
making beet sugar on a small scale in Massa- 
chusetts at a cost of seven cents per pound. If 
they can do this in a country where the beets 
for winter working must be kept at great ex- 
pense from severe frosts of that section for at 
least four months of winter, and whei-e it will 
be difficult to find a thousand acres of land in a 
body of the proper character for beet-growing — 
which every beet sugar making company should 
have — what may we not do here with thousands 
of acres in a place of the very best quality of 
land and needing no manure, and a climate 
that admits of leaving the entire crop in the 
field, to the hour of their being wanted at the 
sugarie ? 



owing to a head entirely independent of, and 
quite above the surface, of the valley, admits of 
no doubt. As to the supply of water running in 
independent channels, the proof of this must 
be found in the fact that wells in the immedi- 
ate vicinity of each other, force their waters to 
unequal hights above a common level. Until 
this is shown to be a fact, the theory of dinUnol 
channels, may not be entirely clear to every- 
one. 



A Stockton Oeangk Tebe. — In the garden of 
Mayor HoUlen stands an orange tree seven years 
old, which is now loaded with yellow fruit. It 
is a Pansma orange grown from the seed. It 
bore fruit when four years old; last year 
the Doctor picked about 100 full-grown oranges 
frAn its branches, and this year it is loaded 
down with fine large fruit. One acre devoted 
to the culture of the orango, is worth more than 
a whole farm for wheat growing. — Jlcpuhlican. 



Japanese Waterproof Paper. 

We have just received from the editor of the 
Awilo-Amerloan Times, 127 Strand, London, 
an immense pamphlet, containing reports on 
the manufacture of paper in Japan . Presented 
to both Houses of Parliament by command of 
Her Majesty, etc., etc., 1871. Consul Lowder 
gives an account of the manufacture of paper 
in Japan from the Paper Mulberry with num- 
erous colored illustrations, representing the 
whole process of manufacture. Also speaks of 
the Tororo, another plant, from the roots of 
which a fine quality of paper is 
made, warranted to wash ; and an oil 
paper for rain-coats, etc., and the 
process for making the glue by which 
the pieces of paper for garments 
are joined; also a hst of some thirty 
varieties of pajjer and the uses to 
which they are apiJlied. 

Consul Annesley gives a list of 54 
varieties of paper and a description 
of the shrubs Kaji, Makoso and Ka- 
jiso, and the methods employed iu 
the manufaeture of paper from their 
barks, and modes of cultivation. 
Whole pages are devoted to the dif- 
ferent processes by which waterproof 
garments, handkerchiefs, hats, rain 
umbrellas, sun umbrellas, telescopes, 
masks, lanterns, fans, hair-strin"K, 
purses, oil paper for wrapping silks, 
etc., together making an interesting 
document, which, if read by our paper 
manufacturers may lead to inquiries 
that may result in the introduction 
of some of these paper-producing 
j)lants, and possibly some ofthe pro- 
cesses by which the Japanese make so 
many thin, useful and beautiful articles of 
every-day use from paper. 

Now that the Japanese Embassy is with us, 
oompo.sed of men of intelligence, possessing a 
knowledge of their country's products and 
manufactures, and an acquaintance with men 
of nearly every trade or profession, or can com- 
mand such an acquaintance, may it not be well 
to interview Minister DeLong in behalf of our 
agricultural and manufacturing interests, that, 
if he has not already, he may yet assist us 
through some of the members of the Embassy 
to a knowledge of the plants, their introduc- 
tion and propagation, and the precise knowl- 
edge of the processes, by which many of their 
strange paper fabrics are made. 

Ceanbeeeies. — Again we hear a cotemporary 
for the hundredth time almost, telling our farm- 
ers that "we know of no other product that 
will pay better to cultivate on our swamp lands 
than the cranberry, and we hope our Sherman 
Island people will soon make the experiment." 

If they make the experiment, we hope it will 
be on a limited scale, for there is not a proba- 
bility of success. Sand, sufliciently moist and 
with as little vegetable mold as possible inter- 
mixed, is the soil for crauben-ies, and any at- 
tempt to grow them on our tule lauds, sufficiently 
rich to grow a crop of weeds, would be wasted. 
"The meadows of Cape Cod," whei-e cranber- 
ries are grown, yielding from $500 to $1,500 
per acre, are meadows that have a surface coat- 
ing of from four to eight inches of clean sand; 
if our tulc lands have this, they arc adapted to 
the growth of the cranberry. 

Ballooning. — During the Seige of Pai-is, 
sixty-four balloons left the city — of this number 
five only were captured by the Prussians, two 
were lost at sea, and all the rest (57), were 
successful . 



50 



[January 27, 1872. 



CORRESPONDENCE. 



Raisin Grapes. 

Editors Pkess:— I read in your paper 
of Dec. 16tli a letter and its answer on 
llaisin Culture. I have been experiment- 
ing for tlie last lew years in drying and 
putting up raisins. I think this valley 
well udaj)ted to raisin oiilture. The at- 
mosphere is very dry, and temperature 
equal during the summer and fall. I 
gather the grapes in September, and place 
them on scaffolds in the sun to dry. After 
they are partly drj', s.ay in two we(;ks, 1 
put them in tlie shade (under cover) to 
Huish drying. I find that if left in the 
sun until dry enough to box, some will 
get too dry and become hard; but that by 
partly drying in the shade tliej- are much 
better. 

The Muscat of Alexandria makes the best 
raisin here, but does not produce as much 
as some other kinds. The average yield 
being about ten pounds to the vine; but 
they dry away less than any other va- 
riety, two pounds green making one dry. 

The White Malaga is probably the nest 
best variety. I have none of them in 
bearing, but saw some put up by Mr. 
Myers in this valley that were very tine. 

The other varieties I have tried are the 
Bowker — a large white grape which makes 
an excellent raisin; Kose of Peru (ijurple) ; 
Fiber Zagos (white), and Flame Tokay, 
(large but inferior.) 

The last four varieties will average at 
least twenty pounds to the vine, and will 
take three pounds of grapes to make one 
of raisins. I send j'ou with this a box 
containing five varieties, namely: Muscat 
of Alexandria, Bowker, Rose of Peru, 
Fiber Zagos and Flame Tokay. 

F. G. Jefferds. 

Farmersville, Tulare Co., Dec. 29, 1871. 

Receiteb. — The box containing the five 
varieties of raisins came duly to hand. 
We give the Bowker the preference though 
there is little to choose between it and the 
Muscat of Alexandria. The whole five 
varieties would bo called good raisins in 
any market, and go to prove that our 
grape growers have only to determine that 
they will produce raisins, and then with a 
few years experience in selecting those 
grapes that seem best adajjted to their 
particular locality, and we need not go 
outside of our own State for a supply 
equal to our demands, and that of the 
great non-grape growing region of the in- 
terior. 

We shall keep the specimens presented 
us, in our editorial rooms for the inspec- 
tion of any w^ho may may feel interested in 
the growing of California raisins; and if 
any person has been as successful as our 
Tulare county correspondent, in the pro- 
duction of an unexceptionable raisin, we 
would not object to having a small box of 
them sent us just for compaiison. 

Benefits From Overflow. 

Editors Press : — Since our poojjle, 
whose premises were flooded along the 
banks of the Guadalupe and Los Gutos, 
have cleared away the drift and put things 
to rights, they have discovered that the 
overflow of the lands was a positive benefit. 
Orchards, vineyards and gardens which 
were merely submerged, have been en- 
riched by alluvium and the gi-ound so 
thoroughly moistened that they are thriv- 
ing prodigiously. In addition to this, 
that indomitable little nuisance, the go- 
pher, has been utterly extinguished in the 
wet localities. The destruction of these 
pests is a matter of special gratification to 
Mr. James Lick, whose rare plants and 
trees have been for years a constant prey 
to the pesky vermin. 

Since the late rain-storm, the weather 
has been bright and pleasant, and you can 
rest assured that our farmers are imi)rov- 
ing each shining hour. Some idea may 
be formed of the attention which is being 
given to plowing and sowing when it is 
stated th .t there were scarcely farmers 
enough present at the Farmers' Club, last 
Saturday, to form a quorum, and the usual 
debate and other e-x.ercises announced to 
take place in this popular society, had to 
be postponed. 

Dr. Lucky's lecture before the club was 



deferred until a week from next Saturday. 
The Trustees of the Santa Clara Valley 
Agricultural Society have not yet made a 
final award of the Fair Grounds and race- 
track; but have taken the matter under 
advisement until a future meeting to be 
called by the chairman. As you are aware, 
this society owns one of the finest tracts in 
this vicinity, and it is gratifying to citi- 
zens of San Jose and Santa Clara to know- 
that immediate steps are to be taken to 
embellish and beatitify the premises. 
San Jose, Jan. '20, 1872. s. 



Evergreen Tree Culture. 

Read Before the Farmers' Club, of Sacramento, 
January 13tf), by E. F. Aiken. 

[A press of other matter compels us to omit 
two or three of the less imiiortant paragrnphs 
of this valuable essay.] 

The evergreen, we all know, is a tree that has 
a perpetually gieen and living foliage. Some 
varieties have upright, neetUe-like leaves, while 
others have a broad and drooping foliage. The 
first mentioned are all of the cone-bearing fam- 
ily, or conifers, and this name they get from 
the form of the fruit wliich contains the seed, 
and not from the general habit of the tree, as 
some sujjpose. The seed of this class is the 
iiiost minute and delicate of all our forest 
tree seeds, and it is well known that they will 
not grow in their natural state, only under pecu- 
liar circumstunces and in certain locations, 
where the 'atmosphere is humid, and to that ox- 
tent that the seed will not fail to genninate and 
the seedlings grow readily. 

The seedhugs are found in their natural 
state oidy in the depths of the forests, in cool 
and shady places, where the searching winds 
and the fierce and scalding rays of the sun can- 
not penetrate. The first year of their existence 
they are exceedingly delicate, a strong ray of 
sunlight or gust of wind often destroying the 
vitality of thousands. Hence we are taught 
by Nature the uncertainty of successfully 
growing evergreen trees from seed in our dry 
climate. It has required years of patient toil 
by experienced nurserymen, using every pre- 
caution known, and gathered bj- long enjeri- 
ence, together witli the great advantage of 
the humid atmosphere bordering our great 
lakes, to raise the seedlings successfully. 
They are now raised in l^rge quantities by par- 
ties in the East who make the business a spe- 
cialty, and can be imported here through the 
mails, at so little cost as to come within the 
means of all. 

The whole family of evergreen and cone- 
bearing trees of our forests are valuble for tim- 
ber, and are used to a greater or less extent, as 
regards their adaptability to the dift'crfut 
branches of mecliauical .business. There are 
very few of all the numerous branches of me- 
chanical business but what are more or less 
dependent iqjon wood as their material for 
manufacturing. How much more material is 
used that is derived from the evergreen and 
cone-bearing trees as compaied with that origi- 
nating from deciduous trees, I will not presume 
to say. We all know from experience and obser- 
vation that the former is vastly in excess of the 
lattei, and I believe it would be safe to say that 
seven-eighths of all the wood made into lumber 
and consumed in other ways is the product of 
this class of trees. 

The white pine, Scotch pine, red pine, and 
Xorway spruce, which I give you, as 1 think, 
in the order of their respective merits, are 
■.vithout doubt the most valuable sorts of this 
class for extensive and general planting, retain- 
mg their foliage as they do through the winter, 
when deciduous trees are leafless. As trees for 
shelter for stock on the farm, as windbreaks for 
our orchards, vineyards and grain fields, or as 
ornaments to beautify our homes, they cannot 
be excelled by any and have but few equals 
among deciduous trees in a commercial point of 
value. They are easily transplanted (whih: 
young) from the nursery and of thrifty and 
lapid giowth, rciiuiring niiuh less 'moisture in 
the soil, and will Hourish over a wider range of 
climate aud accomodate themselves to a greater 
variety of soils than most deciduous trees. 
They grow well on uplands, hill sides, and on 
sandy and unproductive soils, and I believe lire 
well adapted for extensive cultivation on our 
treeless plains throughout the State. 

That these broad plains are wholly devoid of 
evergreen trees now is no argument against 
the rajjid and successful growth of evergreen 
forests if once established by the hand of man. 
Aud I would here urge upon our farmers the 
necessity of making a beginning of forest tree 
planting, even if it be but a few hundred trees. 
Start them in nursery form if not prepared to 
plant them otherwise; plant seeds of the black 
walnut and locust, cuttings of the poplar, Cot- 
tonwood 'and white willow, if you cannot pro- 
cure seedlings of a better class of trees. They 
will grow and make shelter, and break winds, 
for the better trees to come after — but iilaut 
as many as possible of the sorts before men- 
tioned, including the European larch. The 
last mentioned, though classed among the con- 
ifers, is not an evergreen, as it sheds its foliage 
in the fall. It has for several years been 
planted more extensively in Europe than all 
other trees combined, and is now taking the lead 
of all others among the planters of the Atlantic 
States. 

The cone-bearing family of forest trees com- 
prises some of the most valuable kinds of tim- 
ber trees known, and there is no one variety 
of wood that is so extensively used in the great 



and increasing demands of civilization as the 
pine. It is rightly named the "king of the ev- 
ergreen forest." Immense forests of pine were 
formerly found throughout the northern por- 
tions of the United States, from Maine to Ore- 
gon, but now large forests of the old growth east 
of the Eock Mountains are rare. In the old 
State of Maine, once so famous for her vast for- 
ests of pine, and great foreign lumber trade, 
there are to be found but few of the original 
growth standing, and as a substitute for pine, 
hemlock and spruce are now extensively used, 
and in nearly aU of the older States the scarcity 
of pine is severely felt. 

Arthur Bryant, in his new work on " Forest 
Trees," says: "The State of New York, which 
not many years since exported great quantities 
of pine lumber, now oV)tai)is a snpjdy for home 
coustimi)tion from abroad, and it may be safely 
estimated that twft-thinls of the full-grown tini- 
ber in Northern Illinois, has been destroyed 
within the past eighteen years." With the rav- 
ages of tires thj»t have rec^ently sw cpt through 
the timbered portions of our Northwestern 
States, and the increased demand for lumber 
consequent upon the rapid increase of popula- 
tion, the home supply for the future dt niaiuls 
of civilzatiou will soon be practically ex- 
hausted. 

Large tracts of the best timbered lands of our 
State within a few years past have been monop- 
olized liy stock companies as speculators and 
passed into the hands of railroad corporations 
as subsidies, and this c;oncentration of our 
great'.forests of timber in the hands of men 
who have no consideration but the mighty dol- 
lar to be coined out of them, must surely and 
speedily enchance the price of lumber. It is to 
be hoped there will be, during the present ses- 
sion of the Legislature, some systematic plan 
devised which will bring about extensive and 
wide-spread experiments in the ditierent meth- 
ods of forest tre(^ culture in all its diffennt 
branches and forms throughout the State. 
There is no question concerning our future 
prosperity as a State which will come before it 
more important or more necosarry for its imme- 
diate action and fostering care than this. No 
eflorts of private individuals will serve to so 
forcibly impress upon those engaged in agri- 
cultural pursuits the importance of extensively 
planting out forest trees as to have our Legis- 
lature take some action worthy of an interest 
of such vast importance to our State. 



Home Products. 



Our grape growers and orcliardists are 
gradually lessening the importation of 
many varieties of the more valuable 
fruits, nuts, etc., that formerly made no 
small item of our imports, though it 
will be many years before we shall be able 
to furnish the great- interior basin of our 
continent with a moiety of its demands, 
without large importations from foreign 
countries. The Commercial Herald com- 
menting on this subject, says: 

Our direct Malaga trade, which for sev- 
eral years past has been of considerable 
importance to this port, seems to have do- 
parted; the charm of importing entire car- 
goes of raisins, etc. , being dispelled by the 
continental railroad, cutting up, as it 
were, the wholesale importing trade in 
fruit, which heretofore required at least 
two or more full cargoes. Again, in past 
years, cargo sales of raisins w-ere in order, 
either through a broker or auction, but 
now this impotant traffic has, like some 
other branches, dwindled into insignifi- 
cance, and we fear, never to be reinstated. We 
say fear, as it is hardly probable that w-o 
will, in less than ten years time be en- 
abled to raise and prepare for market a 
suflBciency of the native i)roduct to meet 
the wants of this coast; but the time is jiot 
far distant when we will produce raiidns, 
figs, almonds, English walnuts, etc., in 
great abundance, as we do now oranges, 
lemons, etc. As for figs, our growers 
have much to learn regarding the prO})er 
mode of drying in order to compete with 
imported supplies; so, also, in regard to 
prunes, and other dried fruits. 

The market is now temporarily supplied 
with dried apples, peaches, plums, apri- 
cots, etc.; but the consumption of the first 
named article is so large on this coast that 
it is probable, as in the past year, and 
heretofore, more or less will Ite drawn 
from the Atlantic States — and why ? sim- 
ply because growers on this coast will not 
take the time or trouble to dry the fruit 
for market. We continuo to import con- 
siderable supplies of Zante currants, 
Hungarian prunes in casks ; also French 
2)runes in glass and tin. From the East 
we have received by rail, the past 
few months, the bulk of 3,000 bbls. cran- 
berries; ruling from $17 down to §13.50 
per bbl., for those in prime condition. 

In 1871 twenty-nine vessels arrived here 
from Tahiti, with 5,120,000 oranges, 106,- 
000 cocoanuts, against 3,920,000 oranges, 
93,250 cocoanuts, for the corresponding 
time of 1870, besides 500,000 oranges from 
Mexican ports. Besides this, our native 



product from Los Angeles County, for the 
season, extending from December to June, 
was 1,535,000 oranges, and 228,000 lemons; 
also pomegranates, citnm, walnuts, etc. 
The new crop of California oranges is now 
arriving from the lower coast counties, and 
promises a considerable increase over past 
years. In addition to the above we receive 
from the Hawaiian Island a few oranges, 
and considerable quantities of banana.s, 
cocoanuts, and other tropical fruits. 

A0BICUI.TURAI, IxiriiEMENTB IN Califor- 
nia. — The business in this departniunt has 
essentially changed hands within the past 
five years — it is less concentrated, several 
of the largest houses having retired from 
the trallic, and the trade more cut up than 
hurfitofore ; bc-'ides, now tho bulk of the 
goods come via. rail, direct from tho man- 
ufacturers in Chicago aud other cities of 
the plains. Extreme higli prices no longer 
rule, as dealers can now order goods by 
the car load, and are received, in due 
course, in short time, not requiring large 
capital, as heretofore, in bringing heavy 
stocks from the East in a six months' voy- 
age. The old stock of implements, horse- 
power, etc., will no doubt find a market 
this season, as there is every reason to ex- 
pect largo crops— business of all kinds will 
bo increa.sed on this coast from this cause 
— merchants and business men generally 
hoping now to retrieve past losses oc- 
casioned by the last two years of drouth. 
Eastern farm wagons are now largely used 
on this coast ; being made where lumber 
is cheap and wages low. — Com. Herald. 

Our Imports for 1870-71. 

At least once a year every farmer, manu- 
facturer andmerchant should have brought 
to his mind the fact, that the people of 
the United States are still enormous im- 
porters of a great many articles that we" 
ought to be the producers and exporters. 
That we should pay annually for wool and 
manufactures of wool and worsteds, the 
large amount of 852,760 068.37, seems in- 
credible, and yet this is but a single item 
among many that drain us of an enormous 
amount of our specie wealth, the aggre- 
gate of which is but little short of §520,- 
000,000. 

Theannual report of theChief of the Bu- 
reau of Statistic3 on Commerce and Navi- 
gation gives tho total value of the foreign 
merchandise imported aud entering into 
consumption in the United States for thefis- 
cal year ending June 30,1871, at ^518,759,- 
518.32, upon which the aggregate duties 
amounted to $202,446,073.32. Of these im- 
portations merchandise to the value of 
??340,938,407 was received at New- York, 
paying ;5139,2-26,299.17 in duties. 

Among the principal articles of foreign 
production entering into consumption in 
this country are manufactures of cotton 
to the value of ;!?20,587,9U4.71, paying du- 
ties to the amount of if 10, 773, 832. 4b; silk, 
manufactured and unmanufactured, $31,- 
086,252.02, paying §17,965,819.85; wool 
and manufactures of wool and worsted, 
852,766,068.37, paying 833,539,475.93; flax, 
linens, etc., 819, 235, 959. .55, paying 86, 475,- 
953.72; hides and skins, 813,431,781.27, 
paying .81,343,178.14; leather, manufac- 
tured and unmanufactured, 810,522,135.34, 
paying 83,839,679.50; tea, 811,274,488.67, 
paying $8,322,994.67; coffee, 829,428,698.- 
27, paying 810,969,098.77; sugar confec- 
tionery, cane juice aud molasses, 870,802,- 
398.69, paying 832,585,120.16; spirits and 
wines, 87,831,272.96, -paying 88,432,078 — 
duties amounting to 8600,S()5.31 more than 
the value of the goods, iron and steel, 
manufactured and unmanufactured, 843,- 
256,119.68, paying 818,658,683.95 to the 
revenue of the United Stales. 

It will probably surprise a good many 
people in this country, and would as- 
tonish more in Europe, to learn that 
boards, plank aud scantling to the value 
of 86,555,192, have been imported into the 
United States during the year, to say noth- 
ing of several hundred thousand dollars 
worth of rough timber, and over 8200, OUO 
w-orth of firo wood. 



Woman's Inferiobitt. — Prof. Fowler 
in his late lecture in tins city asserted 
among other things as evidence of the in- 
eligibility of woman's claims to equality 
with man, that she had never invented 
anything, and was but an indifferent poet, 
and had never produced a national hymn. 
A cotcniporary in alluding to this prejios- 
terous assertion respectfullv asks: — ",Did 
he never read the book entitled the 'In- 
ventions of Woman ?' Did he never hear 
of the ' Battle Hymn of the Republic ?' " 



January 27, 1872.] 



Ki 



ECHANICAL 



5|fR0GRESS. 



Titanic Iron and Steel. 

Considerable attention was drawn, three 
or iour years since, to the manufacture of 
a very superior iron made from an 
admixture of titanic iron ore, with other 
more common ores of iron. Numerous 
experiments were made in this direction 
in the production ef the mixed iron as 
above, of iron from the titanic ore exclu- 
sively, and of a steel, the latter more gen- 
erally known as " Mushet's Special Steel." 
Extensive works were put up in England 
for the manufacture of tliese superior qual- 
ities of iron and steel, but the difficulties 
encountei-ed in the reduction of the titanic 
ores (or sands as they generally occur) 
seem for a while to have operated as an ef- 
fectual discoTiragment to the expenditure 
of money for this purpose by capitalists. 

We have lately, however, seen some ev- 
idences of a renewal of efforts in this direc- 
tion, by a new company, located at Shef- 
field. This movement, according to En- 
gineering, appears to have resulted from 
the successful persistency with which Mr. 
Mushet has advocated the use of titanium 
in the production of high class iron and 
steel. The extraordinary strength and 
toughness of Mr. Mushet's titanic steel as 
shown b,y Dr. Fairbairn's experiments, was 
the subject of remark in these columns at 
the time of those experiments being made 
public. "More recently" says the journal 
above named, " we gave from personal ob- 
servation some particulars of the remarka- 
ble properties of Mr. Mushet's new non- 
hardening special steel. Now that the 
manufacture of these steels has passed into 
the hands of Messrs. Samuel Osborn and 
Co., they will doubtless be still more ex- 
tensively used. When speaking some time 
ago of the non-hardening special steel, we 
directed attention to its endurance when 
used for tools in machines driven at liigher 
speeds than usual, and, at the present time, 
when with the shorter hours of labor it has 
become more than ever an object with en- 
gineers to get as much work out of their 
lathes and planing machines as they can in 
the shortest space of time, this point is 
v/orthy of notice." 

In view of the growing importance which 
must soon attach to this description of iron 
ores by means of its peculiar adaptability 
to the manufacture of steel, and its almost 
entire freedom from sulphur and phos- 
phorus, it may be interesting to know, that 
while English ironmasters are thus far al- 
most entirely dependent upon the distant 
island of New Zealand for their supply, 
they occur abundantly in the United States. 

The principal deposits of titaniferous 
iron ores in this country are in Northern 
New York, Missouri, Tennessee, North 
Carolina, Virginia, and Maryland. 

The deposits in the northwestern part 
of North Carolina, owned or controlled by 
a Philadelphia comjaany, have been found 
by a recent survey to extend in almost a 
continuous line for over 300 miles. The 
deposits, which affects the form of a nearly 
vertical vein, has a thickness of from 4 to 
10 ft. The i^er cent, of titanic acid varies, 
but is about 10 on an average. The sup- 
ply of ore may be considered as inexhaus- 
tible, and charcoal is abundant every- 
where. Bituminous coal-tields will be 
soon reached by projected railroads. 

Titanic iron ore in the form of sand is 
found on the ocean beach to the westward 
of this city (San Erancisco) , and a com- 
pany was organized some few years since 
to take up and work this deposit. 

The Ibon Interest of the United 
States — Effect of Free Trade Ufon It. 
Kluei^fel, a German writer of much dis- 
tinction, and well versed in the iron trade, 
has written a carefully considered series 
of articles for a German jjeriodical, in 
which the conclusions arrived at are, that 
if the present tariff were done away with 
and free trade substituted; 1st, the pro- 
duction of cheap pig metal of inferior 
quality would be imijossiblo east of the 
Alleghanies, owing to the lack of cheap 
ores and the cheapness with which the 
metal could be obtained from England. 
Besides, the production of malleable iron 
would only be jsossiblo to a slight extent, 
owing to the cost of coal. On the other 
hand, the production of a large amount of 
foundry iron, as well as forge pig, 
might be possible. The foundry iron 
could be used in the vicinity of the 
the works, while the forge pig could be 
sold to the Pittsburg, etc., rolling mills. 
2d, it would be impossible to produce con- 
siderable amounts of pig metal in West- 
ern Pennsylvania, owing to the lack of ore. 
On the other hand the production of 



wrought iron and cast steel from pig metal 
imported from other places could be done 
on a large scale. 3d. The same conditions 
would be true for Northern Ohio as for 
Westo n Pennsylvania, while it is probable 
that a small district exists in Southern 
Ohio where blast furnaces and rolling 
mills could be profitably worked. 4th. 
The production of all kinds of pig metal 
could be carried on profitably in Michi- 
gan, Wisconsin, and the other States bor- 
dering on the Great Lakes. 5th. The 
same is true of Eastern Missouri. 



iCiENTiFic Progress. 



Fire-Proof Buildings. 

The Providence Journal publishes the 
following extract of a letter from the Sculp- 
tor Powers to a friend in Rhode Island. 
It furnishes some valuable and timely hints 
with regard to the construction of fire- 
proof buildings: — 

But it may be asked, "Is it possible to 
make a city fire-proof?" I answer, yes, 
and without any great extra expense. To 
prove this, I have only to say that although 
there have been frequent fires in the city 
of Florence during the thirty- four years 
of my residence in it, not one house has 
been consumed, except a theatre, and that 
was not entirely destroyed. Eooms, full 
of goods, have been heated like ovens by 
ignited calicoes, straw hats, etc., but as 
the floors above and below were all cov- 
ered by thin brick tiles, the goods burned 
without ventilation. And as there was no 
flame, a smell like that of a coal pit soon 
gave the alarm, and the fire was soon ex- 
tinguished by no other engine than a 
squirt holding about a gallon, which dis- 
charged a well-directed stream through 
some aperture. I once beheld some fire- 
men marching to a fire in Florence. First 
were three men with jaicks, next four men 
with'biickets, then three men with highly 
polished brass squirts on their shoulders ; 
all marching with an air of pomp and im- 
2:)ortance! The fire was at the residence 
of Mr. Clevenger, the American sculj^tor, 
and had been burning 24 hours on the end 
of a joist just under his tire-place. He had 
smelt something like a coal-pit for some 
time, and at length perceived smoke rising 
from the brick floor. On going below he 
found the room full of smoke, and a rush- 
bottomed chair just under the joist was 
partially consumed. But the joist was 
not yet burned off, and why ? Because the 
tire was bricked down. It could not rise 
and burst into flames. 

The secret of fire-proof building, then, 
is this: It must be made impossible for 
the flames to pass through the floors or up 
the stairway. If you will have wood floors 
and stairs, lay a flooring of the thickest 
sheet-iron over the joists, and your wood 
upon that; and sheath the stairs with the 
same material. A floor will not burn with- 
out a supply of air under it. Throw a dry 
board upon a perfectly- flat pavement and 
kindle it as it lies if you can. You may 
make a fire upon it and in time consume 
it, but it will require a long time. Pre- 
vent drafts, and though there will still be 
fires, no houses will be consumed. The 
combustion will go on so slowly that dis- 
covery is certain in time to prevent any 
great calamity. But the roofs, how about 
them? Slate or tiles? Zinc melts too 
easily. I believe that hard burned tiles, 
if flat, would stand the frost at home; and 
if so, they constitute the best roofing. My 
house has no joists. All the floors are of 
tiles resting on arches. One of these arches 
was made over a room twenty-five feet 
square, by four men in four days. The 
brick are about one and one-half inches 
thick, and laid edgewise, with plaster of 
Paris. There was no framework ijrejjared 
to lay them on unless you would so term 
four bits of wood which a man could carry 
under his arm. And yet this arch is so 
strong as to be perfectly safe with a large 
dancing party on it. I never have heard 
of one of those floors falling, and they are 
absolutely fire-proof. Of course light 
arches like these would not do for ware- 
houses. It would pay, I think, to send 
out here for an Italian brick-mason who 
knows how to build these thin but strong 
arches for dwelling houses. I know that 
there is a prejudice at home against brick 
or composition floors. "Too cold in win- 
ter," it is said. And so they are, if bare, 
but cover them with several thicknesses of 
paper and then carpet them, and no one 
can discover the slighest difference be- 
tween their temperature and that of wood 
floors. Who doubts this let him try the 
experiment with the feet of the thermome- 
ter. The truth is that the brick of com- 
position floor is no bolder in itself than 
the wood — the thermometer attests this — 
but it is a better conductor. I do not in- 
sure my house, as I know that it is not 
combustible. 



A Substitute for the Spectroscope. 

E. Lommel has devised three very sim- 
ple instruments called the erythophytoscope, 
the erytltroscope , and the inelanoscope, 
which can be advantageously used, instead 
of the spectroscope, tor the detection of 
substances by their colors and colored 
flames. Two colored plates of cobalt blue 
and dark yellow oxide of iron glass are 
laid upon each other, and, by inserting 
them in black pasteboard, with a slit for 
the nose, something like a pair of specta- 
cles is made of them. The combined 
glasses are only transparent for the ultra 
red, for yellow green, for blue green and 
blue rays; and tiiey cut off all other colors. 
Substances, known to possess these colors 
or to impart them to the flame of a spirit 
lamp or Bunsen burner, can be detected by 
viewing them througn such spectacles. 
The erythroscope consists of a cobalt glass 
and ruby glass, which only admits the ul- 
tra red, beyond Fraunhofer's line B, to 
pass. The third combination, called the 
melansocope, consists of a dark red and clear 
violet glass which only allows the middle 
red tints to pass. Anyone who possesses 
the facility of alternately using the right 
and left eye, could employ two combina- 
tions at once and thus cover nearly the 
whole length of the spectrum. For the 
use of students in laboatories, we should 
think that the simple arrangement describ- 
ed above could be frequently employed 
to advantage for the detection and separa- 
tion of a large class of bodies which give 
characteristic colors to flames; and, by 
practice, the learner would soon be able 
to assign the true position to each color 
nearly as well as if he used the scale usu- 
ally attached to the spectroscope. 

Olive Oil as a Purifier of Carbonic Acid. 

In the manufacture of carbonic acid for 
mineral waters and soda fountains, in con- 
sequence of impurities in the limestone 
employed for the evolution of gas, certain 
disagreeable emf)yreumatic oils and offen- 
sively tasting gases are ajjt to go over; and, 
unless sejjarated in soine way, they will 
impart an unpleaant flavor to the mineral 
water. To obviate this difficulty, E. 
Pfeiffer suggests saturating pumice stone 
with olive oil, and passing ttie gases 
through it in the usual way. The oil ab- 
sorbs the bad gases, and can be regenera- 
ted for subsequent use by heating it to 
expel the absorbed impurities. After be- 
coming quite impure, it is still suitable 
for the manufacture of blacking or for ap- 
plicaton as a lubricator. It is said that 
Mallett employed this method to absorb 
the hydrocarbon products in his process 
of obtaining ammonia directly from coal tar. 
As much of our limestone contains organic 
matter, which gives a peculiar smell to 
carbonic acid made from it, this method 
of jDurifying the gas by passing it through 
olive oil is worthy of trial. 

To Deodorize Kerosene Oiij. — The 
odor of a substance is in most cases adhe- 
rent, like color or any other physical prop- 
erty, and not accidental or extraneous. 
Where, as in the case of kerosene oil or 
the lighter petroleum na^jhthas, the sub- 
stance is a mixture of many constituents, 
it is difficult to decide which of them is 
the objectionable one, and so long as this 
has not been determined, we can devise no 
rules for getting rid of it, or for destroy- 
ing it in any other way. Practically, 
therefore, we are unable to deodorize the 
products, and especially the lighter ones 
of the distillation of j)etroleum; but we 
may conceal them in the same way as for- 
merly the disagreeable odors incidental to 
sick rooms and even to ordinary apartments 
were hidden by the liberal use of strong 
smelling liquids or the fumes of incense. 
The best adapted fluid for this purpose is, 
perhaps, the artificial oil of bitter almonds 
or mirbane oil; a little of it will go a great 
way in disguising the odor of petroleum 
effectually, and as it has a very high boiling 
point, it will accomplish its purpose most 
durably. — Druggist's Circular. 

Separating Fibres. — In a recent num- 
ber of the Moniteur Scientijique a paper was 
contributed by Dr. E. Kopp, on the 
"Means of Detecting and Separating Silk, 
Wool, and Vegetable Fibres from each 
other" by hydrochloric acid. The prac- 
tical bearing of this discovery was exempli- 
fied by the immersion of several so-called 
pure silk ribbons and other fabrics in the 
acid, when the silk was dissolved, leaving 
the adulterated material intact. Somewhat 
similar experiments weie made last year 
by Mr. John Spiller. 



Recent Progress in Chemistry. 



I wonder what Sia.' Humphrey Davy 
would have said to any one who talked 
about stellar chemisti-y. That great man, 
in ridiculing the idea of lighting London 
with gas, triumphantly asked the fanatics 
who proposed such a wild scheme, whether 
the dome of St. Paul's was to be the gas- 
ometer? Yet we cannot imagine Regent 
street illuminated, or rather darkened, 
with dips again, and to us stellar chemis- 
try has a real meaning. Who will venture 
to bound a science which reaches far away 
through space, and with unerring accu- 
racy tells us the composition of distant 
worlds and distant suns? What can be 
more humiliating to our small intelligences 
than the reflection that a distant star will 
photograph its spectrum on a sensitive 
surface with the ray of light that left it 
when the oldest man in this room was a 
boy ? What would the great father of Brit- 
ish chemisty have said, had he stood in the 
lecture room of the Royal Institution, 
where his great discoveries were made, and 
seen the burning hydrogen extracted by 
our great countryman Graham, from a 
meteorite, the heat and light of another 
world; or could he look with Lockyer on 
the burning flames of hydrogen, which 
dart up from the sun to a hight of 50,000 
miles, or could he read the flashing tele- 
grams which run so rapidly round our 
world, that all our notions of time are 
completely upset, and we actually receive 
intelligence to-day which was sent to-mor- 
row ? Excuse the apparent absurdity; it 
only shows how powerless language is to 
keep up with human progress. Had he 
lived with us, he would have seen a lai-go 
city dependent entirely for its communica- 
tion with the outer world by a marvellous 
kind of photography, so minute that it en- 
abled a pigeon to carry a proof sheet of 
the Times under its wing. — E. G. G. Stan- 
ford. 

Determination of Sulphur and Phospho- 
rus in Iron. — Thepresenceof theleast trace 
of phosphorus and sulphur in iron will de- 
stroy it for many purposes, and a correct 
and easy way of detecting these substances 
is therefore of importance. K. Meineke dis- 
solves the finely pulverized iron in chloride 
of copper, separates the reduced copper by 
ti'eatment with an excess of chloride of cop- 
per and common salt, filters through a layer 
of asbestos, brings the insoluble portion ad- 
her ing to the asbestos into a breaker glass 
and oxidizes by strong nitric acid and chlo- 
rate of potash; then he evaporates with hy- 
dro(!hloric acid and determines the sulphur 
by baryta, as sulphate, and the phosphorus 
by molybdic acid in the usual way. The 
novelty of this method is in tbe substitu- 
tion of chloride of copper for the chloride 
of iron employed by other chemists, and 
its advantages are said to be in the greater 
facility with which the various liquids and 
solutions can be filtered. It also yields 
more accurate results than the former 
methods. 



A New Liquid Fire. — Guyot says tliat 
when bromine and flowers of sulphur in 
excess are mixed together in a close ves- 
sel, and filtered through asbestos, a red- 
dish, oily fuming liquid, hyposulphurous 
bromide, SBr2, is obtained. When treated 
with ammonia, it soon begins to boil vio- 
lently, evolving copious white thick fumes. 
The same action takes place when the bro- 
mide is mixed with carbon disulphide, but 
the heat evolved is not sufficient to in- 
flame the CSo, unless a fragment of phos- 
phorous be previously dissolved in it. A 
liquid made of this mixture, and contain- 
ing phosphorus, the author proposes to 
call "the new Lorraine fire." Rectified 
petroleum may be substitutec' for the di- 
sulphide. 

Magnetism. — A. Casin, after describing 
a new method of measuring magnetism, 
(the method not given in the journal before 
us ) , gives the following law for the mag- 
netism of electro-magne;s: " When the 
core of iron fills exactly the coil of an 
electro magnet, the quantity of magnetism 
is independent of those parts of the core 
which are beyond this coil." 

A New Process. — Comtes Rendus con- 
tains a posthumous paper by E. L. Rivot, 
for a new process for treating gold and 
silver ores, the main feature of which 
consists in causing the steam to act at a 
high temperature on the mineral sul- 
phides. 

Cleaning Glass Vessels, which have 
contained petroleum, may, be effected by 
milk of lime, which forms an emulsion 
with petroleum, and by chloride of lime, 
which destroys the smell. 



52 



[January 27, 1872. 



The Fluke-Rot in Sheep. 



In our issue of Dec. 16th, wc published 
a communication from James H. Shortridge, of 
Cottage Grove, Lane Co., Oregon, giving an 
account of a disease \\hich has been doing 
much mischief among the flocks in his neigh- 
borhood during the past season. He says that 
the cause of the disease is leeches in the 
liver, and asks how they get to that organ. The 
sheep aifected were such as had fed on low 
ground, and drank from stagnant pools. 
The Name and Extent of the Disease. 

There can be little doubt that this is the 
disease commonly ktown as the "rot," or to 
distinguish it from the " foot-rot," the " fluko- 
rot," or " water-rot." Probably no malady is 
more wide-spread or destructive among sheep, 
although from the peculiarities of our climate, 
California may have been singularly free from 
it. Youatt in his [excellent work on sheep, in 
speaking of its ravages in Great Britain, says: 
" So far as the author has been enabled to as- 
certain, more than one million of sheep and 
lambs die in "every year from this disease. In 
the winter of 1830-1 this number was far more 
than doubled; and had the pestilence committed 
the same ravages throughout the kingdom 
which it did in a few of the midland, eastern, 
and southern counties, the breed of sheep 
would have been in a manner extirpated." He 
also speaks of its terrible effects in Europe, 
from Norway to the southern part of Spain ; in 
North America, Van Diemaus' Land and Aus- 
tralia. In the winter of 1809 scarcely a Merino 
escaped from it in all France. Although this 
disease attracts most attention when it takes 
the form of an epidemic, still large numbers of 
sheep die in ordinary years in those districts 
which are subject to it. 

Where Most Likeiy to Occur. 

It has been noticed from early times that cer- 
tain localities seemed to be infected with the 
disease, and often to such an extent that if 
sheep were allowed to feed but a few hours 
they were sure to have the rot. In general, the 
pastures to bo avoided are such as are marshy, 
particularly if there are stagnant pools in them. 
Wet alone is not sufficient to cause the disease, 
for in time of freshets, when obliged to w^ade 
for food, sheep often do well, and show no 
signs of rot afterwards. When the w^ater sub- 
sides, and before the ground becomes dry, 
there is great danger of mischief. In very wet 
seasons upland pastures, which are usually dry 
and free from rot, often prove as bad as any 
marsh. Sometimes the mischief may be traced 
to some pond-hole or small marshy spot which 
has been left nndiained, and considered of 
small consequence. An English farmer whose 
flock occasionally suffered from the rot, al- 
though they fed on dry hilly lands, finally 
suspected that the cause of the mischief was a 
swampy pond to which they had access. He 
therefore fenced in the wet place so that the 
sheep could not reach it, and the rot entirely 

ceased. 

Symptoms. 
Those who are not familiar with this disease 
would not be likely to suspect its presence be- 
fore it had made considerable progress, but 
those who have had experience soon detect it by 
symptoms that are not easily mistaken. When 
first attacked the animal appears dull and 
sleepy, and has not a good appetite. The skin, 
especially about the brisket, loses its natural 
color and becomes yellowish. The white of 
the eye looks paler than in health, the veins 
being filled with a yellowish fluid instead of 
red blood, and the gland at the corner of the 
eye also becomes yellow. As the disease pro- 
gresses, the veins of the eye become darker, 
sometimes quite brown; showing that bile is 
mixed with the blood. The membranes of the 
nose and tongue become livid, and the breath 
is very offensive. The bowels are irregular, 
and there is much fever. The skin becomes 
loose and flabby and crackles when pressed, 
and often black or dark yellow spots appear 
upon it. The wool comes off easilj-. The belly 
becomes distended with watery accumulations 
in the tissues and between the organs. Some- 
times there is a swelling of the upper 
part of the throat, as described by our 
Oregon correspondent. The English farmer 
then says that the sheep is choclcered, or 
has the watery poke. During the progress of 
the disease, if the hand be pressed upon the 
loins of the animal, or on the region of the 
liver, signs of pains are manifested. When 
first attacked with the rot sheep take on fat 



with unusual rapidity, but as the disease pro- 
grosses, this unnatural fat disappears, and they 
become very thin and weak, and finally die. 

The time which it takes for the disease to 
run its course is usually from two to six 
months. 

A Post-Morlem Examination. 

If a sheep that has died of the rot is opened, 
the tissues and viscera are found to be very 
much disorganized. They are lighter colored 
than usual, and full of a yellow serous fluid. 
The lungs and heart are usiially much diseased; 
but the liver is the organ that seems to be the 
center of the disorder. It is sometimes pale, and 
at other spotted; in its substance are ulcers, 
and the bile ducts are full of parasites called 
flakes, not leeches. Sometimes nearly a thou- 
sand of these worms may be found in a single 
sheep's liver. 

What is the Ultimate Cause of the Hot? 

Tliis is a question that has been much dis- 
cussed, and many very diSerent conclusions 
have been reached by investigators. Youatt 
held that the rot was produced by miasmatic 
gases arising from decaying vegetiible matter- 
that these gases arose only when the soil was 
neither dry nor overflowed, but in a sodden 
state. He gave various examples to show in 
how short a time animals might be infected; in 
one case a flock stopped but about fifteen 
minutes to drink at a pool, and over 200 of them 




became rotten. Y'juatt's views were quite gen- 
erally accepted in his time, and are now quoted 
in most, if not all, of the manuals on sheep- 
raising, but more extended observations and 
investigations have not supported them. Thus 
Eaudall remarks that large portions of the 
United States where the rot is not known have 
bogs and marshes exhaling their gases, and 
still supporting sheep in health. Again, 
Youatt did not believe that flukes caused the 
rot, but rather that they became abundant in 
the liver when its diseased condition favored 
their increase. He also assumed that if the 
flukes existed in the water which the sheep 
drank, they must have the same form as when 
found in the liver. This also has been dis- 
proved by the microscope of the naturalist. 

It is now known that in the course of their 
existence flukes undergo changes of form quite 
as remarkable as that from the catei-pillur to 
the butterfly. 

Natural History of the Flukes. 
There are several species of flukes known to 
the naturalist. Of these, two are most com- 
mon in the bile-ducts of sheep, one iu the biie- 
ducts, and two in the stomach of cattle, and 
one in the cat. The species which is commonly 
found in sheep, which have died of the rot, was 
named F<is<:h>Ui hejxtticn by the celebated Lin- 
nacies. Its body is very flat, rather oval iu 
form, and in color a pale brownish or greenish 
yellow, with occasionally a faint rosy tint. The 
size of this species is usually about three-fourths 
of an inch long by one-half of an inch wide, but 
it may be much larger. Our figure, which is 
copied from Prof. Verrill's work on i^arasites, 
represents the underside of the fluke. 

The mouth is at the bottom of the small 
sucker, a, and commuuicates with a small di- 
lated (eso[)hagus from which two digestive 
tubes extend to the posterior part of the body, 
sending off many side branches, il. Through 
the skin of the back of the fluke, there can be 
seen, with the help of a common lens, another 
system of branching tubes, which collect, and 
dispose of, the waste matter of the system. 
Mode of Development. 
The following quotations are from Prof. Yer- 
rill: "The fluke is very prolific. Prof. Leuck- 
art estimates that the oTaries may at one time 
contain 4.5,000 eggs. The eggs that are dis- 
charged pass out of the intestines of the sheep. 
* * Those that get into water or Tiioist 
places hatch after several weeks, producing 
minute conical embryos, which are covered 
\vith vibrating cilia or lashes, by means of which 
they swim freely about in the water. 

In a few days the external skin, with the cilia, 
is cast off, and after that the embryos are 
obliged to creep about. Its further develop- 
ment has not been traced; but it probably has 
a histoi-;s' similar to that of flukes of which the 
entire history is known. 
Therefore it is supposed that the young em- 



bryos, above described, attach themselves to 
the bodies or enter the tissues of the fresh- 
water snails. * * * In this situation the 
form probably changes, and they become the 
so-called "nurses," and a brood of larvae of 
another form is developed in their interior, by 
a process of internal budding. These larvae 
have a foi-m somewhat resembling minute tad- 
poles. » * ♦ They are finally discharged 
from the body of the "nurses," and escaping 
from the snails, maj' again swim actively about 
in the water; but eventually they, iu all proba- 
bility, again enter the bodies of other small 
snails, and losing their tails, become encysted 
iu little capsules. Finally these snails, with 
their iiarasites, are swallowed by sheep and cat- 
tle, while adhering to the herbage growing on 
moist land, or when adhering to water-cresses 
they might be swallowed by mankind. 

"In the stomach and intestines of these higher 
animals they are again liberated from their 
cysts. They then gain access \o the liver, 
where they rapidly become mat\ire . The eggs 
are exceedingly minute and may be tlift'used iu 
various ways, as by rains, winds, insects, and 
the feet of animals, and getting into water, or 
moist sitiiationa, they are ready to hatch and 
commence another series of transformatifms. 
The history of most of the flukes, which have hith- 
erto been fully investigated, agi-ees iu the main 
with that above given, and there can be little 
doubt but that this will prove to be the case 
with the common fluke, when its full history 
shall have been ascertained. 

"The liver-fluke is one of the few internal 
parasites that is capable of living in several 
very different animals. It is most common in 
sheep; less so in cattle, goats, horses, and the 
ass ; and quite rare in man. It has also 
been found in the hog, elephant, camel, beaver, 
squirrel, rabbit, hare, deer, and antelopes of 
several kinds, and iu the great kangaroo. It is 
chiefly found in the gall-bladder and bile ducts; 
but^occurs also in the intestine, and sometimes 
in blood-vessels." 

With this history of the development of the 
fluke before us, many of the mysteries which 
formerly hung about the "rot" are easily ex- 
phiiued. Thus, districts, which appear to have 
all the requisites for producing the disease, 
may be destitute of such fresh-water snails as 
the embryos undergo their transformations in. 
The freedom from rot of some pastures cov- 
ered with flowing water, and the deadliness of 
others where the water is stagnant, depends 
not on the exhalation of gases, but on the unfa- 
vorable, or favorable, conditions for the multi- 
plication of flukes. It is easy to xuidcrstand 
also that the water of a stagnant pool, and the 
snails on the herbage about it, may be so in- 
fested with the embryos of flukes that if sheep 
be allowed to drink there but once, and feed 
there but a few minutes, they will be almost 
sure to die of the rot. 

Prevention and Cure. 
To .avoid the rot, keep sheep on well drained 
pastures, where the water is pure and living. 
If the flock is already infested with flukes, re- 
move at once to the most favorable spot at com- 
mand, which should be dry and sheltered. As 
a medicine, salt stands first, and should be sup- 
plied so that the sheep can eat all they will. 
Youatt recommends giving the salt in doses of 
two or three drachms, morning and night, until 
signs of improvement appear, then a drachm or 
two of powdered gentian or ginger root may be 
added to the salt. 

In ccmdemning marshes as sheep pastures, an 
exception should be made in favor of those which 
are salt; they are usually free from rot, and in 
fact, the best hospitals for sheep attacked by it. 
In Egyi)t where the .rot commits great havoc 
after the overflow of the Nile subsides, the 
Bedouin shepherds find that the best remedy is 
to drive their flocks to the sandy deserts where 
their principal food is the salt- wort; although 
a farmer should do his best to better the condi- 
tion of his sheep when he finds them attacked 
by the rot, he must not bo disappointed if his 
efforts fail in a majcjrity of cases. Better apply 
the ounce of prevention before the cure is 
needed. 

Sheep and cattle will be much less likely to 
to get the fluke, and several other parasites, if 
their driuking water cojnes from some source 
which does not receive the surface washings of 
the pasture, and is given them in a clean tub or 
trough. 

Some of our California shepherds may think 
that we have given more space than is neces- 
sary, to a disease which never troubles their 
flocks. AVe wish, however, to give such useful 
information as we can to our Oregon friends, 
as well as those nearer by. There is no telling 
either how soon the rot may be slaughtering 
the California sheep by the hundred. It is 
lietter to he forewarned and foreamied. We 
should be glad to receive alcoholic specimens 
of the Oregon flukes, and such snails as may bo 
found in the water or on the herbage of the fa- 
tal pastures. One or two homeopathic vials 
would hold them, and if well sealed and packed 
iu cotton in a small paste-board box, they could 
be sent by mail at a very small expense. After 
changing the alcohol once or twice it could be 
turned off, and the specimens sent a considera- 
ble distance without injury, if tightly closed. 



Santa Cruz Farmers' Club. 

The Club met on January Gtb, President 
Mattison in the chair. 

Mr. Locke — Our present Legislature 
will enact a new fence law — or perhaps 
only repeal onr present one— and it may 
be well for the farmers of Santa Cruz to 
consider how their, interests will be af- 
fected by this matter, 

Mr. Kinsloi/ —Can we do without divis- 
ion fences ? If not, then we should have a 
good law that will keep us all straight, 
for without one there would be constant 
quarrels and the man who wished to take 
good care of his stock must either make 
all the division fence or enjoy the vexation 
of seeing his neighbor's stock fattening 
upon his best feed. The right thing is for 
each to do his part and do it well. 

Mr. Feelei/— Onr present law is worse 
than no fence law, you can compel a man 
to pay heavy damage, whether you have 
sustained any or not, provided you can 
correl his stock. It is an open question 
in my mind whether wc should have a 
fence law or not, but we certainly do want 
the present one repealed. 

Mr. Sawiii — It would be a blessing to the 
lower counties to liave all fence laws re- 
pealed and stock men compelled to take 
care of their stock. « 

Mr. Mattison—A. man has no right to 
keep stock unless he takes care of it. I 
shall take care of mine and want others to 
do the same. Laws have to be made only 
for those who will not live up to the 
Golden Eule. 

Mr. Morgan — Eut here in Santa Cruz 
County we must have fences, for without 
them we cannot manage our own stock. 
When I turn mine out I would like to 
know whore to find them. A man who is 
not able to fence land is not able to own 
it, and each should bo compelled by law 
to make his share of division fence. It is 
nonsense to talk about farming in this 
county without fences. 

Mr. Lode — And the nonsense of such 
talk has a wider application — j-et with 
other counties we have nothing to do. 
Considering the broken nature of this 
count}', and the abundance, cIk apness and 
excellence of fencing material, there is rea- 
son to conclude that the int-erest of the 
whole farming couimnnitj- requires a good 
fence law that will compel each man to 
make his half and make it well. Possibly 
it would be a good thing for some of us if 
the strong arm of the law could reach in- 
side fences and compel needed improve- 
ments. 

Tlie whole subject was referred to com- 
mittee — Kinsley, Locke and Feeley to re- 
port at next meeting. All farmers of tlie 
county invited to attend, that public feeling 
in regard to this matter may find expres- 
sion. 

Post Office Changes. — Tlie following 
changes iu the Pacific States and Terri- 
tories, for the week ending January 6th, 
1872, have been announced: 

Postmasters appointed — Julian, San 
Diego County, Cal. Harvey W. Harver. 
Warm Springs, Deer Lodge County Mon- 
tana, E. Gerard; Springville, Jeflerson 
County, Montana, John liayliss; Cacharas, 
Huerfano County, Colorado, .John F. Read. 

Name and site of Barretfs Jlill, El Paso 
County, Colorado, changed to Southwater, 
on the Denver and liioGrando Railroad, 
and Pierce Wallihan appointed Postmas- 
ter, 

Lime in Tkansplantino. — It is asserted 
in an English publication of great merit, 
says the Germnntuvn Teler/rnpk that a large 
plantation of trees has been formed in 
that country within a few years past, with- 
out the loss of a single tree; and this, says 
the writer, has been effected simply by put- 
ting a small quantity of lime in the hole 
before introducing the tree. I^'our bush- 
els of lime are said to be suflicient for iin 
acre. The lime should be thoroughly 
mixed with the loam, in order that in may 
be reached by the roots, with etjual facili- 
ity, in every direction, as its principal ef- 
fect is (i) push forward the tree during the 
precarious stages of its growth, and when 
the new fibres, beginning to start and ram- 
ify from the tap and laterals, require a sup- 
ply of readily appropriable and nutritive 
matter, throughotit their wliolo extent. 

I have often usedlime — generally its hy- 
drate in transplanting fruit and ornamen- 
tal trees, says the writer, and always with 
the best results. 



The farm has produced some of the best 
specimens of manhood in all times. 



J 



January 27, 1872.] 



53 



n.u 



ES. 



CALIFORNIA. 

BUTTE COUNTr— Enterprise, Jan. 20: 
New TextiijE Fibke. — Plioimius Tenax, or 
New Zealand Flax. We have examined sam- 
ples of this fibrous plant at the yard of 
Messrs. Hallet & Williamson, Main street, 
opposite the Union Hotel, and for tenacity 
and length it cannot be excelled, at least 
for the manufacture of a coarse fabric or 
light cordage. 

Chico Okanges. — Mr. A. H. ( hajjman, 
favored us this week with an orange, one of 
live, from a tree grown at his place on 
"Chapman's Addition." It is well ma- 
tured, and demonstrates the fact that with 
due attention, tlie best quality of oranges 
can bo produced in this climate. Mr Chap- 
man says that the tree from which the one 
he gave us was taken, received no more 
than the ordinary attention given to his 
other fruit trees. 

Plowing. — In every direction, in this 
vicinity, where the ground was not too 
damp, plowing commenced on Monday 
morning, and is now being prosecuted with 
great vigor. Mr. Cochran informs us that 
he is turning over 75 acres daily on the 
Chico farm. During the wet si^ell all the 
plows have been pointed and sharpened, 
and with thirty days of good weather a 
very large area of land will be under cul- 
tivation. 

CALAVERAS — Chronicle, January 
13: The earth is as full of moisture 
as a saturated sponge, and it oozes from 
every p)ore like perspiration from a Fourth 
of July orator. The ground is so soft that a 
plow leaves no more trace of its passage than 
sticking your finger in a glass of water 
does. We think it has rained enough. 
Ths farmers and miners appear tolerably 
well satisfied and the last gopher has re- 
ceived his quietus. 

CONTRA COSTA — Gazette, Jan. 20: 
Plant Tkees. — Now is the time to set out 
ti-ees. Let the fast growing varieties be 
set along fences and roadsides. Why wait 
another day; why let the aspect of homes 
and neighborhoods present such a cheer- 
less, comfortless appearance as a treeless 
spot always gives. Homes are no homes 
without i^leasant surroundings. Cultured 
trees are evidences of refinement. Barbar- 
ism is put further off by the solace of 
shade trees. The value of homes and farms 
is augmented by the tasteful arrange- 
ment of near leafy companions. They 
protect the soil. They temper the heated 
and chafing atmos^jhere. 

Now the deeply moistened soil will give 
them generous nourishment; make haste 
and have a i^rofusion of trees in and about 
Pacheco. 

A Field Again. The pleasant'weather 
since the storm has rapidly dried ott' the su- 
perfluous water ujion the surface of the 
soil so that in many places it is in good 
condition for plowing; and even where it 
is a. little too wet yet, the season is too far 
gone, and winter stock of feed, also, to 
justify the farmers in leaving their teams 
idle longer, and most of them have been 
busy a-field this week and will so continue 
foi- five or six weeks to come if the weather 
does not protract their plowing and grain 
seeding labors longer. 

LOS ANGELES— Star, Jan. 18 : Geape 
Vines Give Way to Fbuit Tkees. — Mr. 
Lawlor has, during the last year, planted 
on his place, near JefTerson street, sixteen 
hundred lime and two hundred walnut, 
making in all two thousand fruit trees. 
He intends this grove to be the finest in 
the State. Twelve thousand grape vines 
were uprooted and thrown away in order 
to give more scope for the growth of the 
fruit trees. 

MONTEREY-S. B. Press, Jan. 1.3: 
No frost has come heavy enough to kill 
tomatoes and watermelon vines in our 
kitchen gardens. The tomatoes are ripen- 
ing, and the watermelons seemed to have 
paused to look around and see what all 
this rain means, a novelty quite unknown 
to average watermelons. As they lie in 
sight of our thermometer, they may be 
waiting for the mercury to rise so that 
they can ripen with some degree of com- 
fort. 

NEVADA— Republican, Jan. 1.3: Plant- 
ing Valuable Tkees.— A number of citi- 
zens of Grass Valley are planting chestnut, 
black walnut, butternut, and other valu- 
able trees not indigenous to this State. A 
species of the black walnut grows in Cali- 
fornia, but it bears a smaller and less valu- 
able fruit than the Northern and Middle 
Atlantic States. We presume the hickory 
walnut tree would grow here as well as in 
the Eastern States if an eltbrt was made to 
introduce it. For timber purposes the 
hickory would be the most valuable tree 



that could be grown on the Pacific slope. 
The planting of such trees as we have 
mentionedis worthy of the serious attention 
of every man who has any spare laud 
where such trees will grow, and the}' will 
grow wherever there is soil, and with no 
more care than is required for our com- 
mon fruit trees. Let no man be deterred 
from planting such trees for fear he may 
not live to pluck the fruit from the same; 
tha.t principle would be too selfish. Plant 
trees, and be a public benefactor after you 
have bidden adieu to mundane things. 

Angora Goats. — Of 160 Angora goats 
belonging to E. O. Tompkins, at Bear 
Valley, only about twenty have died dur- 
ing the past eighteen mouths, and eight 
of these died from rattlesnake bites. Mr. 
Tompkins has found a sure remedy for 
these snake bites in ammonia. 

SAN BERNARDINO -Gazette, Jan. 13: 
There are twenty-nine fine flowing artesian 
wells within the city limits of San Ber- 
nardino, and the well-borers are kept con- 
stantly busy all the time boring new ones. 

The oldest citizens toll us that this is 
one of the finest seasons they have ever 
known in California. The prospects of 
fine crops the coming year were never bet- 
ter than at present. 

SAN DIEGO -Union, Jim. 13: Wintek 
IN San Diego. — The mean of the ther- 
mometer during the month of December 
was 50.54". Yesterday the thermometer 
stood during the day at 59°. Our gardens 
are full of flowers; camelias bloom in the 
open air; the hills and slopes are covered 
with green grass, and butterflies are flitting 
through the air. From the gardens round 
the bay delicious, ripe strawberries are 
brought to the city; tomatoes are found in 
our vegetable shops, in jilenty; crisp, 
juicy radishes may be had at the breakfast 
table every morning. This is winter in 
San Diego. 

Farming on the Cajon.— -While the 
grass is not so high as in to:vn, the rains 
have been abundant and the moisture has 
penetrated the soil to the depth of from 8 
to 10 inches. The whole valley presents a 
scene of activity that has never before been 
witnessed there. Plowing is goiig for- 
ward on all sides, and a greater breadth of 
land will be seeded than had previously 
been anticipated. 

There is also considerable activity in 
farming in the Chollas Valley. All the 
small farms are being plowed and planted 
in grain. The rains have wet down the 
ground to the depth of 10 or 12 inches. 
There are at least 5,000 acres of good 
farming land hereabout, and a large por- 
tion of it will be farmed this season. 

The country looks exceedingly well be- 
tween the city and the Cajon Valley. Every- 
thing bears an aspect of freshness. The 
grass is abundant all over the mesa. 

SAN JOAQUIN.-' Rejmblican, Jan. 17: 
Ckor Prospect. — This will be a prosper- 
year in California. San Joaquin valley 
will yield an ample harvest; such a har- 
vest as never before rewarded the husband- 
man. This valley will produce more 
wheat this, than for the past three years. 
Every possibe acre will be seeded, as fa- 
cilities for procuring grain for seed are 
such that, we believe, few who desire will 
fail to obtain a supply sufficient to sow all 
the ground they are able to prepare. 

The farmers on the west side of the 
San Joaquin river are moving in the mat- 
ter of protecting their grain-fields from 
the ravages of fire the coming summer. 
The plan is to organize a brigade of 
mounted men, whose duty it shall be, day 
and night, to patrol the lines of railroads 
and all wagon roads leading through the 
valley. In this way fire can be discovered 
immediately, and ijromptly extinguished 
before it has time to spread. The services 
of this brigade will only be required 
about one month, going upon duty when 
the growing grain is dry enough to burn. 
The plan is to tax all the farmers for the 
payment of these men which, it is claimed, 
will be cheajjer and much better than to 
insure the growing crops. 

A plan is on foot to make Moore's Land- 
ing, on the San Joaquin river, a point of 
some importance the coming summer for 
the shipment of grain. The farmers talk 
of clubbing together for the purpose of 
chartering a steamer and barges to take 
their grain to San Francisco. Those who 
are active in the matter assure us that they 
can lay down their crop in San Francisco 
for fifty cents per ton, exclusive of haul- 
ing to the landing. If this estimate is 
correct, the farmers will save many thou- 
sand dollars that they would otherwise be 
obliged to expend for freight. 

TULARE— Delta, Jan. 17: New Land 



Seeded. — Mr. Smith, who lives twenty-* by best methods 



thousand acres of new land that has been 
broken, and about one-half of it seeded, 
since the rains. He reports that Mr. My- 
ers, on Lewis Creek, has a field of four 
hundred acres of grain up about two 
inches. If the rain holds oft" a few days 
longer, many thousands of acres of new 
land will be put under cultivation. We 
have no doubt that the grain yield of this 
valley this year will astonish even those 
who are the most enthusiastic about its re- 
sources. 

Before another dry season our valley 
will be mainly so well irrigated as to be 
independent of dry seasons. More sub- 
stantial improvements will henceforth be 
made. There will hereafter be very few 
thinking of giving up their lands to try 
some other place. The railroad is coming. 
Already we hear the rumble of its heavy 
wheels. Its influence is felt on real estate, 
and we see it in the influx of population 
and capital. 

Fishy. — We are informed that vast num- 
bers of suckers are to be found in all of 
the streams leading out of Tulare lake, 
which have been raised by the rains of the 
season. They arc so thick that horses 
fording the creeks are liable to become 
frightened and unmanageable by their 
splashing and floundering. Farmers go 
to the deeper places and iiitch them up on 
to the banks for their hogs. A fork will 
bring up from one to three every time. 
TJiey will average about two pounds each. 
Our Grain Fields. — All agree that 
there is every likelihood of the present 
being the most favorable season that has 
ever been known in Tulare county. Im- 
mense fields of grain are already put in, 
and we are credibly informed that fully 
three, and pi-obably four times as much 
land will be seeded this year as was ever 
done before. Mr. Bacon, on the Cotton- 
wood, has finished sowing fourteen hun- 
dred acres, and Mr. J. D. Keener has al- 
ready sowed about one thousand acres in 
the same locality. Five or six men can be 
named who have put in an aggregate of 
ten thousand acres. 

YOLO— Mail, Jan. 18th: Shade Trees. 
This year is so favorable for the successful 
planting of shade trees along the public 
highways that we think it opportune now 
to call the attention of our farmers and 
others to the fact that a law is in force which 
gives for every tree planted and taken care 
of four years, one dollar for each tree — 
warrants for the payment of said money 
will be drawn on the road fund. The Board 
of supervisors accepted the provisions of 
the law two years ago, and those who de- 
sire to so beautify the highways through 
their jjosessions can i)lant the trees, and 
the favorable season will do the balance of 
the work. 

The Alfalfa Fever. — From present ap- 
pearances, and the trade which seems now 
to be all the go in alfalfa, it looks very 
much as though it was going to be the 
leading production, except wheat, in the 
State. We are informed by Mr. N. Wyck- 
off that he has shipped several tons of seed 
to Tulare, Kern, and others of the lower 
counties, and that ho has letters of inquiry 
from many parties throughout this State 
and Oi'egon in regard to its usefulness and 
the probabilities of its being profitable in 
sections where as yet, it has not been tried. 
It is undoubtedly a valuable production 
for this State, find those who have it know 
it cannot be diSi^ensed with during the long- 
dry seasons as sure feed for cattle. 

COLORADO. 

Signal, Jan. 13: Farming Prospects. — 
No year has ever begun with better in-os- 
pects for farming or stock raising. 
Enough rain has fallen here to insure an 
abundant crop of grain, and better pastur- 
age than for several seasons. The winter, 
notwithstanding the shortness of pastur- 
age, owing to two years of unprecedented 
drouth, has been most favorable to stock, 
having been continuously warm in sun- 
shine and rain. Ten acres of wheat will be 
sown to every one of any former year; and 
nearly a like proportion of barley, corn, 
flax and other products of the country. 
All seem determined fo make up for lost 
time, and no part of the State, in propor- 
tion to its population, will turn out so 
large an amount of produce, nor so varied 
a croiJ, as "Ventura" county in 1872. 

Greeley Tribune, Jan. 17: Col. Archer, 
of Denver, informs us that he proposes to 
organize a Beet Sugar Company. Several 
farmers have agreed to invest .$5,000 each. 
Mr. Archer built the gas and water-works 
in Denver, and whatever he undertakes he 
is sure to accomplish. He is also engaged 
in farming, and we learn tliat ho operates 



five miles from here on the Squaw Valley 
road, tells us that in traveling about the 
county this week he has seen at least two 



A company is neaily formed for cutting 
and floating wood from the mountains down 
to our town. The forests commence about 



5 miles above the canon and dO from Gr^ 
ley. The amount of timber close to the 
river is immense. The distance to be run 
by the river is nearly 100 miles and the 
drive can be made in less than a week. 
Shares have been subscribed to the amount 
of .$2,500. 

Several gentlemen interested in agricul- 
ture and stock-raising, met at Denver on 
Monday of last week, when a committee 
was appointed to draft the laws for a Ter- 
ritorial Stock Growers' Association. The 
meeting was largely attended, and its pro- 
ceedings will no doubt iiave a good effect 
on the interests represented, as j^rovision 
was made for the introduction of such leg- 
islation as would end the vexations now 
experienced, in some portions of our Ter- 
ritory, by farmers and stock-grower.s. 

OREGON. 

Oregonian, Jan. G: The year 1871, though 
not witnessing many new enterprises of a 
manufacturing character put into opera- 
tion, still has seen several places in a fair 
way for being put into successful opera- 
tion during this year. Foremost among 
them, we will mention the Turbine wheel 
manufactory, under construction at Salem 
by Mr. Myers. The cost, when erected and 
placed in working order, will not fall 
much, if any, short of $100,000. He pro- 
poses manufacturing all kinds of agricul- 
tural implements that will give a profit. 

Another linseed oil and lard oil works 
have been erected on a large scale at Al- 
bany. The wagon manufactory at Salem 
has been re erected during the past year. 
A proposition is on foot fov erecting dur- 
ing the coming year two or three different 
kinds of manufactories on a large scale, on- 
ly one of which — that for making furniture 
— we are at liberty to make public. The 
manufacture of stoves by the Oi-egon Iron 
Works is proving a success, and all the 
stoves turned out by them have given en- 
tire satisfaction. 

They intend making this branch of their 
business a speciality, as they have en 
route all the latest and best improved pat- 
terns. The number of stoves, since they 
commenced making them, four months 
ago, has averaged nine per day. The 
number expected to be cast this year is 
placed quite large. The boot and shoe 
factory in this city is turning out a supe- 
rior article, which, so far as we are able 
to judge, gives entire satisfaction. 

The rapidity with which the railroad 
system of Oregon is assuming form, and 
tlie early completion of the North Pacific 
Railroad, which will make Portland one, 
if not the principal connecting point, an 
established fact, has drawn to Oregon a 
large number of immigrants who have 
settled in the interior, which, together 
with the Oregon and California Railroad 
bringing towards the close of 1871, new 
))oints to be supplied, which have hereto- 
fore drawn their supplies from San Fran- 
cisco, have increased the volume of busi- 
ness tor the year 1871 over 1870 at least 
40 per cent. 

UTAH. 

iVe»«, Jan 11: Hides. — The j^roduce of 
hides in this Territory is considerable, and 
perhaps could be made materially greater 
if more care were expended upon proj)erly 
preparing the hides for the market. A 
gentleman connected with the business 
handed us the following upon the subject 
which is applicable anywhere. 

Directions for Skinning and Cueing 
Hides — Skinning. — Avoid as much as pos- 
sible cutting or scoring the hide. Skin the 
beef low in the cheeks and legs, leaving 
the hide as large as possible. Take out the 
tail bone, and if the hides are to bo dried, 
cut out the ears. 

To Salt Cure Hides. — Spread the hide 
on the floor, hairy side down, and the 
fleshy side cover with jjlenty of salt. The 
next hide should be spread on this, hairy 
side down and s^jriiikle the fleshy side with 
plenty of salt, and so on until ready to 
ship. About six days under this process 
will cure a hide. 

When ready to ship, shake out the salt 
for future use, sprinkle lightly with fresh 
salt. Bundle and tic. 

To Dnj Hides Properly. — The cheek and 
leg skins should be skivered so as to keep 
them from curling up and becoming 
wormy. 

Hang the hide from head to tail over a 
straight edge, an inch or two inches thick, 
hairy side in. Be sure to hang the hides 
under a covered shed, so that the sun will 
not strike on them. A burnt hide is 
worthless except for glue. 

Fine Yield. — Two English walnut trees 
back of our office yielded over 300 pounds 
of clean walnuts, worth fifty dollars. 

TuE Pacific Rural Press is one of the 
most magnificent Agricultural impers pub- 
lished in America. 



54 



[January 27, 1872. 



Artesian Wells of San Jose. 

Editors Press:— It is to be regretted 
that the artesian well system, or rather 
the system of subterranean lakes of our 
valleys has not attracted more attention 
from scientific men. A mistaken notion 
■widely prevails among agriculturists as 
to the effects of artesian wells upoQ the 
surface soils. Many contend that frequent 
borings have a tendency to dry up the 
land everywhere, except in the immediate 
vicinity of the wells. That this idea is 
erroneous will be readily seen upon a fair 
statement of the facts. 

Taking this valley as a criterion, we have 
indubitable proof that the water supply is 
in subterranean lakes, or bnisins, hermeti- 
cally roofed over with a lid of hard pan, 
so compact and homogenous that even 
water cannot penetrate it from above or 
below. This underground 
basin has a sort of corrugated 
conformation — or, more plain- 
ly, its bed is full of solid 
ridges and hillocks which 
cause the water to remain in 
beds and channels at various 
depths from the surface. This 
accounts for the remarkaV)le 
dilference in the depths at 
which water is reached in bor- 
ings in the vicinity of each 
other. Almost anywhere on 
the eastern and northeastern 
side of this city, water cnn be 
made to flow abundantly by 
boring from 45 to 60 feet, while 
in the heart of the town the 
same result cannot be effected 
■withoint penetrating from 250 
to 500 feet deep. 

The reason is obvious. The 
water lies in independent chan- 
nels between the lidges and 
hillocks of impenetrable hard- 
pan. If this be true, there is 
little danger of the flow of 
water from the wells in our 
part of the valley depleting 
the supply of those in another 
locality. In penetrating to 
this hidden reservoir, the auger 
almost invariably passes 
through the ordinary alluvial 
sub-deposits of soil, gravel, 
sand and Ijoulders, until it 
reaches tlie evori)resent strat- 
um of touarh clay, or "hard- 
pan." If the well borer has been so for- 
tunate as to escape a ridge or hillock, the 
moment he i)erforates the clay stratum of 
gravel, old logs and other pluvial pre- 
serves, the water will instantly rise — 
sometimes with incredible force. 

Now, in this operation three or four 
points are quite apparent. In the first 
place, the difi'erent depths at which 
the water is reached, indicates that each 
channel or water hod is separate and dis- 
tinct from its neighbors. 

Secondly. The water beds, no matter 
how great their distance from the surface, 
invariably contain drift-wood, and even 
largo logs in a perfect state of preserva- 
tion, which proves that they have, since 
their deposition, been excluded from at- 
mospheric action. 

Thirdly. The supply of water is al- 
ways obtained in every locality, the mo- 
we pierce through thp air-tight lid of hard- 
pan, thus proving that the entire system 
of water channels, or water beds are 
hermetically sealed under a common cov- 
ering of tough clay. 

If it be true that this universal clay 
stratum is air-tight and water-proof, how 
in the name of good sense can tapping it 
and letting the pent-up water' flow to the 
surface, cause the land to become dry in 
the vicinity ? If the subterranean beds and 
channels are distinctive and independent 
of each other, as they doubtless are, how 
can boring wells on one side of the valley 
effect those on the other side ? The idea is 
absurd and the sooner we can get to the 
surface all the water we can from below, 
the better it will be for the land and the 
people. B. p. s. 

San Jose, Jan. 20th, 1872. 

The work on the artesian well at the La- 
fayette hotel, Los Angeles, has been sus- 
pended. The water is so strongly impreg- 
nated with petroleum as to be valuless fur 
drinking or cooking. 

Montana contains, according to the 
United Land Commissioner's report, 23,- 
000,000 acres of agricultural lands, 12,000,- 
000 of timber lands, and 69,000,000 of 
grazing lands. 



The Lightning Rod Capitol. 

Since the St. Louis Fair.'held in Oc- 
tober 1871, has taken such a conspicuous 
place among such exhibitions, an illus- 
tration of Fome of its peculiar displays 
will be of interest. A number of the 
exhibitors, in a healthy competition, spent 
large sums of money in placing their ar- 
ticles as conspicuDusly before the public 
as possible; but perhaps the most exten- 
sive and liberal preparations were made 
by Messrs. Cole Bros., proprietors of the 
Franklin Lightning Rod "Works, 723 
South Seventh St., St. Louis. This en- 
terprising firm, desiring to show their 
work to the best advantage, conceived the 
idea of hitting upon a popular question 
nf the day, and constructed a miniature 
representation of the United States Capi- 



vaders survived the battle, and from out 
of five of the defending hives, four were 
destroyed. It was the bloodiest bee battle 
on record, and deserves to be handed down 
to posterity. 

Value of Straw for Fodder. 

Every winter like the present, with its 
cold and drenching rainstorms, and with 
little or no provision for feeding the great 
surplus of the California stock-raiser, the 
value of straw as a winter feeding for such 
stock, is strikingly apparent. There are 
large numbers of stock-growers in Califor- 
nia that would now be only too glad to 
turn their starving and dying herds upon 
the waste straw of the grain-grower. In 
the vicinity of cities the straw is now 
nearly all saved, and pays a profit of hand- 
ling; but there are those who, further re- 




'i>»«i 



THE LIGHTNING ROD CAPITOL' 



tol, built wholly of lightning rods, and 
inscribed "The Capitol removed to St. 
Louis." 

The hit wasa happy one, and the unique 
structure was surrounded by thousands of 
spectators every day of the Fair. The 
building, of which our cut is a faithful 
representation, was 45x22 and was sur- 
mounted by a dome 45 feet high, the whole 
composed of lightning rods of various sizes 
kinds and colors, ingeniously arranged 
and combined as shown. More than 
60,000 feet of lightning rods entered into 
its construction, jet black iron, bright cop- 
per, and white rods, being harmoniously 
blended, to form the walls, while a gorgeous 
display of glittering stars, gilded balls and 
silvered tops, ornamented its front and 
dome. The total value of materials used 
was nearly §10,000, and when the sun 
shone on this glittering mass, bristling 
with points and other ornaments, the effect 
was dazzlingly beautiful and challenged 
universal admiration. 



Great Bee Fight. — The Jackson (Tenn. ) 
Whiy and IVihune of a late date, relates 
the following interesting account of the 
resentmeut and courage of the honey bee. 
Capt. Brown, of this city, recently robbed 
three hives, and Dr. West, a neighbor, 
robbed four. The bees, thus deprived of 
the fruits of their labor, became furious; 
and uniting, making an army of seven 
hives, they invaded the premises of Mr. 
Horace Bledsoe, and made a fierce attack 
on iive of his hives. Bledsoe's bees were 
taken by surprise, and although outnum- 
bered, fought for their homes with desper- 
ation. The battle lasted several hours, 
and four of Bledsoe's hives were literally 
destroyed. The invaders were finally re- 
pulsed, after being almost annihilated. 
The ground for yards around was black 
with dead bees. Mr. Bledsoe, although a 
serious loser, buried the dead warriors 
with the honors of war. Few of the in- 



moved from the cities and cheap transpor- 
tation, year by year burn large quantities 
of their surplus straw. This is certainly 
poor economy, for had the same been pre- 
served by simply stacking out in a proper 
manner to turn the rain from the great 
body of the straw, cattle could be driven 
to it and the lives of great numbers saved 
at a mere nominal cost. 

The Rural Home, in showing the value 
of straw as food for stock, says: 

In the Elmira Farmer's Club, the ques- 
tion lately arose as to the value of straw 
for fodder compared with hay. The fair- 
est estimate, we think, was given by Gen- 
eral Diven, who thought five tons of straw, 
fed with one ton of corn meal, equal to six 
tons of prime hay. Rating hay at .§18 per 
ton, corn meal at forty, the straw would 
be worth .*13.50 per ton. For wintering 
farm horses and such stock as it may be 
desirable to keep in good condition, but 
not fatten, good straw with a proper amount 
of grain is just as good as hay. Sheep 
may bo well-fattened on grain and straw 
alone, though a change of other food, es- 
pecially roots, is desirable. The grain 
farmer can find a large profit in taking 
pains to secure his straw in good condi- 
tion, keep it from spoiling by wet, and 
then feeding it properly in conjunction 
with coarse grain. 

Grape Sugar. — The manufacture of this 
substance in Germanj' in 1868 occupied 
sixty establishments, which produced in 
that year 22 million pounds of syrup, and 
8,800 pounds of sugar. Since that time, 
the industry has much increased, and large 
tracts have been applied to the cultivation 
of potatoes from which the grape sugar is 
manufactured. 



The Largest Barn in Northern Califor 
nia, if not in all the State, has recently 
been built by Mr. Charles Hedges of the 
Yuba dairy, near Marysville. Tue barn is 
200 feet long by 100 wide. 

He who cannot see well should go softly. 



Artesian Wells. 

Important Results Obtained in Los Angeles Co. 

The remai-kable success attending the 
efforts of artesian well prospectors, in the 
vicinity of Santa Ana, is really astonish- 
ing. Fine flowing wells have been "struck" 
in all portions of this county, but an unu- 
sual number of them seem to have been 
especially successfully bored in and around 
Santa Ana. The low depth at which these 
wells are discovered is a matter of sur- 
prise. One would imagine there must be 
a sheet of water covering an area of many 
miles, a few feet under the surface; at all 
events the indications point that way, and 
strengthens the supj)osition, as six wells 
have been struck during the last year, the 
deepest of which is the San Joaquin well, 
which did not answer to the " call of the 
augur " until a depth of one hundred and 
forty feet was reaiihed. Most all of the 
other five wells commenced to How at a 
much shorter depth than the San Joaquin 
well. A fine flow of water was 
obtained by Mr. McCullongh 
on his place last summer, at 
the exceedingly shallow depth 
of twenty-nine feet; another 
shallow well about a half mile 
from this one, was struck 
last spring by Mr. McFadden, 
5, at the low distance of thirty- 

nine feet beneath the surface. 
% So confident w;is Mr. McFad- 

den of securing artesian water 
that he did not go to the expense 
of buying any kind of well- 
boring material, but construct- 
t'd simple boring instrument, 
after his own notion, which 
was anything but artistic. He 
dojiended principally on luck, 
and the irrepressible prcsenti- 
' ment that an entire sea of fresh 

water laid a few feet under the 
; ground in his vicinity. 

This well throws a constr.nt 
stream of water, twenty-one 
inches in circumference, to an 
elevation eleven feet above the 
ground. The water is always 
cold, and as pure as crystal. 
Two and a half miles from this 
well is another that throws a 
column of water several feet 
high. This one was struck at 
the distance of ninety-one and 
a half feet, on Welcho's ranch. 
Another well, from which a 
fine flow of water was obtained, 
was opened with the common 
est instruments, on Mr. Layman's place, 
and water obtained at a distance of tw enty- 
sevon feet. 

Mr. Wcigan entered into the well-bor- 
ing mania wifh considerable enthusiasm, 
anticipating that lie would strike water at 
a very short distance from the top of the 
earth; but unfortunately he did not touch 
the spontaneous fountain until the earth 
had beeij penetrated one hundred and 
thirty-five feet. He has all the water' he 
wants, and some to spare in case of drouth. 
Thus it will be seen that, within a radius 
of four miles, six of Nature's perpetual 
pumps are in operation, throwing up and 
distributing at least one uiillion gallons of 
water per day. 

The earth is bound to have a certain 
quantity of water that can either be utilized 
or saved for future use, by catching the 
water in a reservoir or plugging uj) the ar- 
tesian pipe and stopping the flow. 

There are about one hundred artesian 
wells throughout the county. Probably half 
of them are in good running order. The 
business made in this line us an assistance 
to agriculture in this county is really 
wonderful. Three years and a half ago 
there was not an artesian well in the lower 
country, and to-day we have in this count}' 
alone, enough of them to redeem the coun- 
try from drouth, should that idague visit 
us again. — Los Angeles Star. 

Low Barometer in Polar Regions and 
IN CycIjONES. — Observations show that 
there is a marked depression of tlio barom- 
eter in the polar regions and in the central 
part of cj-clones; but no very satisfactory 
explanation has as yet been given of the 
cause of this phenomenon. Reliable ob- 
servations show that there is a depression 
of more thnyi one inch below the average at 
the equator, in that portion of the Autartic 
region which has been visited by observ- 
ers, and about half as much in the Arctic 
region. It is also known that during the 
continuance of a cyclone, the barometer 
stands from one to two inches lower in the 
central portion of the same, than wlien ex- 
posed in the exterior part. 

Learning makes life sweet. 



January 27, 1872.] 



55 



OsEfjL If^pO^p^XIOM. 



Sardines, Where They Come From 
and How Preserved. 

There are few delicacies so well known 
and so highly esteemed as the sardine. The 
delicious flavor of the fish when the tin is 
lirst opened, and the sweetness of the oil 
(always supposing a good brand,) print 
their charms upon the memory. It will be 
nn welcome news, however, to many to be 
told that anything good in this way is ex- 
ceedingly scarce this season. Unfortu- 
nately, it was the same last year. Then 
the destroying demon of war took away 
the fishermen from the villages, and, ad- 
ded to this, the fish were scarce, so that 
more were contracted for than could be 
delivered. This year it is worse. Few fish 
of any size have been canght (except some 
very large,) least of all those of the finest 
quality. The consequence is, the French 
manufacturers are again unable to carry 
out their contracts. 

The fishery, says the London Grocer, is 
carried on generally from July to Novem- 
ber, all along the west coast of France. 
Two of the largest stations are at Douar- 
nenez and Concarneau. Fleets of boats 
go out some few miles and spread out their 
nets, by the side of which some cod roe is 
thrown to attract the fish. The nets are 
weighed on one end and have corks at- 
taced to the other so that they assume a 
vortical position — two nets being placed 
close to each other, that the fish trying to 
escape my be caught in the meshes. 
Brought to land, they are immediately of- 
fered for sale, as, if staler by a few hours, 
they become seriously deteriorated in 
value, no first-class manufacturer caring to 
buy such. They are sold by the thousand. 
The curer emplo^'^s large numbers of 
women, who cut ofi' the heads of the fish, 
wash, and salt them. The fish are then 
dijjped into boiling oil for a few minutes, 
arranged in various sized boxes, filled up 
with finest olive oil, soldered down, and 
then placed iu boiling water for some 
time. Women burnish the tins; the labels 
are put on, or sometimes enameled on the 
tins, which are afterwards packed in wood- 
en cases, generally containing 100 tins, 
and then are ready for export. 

It does not always seem to be remem- 
bered that the longer the tin is kept un- 
opened the more m<>llow do the fish be- 
come; and, it properly prejjared, age 
improves them as it does good wine. But 
if they are too salt at first, age does not 
improve them — they always remain tough. 
The size of the tins are known as half and 
quarter tins. There are two half fins, one 
weighing eighteen ounces and the other 
sixteen ounces gross. The quarter tin us- 
ually weighs about seven ounces, but there 
is a larger quarter tin sometimes imported. 
Whole tins, and even larger ones still, are 
used in France, but seldom seen here. 

As is well known, the sardine trade is an 
important branch of industry, very large 
quantities being consumed in France; and 
the exportation to England and America is 
truly wonderful — Scientific Amei-icmi,. 

Progress and Popular Science. 

M. Sogg, of Neuchatel, writes to the Ed- 
itor of Les Mondes as follows: " Since 
the world is inclined to ridicule your at- 
tempt to popularize science, permit me to 
ask what is the science which loses itself 
in the clouds of thought without a desire 
to come down to the practical, other than 
an error, the glory of standing by the side 
of those other honors which elevate the 
individual and debase the nation ? What 
would astronomy be if it did not serve to 
measure time and to guide us on our way 
upon the land and sea? To separate pure 
science from applied science, is to condemn 
each to sterilty; they can no more exist 
alone than our heads can exist without 
our arms and legs. 

" Thenard would be fogotten if he had 
not found the cobalt blue which bears his 
name; it is alkimetry and alcohometry 
which have rendered popular the name of 
Gay-Lussac, and, in spite of all his admi- 
rable works, the name of Chaptal would be 
forgotten if he had not connected it ad- 
vantageously with the manufacture of beet- 
root sugar. 

" Consider how the intelligence of our 
great men is developed and you will find 
always that they step upon the scientific 
stage with works as brilliant as they are 
iiseless to human society; later on and 
gradually, exjierienoe, the daughter of age, 
teaches them to devote themselves to prac- 
tical application, and they are more 
pleased with and more proud of having 
perfected an industrial process, found the 
formula of a fertilizer, or discovered a 



new ailment, than if they had devised one 
of those brilliant theories which flash 
across the scientific heaven like falling 
stars, in the space of the firmament, and 
leave no trace behind." 



Glycerine Composition for Leather. 

As is well known, glycerine has found ex- 
tensive application in tanning, [as it has been 
discovered that it adds materially to the 
elasticity and strength of the leather. Es- 
pecially has it been found of great vahie 
in protecting leather baiids of machinery 
from cracking and drying. The partially 
tanned leather is immersed for consider- 
able time in a bath of glycerine, by which 
the pores are filled and such an elasticity 
and softness is imparted that objects man- 
ufactured from it are less liable to break. 

In order to prepare a neutral gutta- 
percha composition with glycerine take 3 
to 4 pounds lamp black, % pound burnt 
bones (burnt ivory) , cover up in a suitable 
vessel with 5 pounds glycerine and 5 
pounds common syrup, and stir well until 
the whole is intimately mixed and free 
from lumps. Four or five ounces of gutta- 
percha, finely cut, are to be put into a ket- 
tle, and after melting must }ye mixed with 
20 ounces of sweet oil and dissolved, and 
two ounces of stearine added. While still 
warm the gutta-percha solution must be 
incorporated with the syrup and lamp black 
and after this isdone, ten ounces of Senegal 
gum dissolved in 1% pounds of water is 
also added. In order to im])art an agreea- 
ble odor to the mass a small quantity of 
rosemary or lavender oil may be introduced. 

In using, the glycerine gutta-percha 
paste must be diluted with three or four 
parts of water. It gives a fine lustre and, 
as it contains no acid, it does not injure 
the leather, but makes it soft and elastic 
and adds very much to its durability. — 
Journal of Ajyplied Chemistry. 

Lint. 

Next to cotton, the vegetable fibre most 
extensively used for textile fabrics is flax, 
the Latin name of which is linvnt,T—h.bne.e 
come the names of linen and linl. The 
fibres of cotton and flax, viewed under a 
microscope, will be found to be different; 
the fibre of cotton is angular, or bladed, 
while that of fiax (linen) is perfectly round 
and smooth. It is this difference in their 
natural foimation that constitute the supe- 
riority of linen over cotton as a material 
for dressing wounds, or as a fabric for 
clothing the body. Lint is the unwoven 
fibre of linen. By wear, and much wash- 
ing, which it necessarily undergoes, linen 
becomes softer than when new; it under- 
goes a partial decay, and the much-prized 
linen eventually becomes '"rag." In this 
state it is fit only to be converted into pa- 
per or lint. Lint is, in fact, the woolly 
fibre of old linen, "thrown" or slightly 
"felted" together (as manufacturers term 
it) into the material form so named. The 
flax plant yields not only linen by means 
of its fibre, but it also, by expression, 
gives a valuable oil from its seeds, known 
in commerce as linseed oil. The residue, 
after the oil is expressed, is called linseed 
cake, and excellent food for cattle. Each 
product of the flax plant, both in peace 
and in war, has its value either as linen, 
linseed, or lint. — Scientific Amei-lcan. 

How TO Use the Thekmometeb. — Sig- 
nal Officer Singleton, of St. Louis, allud- 
ing to some statements respecting discrep- 
ancies between government reports of the 
weather, the state of the thermometer, etc., 
and those made by private individuals, 
says: "A thermometer should be placed 
in an open space, oiit of the vicinity of 
high buildings, or any object that impedes 
the free circulation of air. It should face 
the north, to be alwaysiu theshade, should 
be twelve inches from every neighboring 
object, should be about fifteen inches from 
the ground, and should be protected 
against its own radiation to the sky, and 
against the light reflected from neighbor- 
ing objects, or the ground itself. The 
thermometer should be read as rapidly as 
possible, as the heat from the- body or the 
breath influences the instrument. I have 
taken a thermometer belonging to agentle- 
man in this city, that read seven degrees 
above the standard instrument in this of- 
fice, and after removing the back, which 
was of metal, painted black and varnished, 
(with a radiating power of seventy-seven 
degrees at night) , placed it in my instru- 
ment shelter, after ascertaining the error, 
by ray standard, (which w.as but three- 
tenths degi-ees, the instrument being an 
imported article and very fine), I fouad it 
to read exactly with the standard. OutT)f 
470 observations at all hours of the day 
and night it varied but once, and then was 
but two- tenths degrees. 



Q©©o ^|e^lyI|. 



Why do Not Our Teeth Last a Life 
Time? 

That our teeth are made perfect, if the 
right materials are furnished, there cannot 
be a doubt. But are the necessary ele- 
ments furnished to children as they are to 
the young of other animals ? And do we 
not subject our teeth to deleterious influ 
ences from which animals that obey their 
natural instincts are exempt ? The form- 
ing young of other animals, while depend- 
ing on the mother, get lime, and phospho- 
rous, and potash, and silex, and all the 
other elements of which the teeth are com- 
posed, from the blood or milk of the 
mother, and she gets them from the food 
which Nature provides containing these 
elements in their natural proportions. 

But where can the child in its forming 
state get these necessary elements, whose 
mother lives principally on starch and 
butter, and sugar, neither of which con- 
tains a particle of lime, phosphorous, pot- 
ash or silex? Nature performs no miracles. 
She makes teeth as glass is made, by 
combining the elements which compose 
them according to her own chemical prin- 
ciples. And this illustration is more 
forcible, because the composition of the 
enamel of the teeth and of glass is very 
nearly identical, both, at least, requiring 
the combination of silex with some alka- 
line principal. 

If, then, the mother of an unborn or 
nursing infant lives on white bread and 
butter, pastry and confectionary which 
contains no silex, and very little other ele- 
ments which compose the teeth, nothing 
short of a miracle can give her a child with 
good teeth, and especially with teeth 
enameled. But what article of food will 
make good teeth ? Good milk will make 
good tetth, for it makes them for calves. 
Good meat will make good teeth, for it 
makes them for lions and wolves. Good 
vegetables and fruit will make good teeth, 
for they make them for monkeys. 

Good corn, oats, barley, wheat, rye, and 
indeed, everything that grows, will make 
good teeth, if eaten in their natural state, 
no element being taken out; for every one 
of them does make teeth for horses, cows, 
sheep, or some other animal. But starch, 
sugar, lard or butter will not make good 
teeth. You tried them all with your 
child's fir.st teeth, and failed; and your 
neighbors have tried them, and the result 
is that a man or woman at 40 with] good, 
sound teeth is a very rare exception. — Plii- 
lonophy of Health. 

Glycerine as Food and Medicine. 

Glycerine is one of the most valuable ar- 
ticles our pharmacopia can boast of, while 
as an article of food, it is one of the best 
and most fattening nutriments. Sweet 
oil, or olive oil. has for ages been an ar- 
ticle of daily diet in Palestine and other 
old countries, and glycerine is an essence 
of it. It is a perfectly natural and bland 
fluid, and the most penetrating, perhaps, 
in all Nature. Oil itself will penetrate 
where water will not, and glycerine, which 
may be considered the etherial part of oil 
has this property to a most remarkble de- 
gree — it penetrates the solid bone. 

A medical journal tells us that if poured 
into a mixture of blood and matter, such 
as is expectorated from consumptive lungs, 
it will get between the globules of each 
and show them with greater distinctness. 
Being thus penetrating, it is the very best 
application for feverish sores, for inflamed 
or dry surfaces, simiily from its quality of 
penetration and evaporability. If ajj- 
plied with a common brush to the surface 
of the throat in diptheria, in a few min- 
utes its permeative quality enables it to sink 
between the molecules of the false mem- 
brane, dissolving and detaching it in a 
few hours. It is the best ajjplication 
known in case of burns. 

Glycerine for Putrid Sore Throat. 

Dr. J. D. Palmer, in the Journal of Pliar- 
mncy, says: I have found this an invalu- 
able remedy in putrid sore throat, as well 
as in many other affections. Not long since 
a case occured in which its healing 
properties were fully tested. The patient, 
a little girl, seven years of age, had been 
suffering several days before I saw her, 
and the various remedies employed had 
made no impression on the disease. As it 
was with great difficulty and 2>ain she 
swallowed, and her pulse being very weak 
and quick, it was important that the reme- 
dy adopted should possess healing, nour- 
ishing, and antiseptic properties; and 
glycerine possessing those properties, was 
administered in teaapoonful doses every 



six hours. The first dose caused st 
smarting, the second less, and befu 
giving the third there was obvious im- 
provement. The case was dismissed in 
three days. 

The Unwearied Action of the Heart. 

The effect of everything that touches the 
heart is multiplied by the intensity of the 
heart's own changes. Hence it is that it is 
so sensitive, so true and quick an index of 
the body's state. Hence, also, it is that it 
never wearies. Let me remind you of the 
work done by our hearts in a day. A man's 
total outward work, his whole effect upon 
the world in twenty-four hours, has been 
reckoned about 35 i foot-tons. That may be 
taken as a good "hard day's work." Dur- 
ing the same time the heart has been work- 
ing at the rate of 120 foot- tons. That is to 
say, if all the pulses of a day and night 
could be concentrated and welded into one 
great throb, that throb would be enough 
to throw a ton of iron 120 feet into the air. 
And yet the heart is never weary. Many 
of us are tired after but feeble labors; few 
of us can hold a poker out at arm's length 
without, after a few minutes, dropping it. 
But a healthy heart, and many an unsound 
heart, too — though sometimes you can tell 
in the evening, by its stroke, that it has 
been thrown off its balance by the turmoils 
and worries of life— goes on beatingthrough 
the night when we are asleep, and when we 
wake in the morning, we find it at work, 
fresh as if it had only just began to beat. 
It does this because upon each stroke of 
work there follows a period, a brief but a 
real period of rest; because the next stroke ' 
which comes is but the natural sequence 
of that rest, and made to match it; because, 
in fact, each beat is, in force, in scope, in 
character, in everything, the simple ex- 
pression of the heart's own energy and 
state. — Appletons Journal. 

Throat and Lung Diseases. — Most of 
the throat and lung diseases, which indi- 
rectly lead to consumption, are occasioned 
by sheer carelessness. A delicate woman 
often sits for two or three hours in a 
crowded theater or church, breathing an 
atmosphere tainted by the exhalations from 
the lungs of hundreds of other people, her 
system is exhausted, her skin is excited by 
unwonted action, and when she leaves the 
building and goes out into the cold air her 
blood is suddenly driven to the interior of 
the body, and then ensues a more or less 
permanent congestion or inflammation of 
some of the internal organs — usually the 
air tubes in or leading to the lungs. This 
process being repeated many times, a 
chronic bronchitis is finally established in 
persons otherwise healthy, and life is ever 
after rendered miserable by this periodical 
overheating and sudden chilling of the 
body, 'even if the more dangerous malady, 
consumption does not interfere, and put 
the abused body into the grave. 

New Use for Electricity. — Electricity 
has achieved a new triumph. Already em- 
ployed to restore vigor and nimbleness to 
the gouty limbs of decrepit hova vivants, 
the recent discoveries of Dr. Bernier, a 
French physician, show electricity to be 
an efficient remedy for the evil effects 
of excessive drinking on the human nose. 
The doctor maintains that, by the appli- 
cation of an electric current to noses even 
of the most Bacchanalian hue, the flesh 
may be made " to come ag.ain as the flesh 
of a little child;" and he supports his as- 
sertion by a case performed on a female 
patient of his own, a woman of high rank. 

Femalr Physicians. — The prospects of 
medical education for women ai-e brighten- 
ing. The medical faculty of Moscow, Rus- 
sia, it is stated, have not only decided that 
the privilege of acquiring a thorough 
medical knowledge would be of utility to 
women, but have " resolved to admit them 
to the educational courses and lectures of 
the University, and to the privilege of 
following all the labors of the Medico Chi- 
rurgical Academy." 

To Stop the Bleeding from Leeches. 
Make a ball of cotton about the size of a 
pea; put this pellet of cotton or lint upon 
the wound; press it down firmly; keep up 
the pressure for a quarter of an hour. Be- 
move the finger cautiously, taking care to 
let the pellet remain. 

Turpentine fob Headache. — Dr. Bob- 
bie, of the Edinburgh Medical Journal, 
advocates the use of turpentine for the 
headache to which nervous women are 
subject. 

To Pbkvent Discoloration from 
Bruises. — Apply repeatedly cloths wrung 
out of hot water, or the tincture of arnica. 



56 






[January 27, 1872. 




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SAN FRANCISCO: 

Saturday, Jan. 27, 1872. 



Our Weekly Crop. 

The possession of a pleasant and comfort- 
iible home ought to be a prime object with 
every young man, and to that eml our artist 
is from time to time devising and presenting 
to the readers of the Hukal Pres,s, various 
plans to suit the varied circumstances and 
tastes of difl'ereut individuals. He has to-day 
presented us with a plan for "A Convenient 
Farm House and Barn" combined, which, for 
economy, good taste, and convenience, has 
saldom been equalled. Our gardener is also 
near by to give us some valuable hints on the 
the best kind of "Raisin Grapes;" the "Ben- 
etits of Overflows;" "Evergreen Tree Culture," 
and "Home Products." The information on 
these various points will be found very valu- 
able. 

In the wav of niPi^hanical progress, we find 
some valuable information about "Titanic 
Iron and Steel;" the construction nf "Fire- 
Proof Buildincjs; "A Substitute for the Spect- 
roscope," and something about the "Recent 
Pro3;ress in Chemistry." Passin'.:; on to the 
sheep-fold, we learn some inten/sting facts 
about "The Fluke-rot in Sheep," with which 
our Oregon friends arc more particularly an- 
noyed, but which, with the present wet season 
may m&ke its more general a))pearance in Cali- 
fornia. Our "Agricultural Notes" are full and 
important, and should always meet with at- 
tention. 

The subject of a water supply from the lower 
strata beneath the surface of our plains is at- 
tracting increased attention: and ".Artesian 
Wells in Los Angeles and Santa Clara Coun- 
ties," form important subjects for our considera- 
tion to-day Their principal characteristics 
are briefly considered in the latter instance. 
We have also some valuable hints on the 
"Value of Straw for Fodder." 

Our architect has erected a somewhat unique 
structure this week, which he calls "The 
Lightning Rod Palace," from the material otlt 
of which it is constructed. Although lightning 
rods are hardly needed in California, still it is 
interesting to most of our readers to know 
what is going on elsewhere. 

In the way of "Useful Information" we are 
told all about "Sardines Where they Come from 
and How Preserved;" the "Progress of Popular 
Science," etc. The Docter tells us "Why our 
teeth do not last for a life time," and some- 
thing about "The Unwearied .\etion of the 
Heart." We also have something just here 
about "Forest Tree Culture;" "Early Fruitful- 
ness in trees;" "Irrigation i-.s. Swamp Lands;" 
''Tulare Lake and Valley;" e*c. Mr. Rickey 
has also favored us with a fine illustration and 
full description of his new and important inven- 
tion "An Improved Bung and Bung Extractor," 
which will be found very important to all who 
make much use of barrels for wine, cider or 
other liquids. After examining which, we pay 
a brief visit to the Sacramento Farmers' Club, 
which we find engaged in an interesting dis- 
cussion on Senator Betge's Forester Bill, Fruit 
Culture, etc. 

We close the week's labors with our accus- 
tomed visit to the Home Circle, where we are 
treated to "A few Notes from Mrs. Adam's 
Lecture on the Holy Land;" learn "The Art 
of Living Together" in Harmony; read a 
"Chapter on Fashion;" gain admission to "A 
Japanese Boudoir," and then pass "Down the 
Slope," to where the Young folks are listening 
to an interesting history of "Jack Horner, Esq." 
From thence we pass to a brief consideration of 
the Economy of the houshold, in the matter of 
the use of various kinds of food, etc., and thus 
reach the end of another week, with the full 
assurance that the last seven days have not 
been spent without learning something new 
that will bo useful to us in the weeks to come. 



Forest Tree Culture. 

The subject of commencing the cultivation of 
forests in this State seems now to be attracting 
some considerable attention in diflferent por- 
tions of the State. The Farmers' Club of Sac- 
ramento, composed of an intelligent class of 
farmers and horticulturists, has had the swh- 
ject under consideration at two of their meet- 
ings, and have ajipointed a committee of five 
of their number to prepare a biU to be pre- 
sented to the Legislature, the object of which 
will be the encouragement of this important 
branch of rural industry by an appropriation 
(jf money in the shape of premiums or by a re- 
mission of taxes on land devoted to forest cul- 
ture. 

The Bay District Horticultural Society have 
also appointed a committee for a like puqiose — 
and we understand the latter have already vis- 
ited Sacramento and had a conference with the 
Senate Committee on Agricultiue, whom they 
And all favorable to the cause. 

The State Board of Agriculture have urged 
this matter in their reports to the Legislature 
at the past two or three sessions, and it is un- 
derstood will renew the subject in their report 
this session. They have shown by a civreful 
investigation and estimate that although we 
have been using timber on this coast to any ex- 
tent only about twenty years, at least one- 
third of all the accessible timber of value is al- 
ready destroyed or consumed. If such be the 
fact it may well be asked from whence are we 
to obtain the timber which we ' shall [ need for 
the construction of railroads, bridges, wharves, 
bulkheads, factories, warehouses, and piiblic 
and private dwelUngs, for the twenty years to 
come. We have but just entered upon an era 
of active public improvements, and in all prob- 
ability will want many times as mtich timber 
for these purposes in the succeeding twenty 
years as we have used in the past twenty 
years. 

In view of these facts we would? suggest that 
it is one of the most important subjects that 
can engage the attention of our Legislature to 
prevent the unnecessary destruction of the for- 
ests yet standing in our State. 

It seems to be one of the worst features in 
the settlement of new countries by the Ameri- 
can people to indulge in a useless and rec^kless 
destruction of the native forests. In our own 
State there has been no exception to this gen- 
eral rule. This habit has V^een indulged in here 
to an unprecedented extent. Thousands and 
thousands of the noblest and most vabiable of 
our forest trees in timbered districts of the Si- 
erra Nevada and Coast Range have been de- 
stroyed without object or purpose and with no 
adequate benefit to the destroyer or to anyone 
else. We are apt to think that an article that 
is plenty immediately about us is plenty everj'- 
where, and if abuntlant now, it Avill always be 
so — at least we act this way. Then in connec- 
tion with the encouragement of artificial forest 
culture we would urge the importance of effects 
ive measures to prevent the unnecessary de- 
struction of the native forests. 

Hard Timber Culture. 

From the fact that but little hard timber fit 
for manufacturing purposes was found grow- 
ing naturally in this State, the impression be- 
came general that the climate was unfavorable 
to the growth of such timber here, or that some 
other natural cause existed to prevent the suc- 
cessful cultivation of such timber in the State. 
Recent experiments made by competent me- 
chanics with good eastern varieties of hard 
timber cultivated in difterent portions of the 
State, have proved this impression to be en- 
tirely erroneous. Many of these kinds, such 
as the elm, the locust, and the osage orange, 
are claimed now to bo better grown here than 
elsewhere — better than the same kinds im- 
ported. 

The above facts have called the attention of 
the public to this important subject and hence 
the action of the several societies above named 
and others, in the premises. Now the question 
arises as to what is the best manner of afford- 
ing the encouragement desired, and at the same 
time preventing any imjjroper expenditure of 
the public funds or income. Any law to be 
passed for this purpose should be carefully 
guarded by proper and carefully considered 
provisions, and yet should not be so loaded 
down with useless provisions as to defeat its 
own objects, as is the law now on the Statute 
books for the encouragement of planting trees 
along the hi;.ih ways. We think, too, any law 
on this subject should be so drawn as to induce 
the planting and cultivating of forests or small 
collections of forest trees by the farmers gen- 



erally throughout the timberless districts of the 
State, rather than in very large bodies, in par- 
ticular loi'alities. 

Again, it should not require, as one of the 
conditions of obtaining any premiums ofl'ered 
or benefits specified, that the party who plants 
and brings a forest of trees into successful 
growing, shall of necessity have raised his 
trees from the seed, for the reason that it is a 
matter of great difficulty to raise some of our 
best varieties of timber trees— the pines and 
redwood for instance — from seed, and if the 
farmers were recpiired to do this part of the 
work it would result in many instances in fruit- 
less and discouraging experiments and loss of 
money and time without any benefit to the ex- 
jierimonters or the State. "The farmers or any 
others who may engage in the cultivation of 
forests, should be allowed to purchase their 
trees, when of the proper age for transplant- 
ing, from the nurserymen who have the skill 
and convenience of propogating thom. The 
competition among nurserymen would be a 
suflicient guarantee against their demanding 
exorbitant prices. 

We notice that Robert Williamson, an exten- 
sive nurseryman at Sacramento, stated before 
the Sacramento Farmers' Club Meeting two 
weeks ago, that he would contract with any re- 
sponsible parties to furnish good trees of the 
sugar pine or redwood varieties, one year old, 
at $2 per thousand; and E. F. Aiken stated be- 
fore the same club that the evergreens of all 
the difterent valuable kinds grown in the East- 
em States, can be had of Eastern nuiserymen 
at the same price there, and sent here in good 
order througli the post office, postage paid, by 
the shippers. 

State Forester or Forest Commission. 

A bill now before the Senate proposes to ap- 
])oint a State Forester at a large salary, and de- 
fines his duties and calls for the large expen- 
diture of money in carrying out the objects of 
the proposed law. We would look with suspi- 
cion upon any propo.sed law that should pro- 
vide so largo a salary for the performance of 
the duties prescribed, and would doubt the pro- 
jiriety of entrusting the expenditure of so 
much money for so important an object of so 
experimental a character im any one man. We 
would suggest that a better plan would be for 
the Legislature to organize and electa Commis- 
sion, to be called the Forest Commission, and 
let this Commission appoint the active man to 
execute their plans and carry out the objects of 
the law. Such Commission should embrace 
the Governor of the State, and say two other 
practical agriculturists or horticulturists. For 
instance, such men as John Bidwell, of Butte 
County, C. F. Reed, President of the State Ag- 
ricultural Society, Lewelling of .\lameda, or 
any other men of practical experience, whose 
character would be a guaranty that the money 
appro))riated would bj properly and judicously 
expended^ 

Early Fmitfulness in Trees. 

Perhaps in no other country in the 
world do fruit trees attain to fruitfulness 
as young as in California. It is not unu. 
sual to see peach trees in bearing at two 
years from the seed, and pears and apples 
at four years. Now though it may seem 
quite desirable that an orchard should at- 
tain to early maturity, in a pecuniary view, 
yet it is too evident that very many orchards 
amongst us are now showing the injurious 
effects of this inclination to early precoci- 
ty. With peach trees, the first two years 
should be given entirely to the giowth 
and formation of the trees; the third year 
they may be permitted to bear a fair 
amount of fruit, always trimming out the 
smallest specimens where there is a ten- 
dency to overbearing. 

It would be better in establishing an 
apple or pear orchard of standard trees, 
that not a tree be permitted to produce 
fruit before the fifth year. This would 
enable the trees to develop fully their 
wood, and a desirable form of growth 
could by that time be secured. Not that 
all trees should be grown to a certain 
fixed standard of form, for this would be 
all wrong; diflferent varieties of pears and 
apples naturally incline to a certain hal)it 
of growth, some being low and wide 
spreading, others as decidedly upright. 
But where strong winds from a particular 
direction prevail, and are likely to give the 
tree a set in the direction of such winds, 
a great deal can be done in the first four 
years by a judicious system of pruning in 
establishing a balance of growth and top 
that will be seen ever after contrasting 
favorably with those with which no such 
care had been taken. 



"Faiim House Chat," by "Mary Mountain," 
js in type, but necessarily deferred. 

".\.N. M.," of Twin Bridges, Montana— 
an iwer will appear next w€ek. 

Nkw Si-iwcKiHER, Coriime, Utah. Inquiry on 
mauhineni' for water lifting will receive imme- 
diate attention. 



Irrigated vs. Swamp Lands. 

The unusually dry seasons that till the pres- 
ent, have succeeded each other in Cahfornia 
for four or five years, and the losses and suflfer- 
ing incident thereto, have turned public atten- 
tion to the reclamation of swami) and overflowed 
lands as promising a security against the injury 
resulting from recurring dry seasons. That 
the lands of the partially submerged islands of 
the Sacramento and San Joaquin rivers when 
eflfectually reclaimed, will be among the most 
productive and valuable lands in the State, no 
one will doubt; nor will any one for a moment 
suppose that their complete reclamation will 
not be eventually secured. However, when all 
this shall have been accomplished and perfect 
security apparently attained, by the maintenance 
of annually strengthened levees, still, as with 
all countries, portions of Holland for instance, 
where security from overflow consists only in 
earth banks, a doubt always hangs ov er the 
minds of the people so situated as to what the 
eflect of the very next unusu.ally high water 
will be. Absolute safety is never to their minds 
a perfectly clear thing, and vigilance and watch- 
fulness are cultivated as cardinal virtues, as 
security against desolation and ruin from over- 
flowing waters. 

But in California there are vast acres of coun- 
try lying along the base of the lower moun- 
tains, that might all be irrigated from reser- 
voirs constructed back among the higher val- 
leys and gorges of the mountains, that, while 
receiving an abundant supply of waters for irri- 
gation from such reservoirs, could in no pos.si- 
ble event be Bul>ject to loss from inundation. 
Perfect, full security would be always present, 
with an unfailing supply of water and conse- 
quent resulting annual crops. 

This description of lands is particularly fa- 
vorable to the small farmer who, if with only 
limited means, but a variety of products, would 
in the end well hold his own with maxiy of 
those whose motto is, "One crop, make or 
break." It is clearly apparent, too, from the 
movements of capitalists, that attention is be- 
ing given to the sources of nearly all our moun- 
tain streams, with a view of locating reservoirs 
for the very purpose we have here suggested. 

There are in the Sierras, numerotis lakes 
located in valleys where their outlets are but 
narrow gorges between mountains, easily closed 
up to hights that would cause the overflow of 
hundreds of acres, many feet in depth, which 
are now of little or no value but for this very 
purpose, but which can be made of immense 
value to the farmers situated anywhere below 
them. Full crops would be annually and cer- 
tainly secured, with perfect immunity from the 
breaking of levees and damaging floods. 

Tulare Lake and Valley. 

Towards the south end of the great San Joa- 
quin Valley, in the midst of what would other- 
wise be nearly desolate plains, producing only 
grass, lies Tulare Lake, a shallow body of wa- 
ter; but with a superficial area of nearly a thou- 
and square miles, at seasons of high water, and 
having such seasons an outlet by Fish river 
into the San Joaquin river; but during low wa- 
ter, there is no overflow. Its principal tributa- 
ries are: Kings river. Four creeks, Tule and 
Rosa creeks, and the overflow of Kern lake, at 
seasons of high water. 

The surface of Tulare Lake is but three or 
four feet below the surface of a million of acres 
of the finest lands in the world surrounding it, 
capable, if irrigated, of producing abundant 
crops of fruits or cereals. It is now proposed 
to raise the waters of the lake a hight of ten 
feet or more, by an embankment completely 
surrounding it, and then using the water for 
irrigating the lands around it. It is a project 
perfectly feasible, for Kings river alone would 
supply all the water needed for a complete irri- 
gation of the whole valley for scores of miles in 
any direction, and have a large surplus annu- 
ally to pour into the lake as a general and 
never-failing reservoir for seasons of excessive 
drouth. 

As we have remarked, grass alone now grows 
upon the vast plains surrounding the lake; but 
owing to the entire absence of water at a dis- 
tance from the lake, even the dried-up grass of 
summer is of no use to the stock-grower. But 
let canals traverse through these now waste 
places, carrying the waters for irrigation to their 
remotest limits, and blooming gardens, with 
orchards and groves of the orange, lemon, and 
fig trees, with green grass ever verdant will 
abound everywhere . 



January 27, 1872.] 



57 



Rickey's Improved Bung and Bung 
Inserter. 

A cheap, convenient and perfectly tight 
bung has long been a necessity, especially 
for brewers purposes, where they are liable 
to leak or be blown otit if they are not per- 
fectly fitted and secured. Many different 
kinds of patent bungs have been offered 
to the public from time to time, but each 
of them has been thrown to one side after 
a short trial as defective or wanting in 
some particular. The illustration pre- 
sented herewith represents Rickey's Patent 
Bung and Bung Inserter, the latter being 
an instrument devised by Mr. Rickey for 
screwing the bushing into which the bung 
or plug fits, into the barrel stave. The 
bung seems to us to be quite complete and 
we see no reason why it will not eventually 
take the place in the market of all others. 
As it is a recent California invention, and 
enters into the needs of almost every 
farmer's household, we give the following 
full descrii^tion and illustration of the 
same : 

By referring to the cuts, it will bo seen 
that the central figure. A, is the metallic 
ring or bushing, which is provided with 
internal and external screw-threads in the 
ordinary manner. Tliis ring is made 
slightly tapering or conical and the threads 
narrow at the base and quite sharp, so that 
when it is screwed into a hole of the proper 
size it will cut its own threads. This may be 
done by the use of the bung inserter, shown 
on the left-hand side. The inserter consists 
of a metal standard, E, in the upper end 
of which is a hole. The base of this stand- 
ard is made of the same size as the bung 
and provided with screw threads as shown. 
Resting upon this base and encircling the 
standard, E, is a ring, g, in the tipper face 
of which and opposite each other, are two 
oppositely inclined depressions, as shown, 
and passing through the standard so that 
its ojjposite ends will rest in these depres- 
sions is a bar,y. 

To use this inserter the base is screwed 
into the bushing imtil the ring, g, is 
brought down against the face of the bush. 
The standard, E, is then turned until the 
ends of the bar, /", rest as far as possible 
up the incline of the depressions. The 
base is then screwed down until the ring 
rests upon the face of the bushing. A 
proper-sized hole having been first made 
in the barrel stave by means of a bung 
borer, the bushing is started into it, when, 
by placing a rod thi'ough the hole in the 
standard as a lever the bushing can be 
screwed into the hole in the stave until it 
is snugly down; and when once it has 
been thus forced down so as to cut its own 
thread it cannot be started by ordinary 
means, and will not leak. After the bush- 
ing has been firmly screwed down the in- 
serter can be readily removed by turning 
the standard, E, in a reverse direction 
which causes the bar, /, to move to the 
lowest part of the depression and relieves 
the pressure on the screw. 

In the ordinary bung the washer is 
merely placed on the projecting seat on 
the lower end of the bushing and the bung 
screwed down upon it, thus leaving it free 
to be washed out every time the barrel is 
cleansed, and, if left for any length of time 
the leather becomes hard and adheres both 
to the seat in the bushing and to the bung 
so that it is almost impossible to remove 
the bung. The one ilhistrated entirely 
obviates this difficulty and is also provided 
with more convenient means for being 
turned. B represents a top view of the 
bung which is cast with a square socket in 
its upper face, the sides slightly convexed 
into which the wrench, H, is made to fit. 

The Fig. marked, B, C, D, shows the 
bottom of the bung with the disk, C, at- 
tached by means of the stem as seen at B, 
in the right hand figure. G represents a 
metallic disk having a projecting flange 
on its under side around which a groove 
is turned. The washer (either leather or 
rubber) is stretched over the lower flange 
80 as to fit in the groove, around the outer 
edge of the disk and thus be permanently 
fixed upon it. The stem projecting from 
the upper center of this disk passes up 
through a hole in the bottom of the bung, 
B, as shown, into the socket where a 
washer is placed over it and it is headed 
down. By this means the disk is attached 
to the bottom of the bung so as to revolve 
independently. 

The object of this is to allow the disk 
and washer, as soon as the washer has 
touched the seat in the bushing, to remain 
atationary until the bung is firmly screwed 



down. When the bung has remained this 
way any length of time and it is desired 
to remove it, by unscrewing the bung, the 
disk and washer will be lifted directly up- 
ward by the screws and thus avoid the 
trouble heretofore experienced on account 
of its adhesion. I) represents the washer 
which is to be stretched into the groove in 
the disk, and can be made either of leather 
or rubber as desired. 

It will be seen that the bushing. A, as 
shown in the lower cut, sets below the 
face of the stave. This is done without 
any preparation of the hole, with the use 
of but a common bung-borer. The threads 
of the bushing are sharp, and as said be- 
fore, the bushing is made slightly taper- 
ing, so that by the use of the bung inserter 
and the leverage obtained by using a bar 
in the hole in the standard of that tool, 
the bushing can be screwed down as deej) 
as required. 

The importance of this ingenious and 
useful invention is readily seen when the 
number of barrels and casks that are used 
on this coast are taken into consideration, 
and all made of imported material, causing 
them to be an expensive article. The 
wear and tear on barrels is principally on 
the bung stave, which is always the best 
stave in the barrel, but nevertheless the 
first to give out, owing to the difficulty in 
always finding a bung of the proper size or 
shape, in consequence of the hole becom- 
ing elongated. The wood in the hole pre- 
sents two different surfaces, one with the 



Sacramento Farmers' Club. 

This club met at their rooms in the Odd 
Fellows' building on Saturday last at 1 
o'clock p. M., a good attendance being pres- 
ent. 

The committee appointed at the last 
meeting to prepare a bill to be presented 
to the Legislature for the encouragement 
of forest culture reported that they had had 
under consideration the bill introduced in 
the Senate by Senator Betgeand the amend- 
ments proposed by the Bay District Horti- 
cultural Society, and were not able to agree 
to approve such bill for the reason, among 
others, that in their opinion the practical 
operations of this bill would be to create 
and pay a salaried officer with the money 
that ought to go directly to the planters of 
trees and forests to help pay the expense 
of such planting and cultivating. And 
that they believe if some small inducement 
were offered to the farmers generally to 
plant and cultivate foi-est ti'ees that the 
market for such trees thus created would 
prompt our nurserymen to plant the seed 
and propagate them in large numbers, and 
at such reasonable rates that all could af- 
ford to buy and cultivate them. And that 
our nurserymen, being well acquainted 
with the business, would much more suc- 
cessfully and at much less expense import 
seed and seedlings of the valuable foreign 
varieties that it would be advisable to cul- 
tivate here, than any person appointed as a 




RICKEY'S IMPROVED BUNG AND BUNG INSERTER. 



grain of the wood at the sides and the 
other against it. To avoid this it becomes 
necesssary to frequently bore or burn them 
out, in order to keep them roun«^. Each op- 
eration of this sort necessarily enlarges the 
hole and weakens the stave, and for this 
reason the bung in a new barrel is left 
much too small for convenience. More- 
over, if by carefulness or an extra quali- 
ty of timber the hole is not enlarged by 
this means, it becomes necessary after 
awhile to take out the head of the cask to 
get at the corks that have been driven in. 

It will be seen from this that it is diflB- 
cvilt to keep these holes of uniform size, 
and consequently a great variety of diff- 
erent sized bungs are required, and these 
have to be selected with care for each dif- 
ferent barrel, consuming considerable 
time. These bungs are frequently made 
of old staves and vary in thickness. The 
thin ones if a good fit, form a shoulder at 
the bottom, which, when a thicker one is 
driven in, is broken andtlie lower end of the 
wood around the hole becomes a mass of 
splinters, rendering it difficult to clean, and 
liable to leak. The object of the above men- 
tioned improvement is, not only to prfi- 
vide a means that will preserve the bung- 
stave as long as any other stave in the bar- 
rel, but to furnish a safe and reliable 
bung which will be a great saving of la- 
bor. This improvement has been thor- 
oughly tested by all the brewers of San 
Francisco, and has given general satisfac- 
tion. One firm alone in this city, Messrs. 
Spreckels & Co., of the Albany Brewery, 
have about 1,000 in use, and heartily I'ec- 
ommend them. The patent for this de- 
vice was secured through the Scientific 
Press Agency by D. B. Rickey, who may be 
addressed at No. Ill and 113 Davis street, 
San Francisco. 

The "Overland" for February. — The 
present number comes to hand full of good 
things, including a bjogi-aphical sketch of the 
life of Joaquin Miller; Wine-making in «<ali- 
foruia; The Commerce of Asia and Oceauica; 
The Palace and Tombs of the Czars, and a 
characteristic tale entitled ' ' Spades. ' ' 



forester who would operate with the 
State's money. That the natural competi- 
tion between nurserymen would secure tha 
trees to the farmers and the towns and cit- 
ies at the very lowest prices they can be 
raised or imported for. The committee 
had, therefore, prepared and would report 
to the club a bill which they deemed calcu- 
lated to afford the greatest amount of prac- 
tical benefits and encouragement to forest 
culture with the least expense to the State, 
and without creating any new office or 
commission to consume the money. 

What the Blills. 

The bill provides for the payment of 
premiums on all forest trees planted on 
private land, at least eight feet apart, and 
cultivated and kept in a good growing con- 
dition six years after planting — commenc- 
ing the third year after planting, and giving 
three cents a tree the third year, two cents 
a tree the fourth -year, two cents a tree the 
fifth year and three cents a tree the sixth 
year. For trees planted on the line of 
public streets and highways and cultiva- 
ted and kept in good growing condition 
for six years after planting, to be at least 
one rod apart, it pi-oposes to give twenty 
cents a tree at the end of the third year after 
planting, ten cents a tree at the end of the 
fourth, fifth and sixth years respectively. 
For trees planted in the public squares or 
parks belonging to towns and cities, and 
cultivated and kept in growing condition 
for six years, it proposes to give five cents 
a year for three years, commencing to pay 
the premium at the end of the third year 
after planting. It requires the State 
Board of Agriculture to designate the va- 
rieties of trees that may be planted, 
and constitutes the Board a Board of 
Judges, to pass upon and award tlie pre- 
mium under the law to parties who shall 
prove, by at least two ci-edible and disin- 
terested witnesses, that they have com- 
plied with the law and have the trees 
growing according to its -conditions. The 
premiums are to be paid out of the State 
Treasury upon certificate of the Board of 
Agriculture. The committee stated that 



by this bill not one cent would be < 
for unless success was secured, and e. 
dollar would go to the actual iiroducer and 
cultivator of the trees. 

The club unanimously approved of the 
bill and it will bo iiresented to the Legis- 
lature. 

Fruit Culture. 

The club then took up the subject of 
fruit culture, and R. Williamson read 
a valuable essay, showing that fruit cul- 
ture, properly conducted, with good va- 
rieties, could be made very profitable in 
this State. 

W. M. Haynie said he was somewhat 
like the man in Sonoma county that gave 
his experience in the Rubal Pkess. 
When the boxes and commissions of the 
middle men were paid, a very small divi- 
dend came to him. Still he believed the 
trouble was in the manner of conducting 
the business rather than in the business 
itself. He thought by selecting judicious- 
ly the varieties of fruit and preparing them 
well for the market the business would 
pay. For instance, the white Smyrna fig 
could be grown and cured as well here as 
in Smyrna or any of the countries on the 
Mediterranean. 'That they cannot be im- 
ported at less than about twenty -eight 
cents a pound in bulk, and there were 
millions of dollars worth imported into 
the United States annually. We should 
and could supply this market. Fig trees ten 
years old would give on an average 150 to 200 
pounds of dried figs a year, and 200 trees 
could be easily grown on an acre — making 
for the acre 30,000 pounds — which at ten 
cents a pound would give S3,000. J. R. 
Johnson said he had been raising figs and 
marketing them a number of years — he 
had twenty good trees over ten years old 
— they average him over .SIO a year per 
tree. Fig trees must not be crowded; 
they do better standing large distances 
apart and the limbs trained horizontally, 
cutting the top of the tree off. They would 
run in this way like a grape vine and .one 
tree be made to cover a quarter of an acre. 
The Italians dry their figs on dry sand; 
this gives them a uniform heat and they 
don't require turning, the sand becoming 
heated. Almonds and other nuts could 
be made profitable to raise; the market was 
always good for these kinds of nuts. 
Mode of Marketing. 

Aiken said that very much depended on 
the manner of putting fruit into the mar- 
ket. Fruit wanted to look well and invit- 
ing, and it would always sell. He had 
sold peaches in Sacramento for fifteen 
cents a pound when the same kind were 
selling at from six to seven cents — the 
looks sold his and the looks sold the others. 
The great secret of making fruit pay is, 
first, grow only the best; second, mai-ket 
at proper time and in good order. It did not 
pay in any coiintry to cultivate poor kinds 
of fruit. Poor kinds of grapes would not pay 
for any purpose. The Feher Szagos grajies 
had no business in any good vineyard. 
The White Muscat and Flame Tokay wore 
among the best for shipping, and the latter 
was a good grape for raisins but tlie Feher 
Szagos was good for nothing. Notwith- 
standing we have a good climate for drying 
fruit in, the great trouble is tlie insects. 
Take your fruit from the scaffold dried in 
the sun and pack it away and in a short 
time it will be alive. The way to get rid 
of the insect eggs is to scald or steam the 
fruit and kill them, and then place it in the 
sun again, say for one day, and then pack 
it, and it will keep well and look and 
really be much better for scalding. 
The true way to dry fruit in tliis State, as 
well as in all other countries, is in a dry- 
ing house. Even then the scalding or 
steaming will do the fruit good and restore 
the bloom to plums, raisins and other fruit 
dried with the skin on. 

The Best Varieties. 

Greenlaw s:iid ho was priuci[)ally en- 
gaged in producing apjiles, and ho agreed 
that the profits were all in having good va- 
rieties and marketing tliem in good condi- 
tion. He had made raising ai>|)les pay to 
his satisfaction. He had sold .§2,100 worth 
off of his little orchard of five or six acres, 
the past season, besides all ho had used 
and given away. 

The subject of fruit culture was contin- 
ued till next meeting, when C. W. Reed 
will read an essay on the subject. 

J. S. Harbison introduced a resolution 
on the subject of the road laws of the 
State, recommending the adoption of the 
laws of Pennsylvania. The resolution was 
referred to Harbison, Johnson and Aiken 
to report at next meeting. 

Adjourned to meet in one week at the 
same place at 1 o'clock P. M. 

Total Rain-Faw,. — At Green's Kiiuch, four 
and a half miles from Davisville, Yolo county, 
from Nov. 7th to Jan. 10th, was 24.03 inches. 



58 



^ ,i^ G X 3s^ 1 43 3t\»1ur 35V slao o^ ftp lEi S 8 S •> 



[January 27, 1872. 




A Few Notes from Mrs. Adam's Lecture. 

Mrs. L. I. J. Adams, the Oriental lect- 
urer, in her lecture on the Holy Tiand, in 
this city last week, gave some valuable 
information upon minor items usually ig- 
nored by travelers in their histories Speak- 
ing of the i>lain of Sharon shosaid: "in De- 
cember and January the plain of Sharon 
is like a garden — the cotton and sugar- 
cane is cultivated with success, aud. small 
fruits, such as cherries, plums and berries 
are produced in great quantities." 
Tyrian Dye. 

"The Tyrian dj'e, the most beautiful 
purple ever made, is manufactured from 
a peculiar shell found upon the sea coast. 
During great storms the waters wash up 
vast quantities of shells, and among them 
is found the variety from which is made 
the valuable Tyrian dye; the process of 
manufacture is a guarded secret with the 
manufacturers of Damascus." 
The Hjok Tree. 

" The husk tree is supposed to be the 
tree from which tlie prodigal son received 
nourishment during his absence from the 
paternal roof. The husk is very delicious, 
—its properties are similar to the peach or 
nectarine, but in form resembles a corn- 
liusk ; it is considered a delicacy by the 
inhabitants of I'alestine." 

Joseph's Coat of Many Colors. 

" The same style of wardrobe is still in 
vogue in Palestine as was described by the 
translators of the Bible. Coats or cloaks 
and tunics, are still made and worn of 
variegated colors. The cloth is woven in 
l^atterns of several colors, usually black 
and white, but the rulers and High Priests 
wear robes of more expensive texture and 
of many colors. Joseph having the favor 
of his father was permitted to wear more 
elegant and elaborate clothing. Yon often 
hear of A. T. Stewart selling camel's hair 
shawls at ii?5,000, and even .$10,000. The 
fact is, Mr. Stewart probably never had a 
real camel's hair shavv^l for sale ; they cost 
§5,000 in Damascus, and are a scarcity at 
that price. Why ? Because they are made 
from the little locks of white wool that 
grow upon the throa^ of the white camel. 
Now the white camel is almost a sacred 
animal in Palestine on account of its 
rarity. The shawls are woven thread by 
thread, by the fingers of the Damascus 
shawl makers ; how many shawls do you 
imagine they could make in one year? 
The hair of the Persian goat is the mater- 
ial used in making what Stewart stdls as 
" camel's hair shawls," at •§•">, 000 each. The 
shawls of the Persian goat hair are beauti- 
ful enough and cost enougli for any lady to 
wear, even thougli she belong to one of 
the royal families of Europe. But a real 
camel's hair shawl in A. T. Stewart's store, 
would be a veritable curiosity. 

The Art of Living Together. 

1. If people ai"e to live happily together 
they must not fancy, because they are 
thrown together now, that all their lives 
have been exactly similar up to the pres- 
ent time, that they started exactly alike, 
and that thej- are to be for the future ex- 
actly of the same mind. 

2. Avoid having stock subjects of dis- 
putation. 

3. Do not hold too much to logic, and 
suppose that everything is to be settled by 
sufficient reason. 

1. If you would be loved as a compan- 
ion, avoid unnecessary criticism upon 
those with whom you live. 

5. Let not familiarity swallow up all 
courtesy. 

6. We must not expect more from the 
society of our friends and oompauions than 
it can give; and especially mu.st not ex- 
pect contrary things. 



Elegance by Accident, or a Chapter on 
Fashion. 

The following curious anecdote is told 
of Lady Wallace, famed in her maiden 
days as Miss Eglintoune Maxwell, of Mon- 
teith, and the sister of the Duchess of 
Gordon. The young lady's family was 
about to attend the races at Leith, and the 
coach was just at the stair-foot, ready to 
take them away, when it was discovered 
that Miss E.L^lintoune was not ready on ac- 
count of wanting her lu^ad-dress, wliich 
she was expecting her milliner to appear 
with every moment. It so hajjpened that, 
as the milliner was coming along the street 
witii the dress in her hand, slie permitted 
some ])art of it to catch the knee-buckle of 
a street porter, by wliicli it was torn, and 
as she thought, comj)letely si)oiled. How- 
ever, she took it to Miss Eglintoune, and 
told her the story, with many protest.v 
tions of regret. The volatile young lady 
took the dress from her hands, and, run- 
ning to her glass, proceeded to put it on, 
torn as it was, only arranging it upon her 
head so as to conceal the misfortune. She 
then joined her friends in the carriage, 
and at Iicith, attracting, as usual, much 
attention, the ladies, instead of ridiculing 
the awkward appearance of her cap, ad- 
mired it exceedingly, and came back to 
Edinburgh, full cry, in the afternoon, to 
get caps of the same description. Of 
course, it was soon known that it was the 
manufacture of theimilliner, who forthwith 
was overwhelmed with orders for similar 
cai)8, and, we believe, was obliged to tear 
thoni with a nail in her counter, in order to 
complete their resemblance to the origi- 
nal. 

A Japanese Boudoir. 

A lady of Mr. James Brooks' party in 
Japan looked into a Japanese boudoir, and 
this is her inventorj': — 

Little or no furniture; nocliairs; no bed- 
stead — nothing but mats to sleep on. A 
toilet-box was on the floor, near the wall — 
about the only article of furniture in the 
room. In this box there were live diawers, 
and two lacquer basins on top. In the 
top drawer of this box there was a metallic 
mirror, like our hand-glasses. In the 
second- drawer she kept her jjowiler, ])aint, 
wax, brush, tooth-powder and'bnish. T\v(j 
little drawers came next: in one she had 
her false liair, and iu the other fancy pins, 
gilt pai>er and other fixtures for her hair. 
In the lower drawer was her pillow, which 
is placed under the neck when sleeiiing 
on the mats, so as to prevent the hair from 
being rumpled. It is made of wood, and 
covered with paper on the top. The pow- 
der looks like starch, and when they use 
it they mix a little water with it, and rub 
it in like paste; and they liave two brushes 
that they use to rub it off with. The 
paint looks green and turns red when put 
on the lips and cheeks. 



Adaptation in Dress. — It has often 
been said that there are no cUildren now- 
a-days. Well, there are no old people 
either; es[>ecially no old women. An el- 
derly lady of our acquaintance, attempt- 
ing to suit herself witli a bonnet at a mil- 
liner's, the other day, turned from the silly 
little things that were olTcred to her, and 
asked for sometliing better adapted to lier 
years. "La! ma'ara," replied the astonished 
saleswoman, "there are no such things as 
old ladies' bonnets now !" And true 
enough, when one sees every day in the 
streets the frippery toys that crown gray 
heads, the loads of gay ribbons and flowers 
from under which, with hideous incon- 
gruity, peep parchment faces, like skulls 
at Egyptian fe.asts, mementos of mortali- 
ty, ho feels that the principle of adapta- 
tion iu dress is out of date indeed — that 
fashion and fitness have no longer any- 
thing in common. He is iu a mood to 
sympathize in the indignaut outburst of 
Petrucio: 

Why this w.is molded on a porriuger; 

A velvet dish; tie, tiel 

AVhy 'tis a cockle or a walnut shell, 
X kuack, a toy, trick, a baby's cap: 
.Vway with it! Come, let us'have a bigyer. 

Ox Loving. — The more tenderly and 
warmly one loves, so much more does he 
discover in himself defects rather than 
charms, that render him not worthy of the 
beloved. Thus are our little faults first 
made know'n to us, when we have ascended 
the higher steps of religion. The more we 
satisfy the demands of conscience the 
stronger they become. Love and re- 
ligion are here like the sun. By mere day- 
light and torchlight, the air of" the apart- 
ment is pure and. undisturbed by a single 
particle; but let in sunbeam, and how 
much dust and motes are hovering about. - 
/. P. Jikhler. 



Down the Slope. 

Youth looks upward. The way of life 
for us all, for a season, lies up the hill. 
We climb the years, and climbing we are 
content. If we could always mount up- 
ward we might ever remain content, but 
unfortunately there comes a time when 
the path incliues, and it is a downward 
path tlicroaftor until the end. 

The evening of every man's life is com- 
ing on apace. The day of life will soon be 
S))ent. The sun, though it m.ay be up in 
mid-heaven, will jiass swiftly down the 
western sky, and disappear. What shall 
light up a man's i)atli when the sun of 
light has gone down ':• He must travrl on 
to the next world; what shall illuminate 
his footsteps after the nightfall of death, 
amid the darkness of his journey ':' What 
question more important, more i)raf;tioal, 
more solemn, for each reader to ask him- 
self ? 

That is a long journey to travel without 
light, without a guide, and without a 
friend. Yet every man must perfiM-m it. 
The time is not far distant when all men 
begin the journey. There is an evening 
star in the natural world. Its nuliance is 
bright and beautiful, and cheering to the 
benighted traveler. But life's evening 
star is a good hope of heaven. Its beauty 
and brilliancy are reflected from the Son 
of llight-eousness, whose bright rays light 
up the evening of life, and throw their 
radiance quite across the darkness of the 
grave into Immanuel's land. It has illu- 
minated the footsteps of m.any a traveler into 
eternity. It is of priceless value. A thou- 
sand worlds cannot i)urchase it; yet it is 
offered without money and without price 
to him who will j)enitontly and tliankfully 
receive it. 



WoMAXs Work. — A girl of only seven- 
teen years located a farui in Kansas some 
three years ago. Tlie laud was perfectly 
wild and she employed no male help, but 
her success has been such th.at she was re- 
cently oflered for her farm a sura ten times 
the amount she paid for it. She refused 
the oll'er, and says th.at in five years more 
she will retire to the East, and live on the 
interest of her proi)erty. 

Miss F. Luella Tkemhly, daughter of 
Dr. Trembly, of Toledo, Ohio, on receiving 
her diidoma from Granville Female Col- 
lege last summer, went liome, took charge 
of her father's books, collects his bills, and 
does the work of a business agent. Her 
set of books are as correct as those of any 
accountant. Lately, when her birtlulay 
anniversary' came s!ie was the recipient of 
numerous gifts, and her father improved 
the occasion to manifest his appreciation 
of her services by presenting her §1,000. 

Domestic Life. — The banes of domes- 
tic life are littleness, falsity, vulgarity, 
harshness, •scolding, vociferation, an in- 
cessant issuing of superfluous prohibitions 
and orders, which are regarded as imperti- 
nent interferences with the general liberty 
and repo8e,and are provocative of rankling 
or exploding resentments. The blessed anti- 
dotes that sweeten and enrich domestic 
life, are refinement, high, aims, great in- 
terests, soft words, quiet and gentle voices, 
magnanimous tempers, forbearance from 
all unnecessary commands or dictation, 
and generous allowances of mutual free- 
dom. Love makes obedience higher than 
liberty. Man wears a noble allegiance, 
not as a collar, but as a garland. The 
Graces are never so lovely as when seen 
waiting on the Virtues; and where they 
thus dwell together, they make a heavenly 
home. 



CiRiocs Chinese Pkoverbs. — The rip- 
est fruit grows on the roughest wall. It 
ia the small wheels of the carriage that 
come in first. The man who holds the 
ladder at the bottom is frequently of more 
service than he who is stationed atihe top 
of it. The turtle, though brought in at 
the area gate, takes the head of ,the table. 
Better be the cat iu a philanthropist's 
family, than a mutton pie at a king's ban- 
(luet. The learned pig didn't learn its 
letters in a day. True merit, like the 
pearl inside an oyster, is content to re- 
main quiet till it finds an ope.ning. The 
top strawberries are eaten first. He who 
leaves early gets the best hat. Pride 
sleeps in a gilded crown; contentment in a 
cotton nightcap. 

Children's Scrap Books.— It is well to 
save childish pictures and wood cuts of va- 
rious kinds, (many of which give children 
an excellent idea of places), and paste 
them int-o an old ledger or copy book. 
They helj) pass awaymauy a childish hour 
and are at once innocent and instructive. 
With the help of questions from their el- 
dors, they aid the children to think. 



Y®^[<Q F^'-^s' GoLjiflji. 



John Horner, Esq. 

Who has not heard of this famous indi- 
vidual y Who does not remember of being 
told in his youth about Jack Horner ? And 
who has not envied his good fortune when 
he 

"Sat in a coviior eating his f'hristnias pie; 
Put iu his thumb 
And pulled out a plum, 
.Vnd says, what a good boy am I ? " 

Have the children ever inquired who 
was Jack Horner '? Here is the tradition: 
When Henry VIII. suppressed the monas- 
teries, and drove out the poor old monks 
from their nests, the title-deeds of the Ab- 
bey of Wells— including tlie sumptuous 
grange built by Abbot Selwood — were de- 
manded by the Commissioners. The Ab- 
bot of Glastonbury determined tbat he 
would seud them to London; but as the 
documents were very valuable, and the 
roads infested by thieves, it was ditRenlt 
to get them safely to the metropolis. To 
accomplish this, however, he devised the 
following plan: He ordered a pie to be 
made — as fine a pie as ever smoked on a 
refectory -table. Inside he put tlie docu- 
ments — the finest lining a ])ie ever had 
since pies were first made. He intrusted 
this dainty to a lad named Horner to carry 
up to London, to deliver it safely into the 
hands of those for whom it was intended. 
But the journey was long and the day was 
cold, and the boy was hungry, and the pie 
was tempting, and the chance of detection 
was small. So the boy broke off a piece of 
pie and beheld the parchment. He pulled 
it forth innocently enough, wondering how 
it could have reached there, tied up the 
pastry and arrived in town. The parcel 
was delivered, but the title deeds of the 
Wells Abbey estate were missing— Jack 
had them in his pocket. These were the 
juiciest plums of the pie. Great was the 
rage of the Commissioners, heavy the ven- 
geance dealt out to the monks. Jack kept 
his secret, and, when peaceable times were 
restored, claimed the estates, and obtained 
them. 

What Annie found in Her Stocking. 

"Annie, yon say Santa C'lfcus has been here. 
What dill you tiud iiiyour stocking, my dear ? " 

"Lots of pretty things, isu't it queer, 

Dcss Santa Taus knows I's been dood 'is year. 

See mamma, here's a dolly with eyes so black, 
And Oh, such a tunuing ittle red sack. 

Here is a fimble, dess Santa Tans knows 
I shall want to make my dolly some tose; 

K red tovered book, full of pictures, too; 
Dcss Santa Taus wants me to 'ead to oou. 

And hero is a birdie with silver wings, 
Xnts, and sugar-plums, lots of tings. 

Is in a hurry ! Pease mamma, may I do 
.\ud show my presents to ittle Fred Lowe ?" 

— Jennn JRaca. 



Spicy Sayings. 

A LITTLE boy embodied his thoughts on 
theology in words thus: "I don't see how 
the devil come to turn out so bad, when 
there was no other devil to put him up to 
it. " 

A LITTLE thing in a Sabbath school was 
asked by her teacher if she always said her 
prayers night and morning '? "No, miss, I 
dont." "'VVliy, Mary, are you not afraid to 
go to sleep in the dark without asking God 
to take care of you, and watch over you 
till morning'? " "No, Miss, I ain't — cause 
I sleep in the middle." 

A BOY called a doctor to visit his father, 
who had the delirium tremens. Not rightly 
recollecting the name of the disease, he 
called it the deril's troubles — making very 
poor Latin, but very good English. 

Oddities. 

The last Thino OcT-^The truth. 

Foot Notes — Shoemakers' bills. 

The Largest Insect Known— Humbug. 

Visionary Fruit — The apple of the eye. 

A Primary Kock — The rock of the cra- 
dle. 

Song of the Bumble-Bee — "Hum, sweet 
hum." 

A Handy Tune — Fortune. It is not com- 
mon metre. 



At ten years of age Charles Dickens, the 
great English novelist, was a poor little 
drudge in a blacking factory. Let the 
boot bl.acks look up. There is no telling 
where some of them may be yet. 

Deceit deceives a little mind. 



January 27, 1872.] 



59 



lOMESTIC 



,CONOMY. 



Animal Food. 

A late number of the Galaxy baa an arti- 
cle, by Dr. C. Draper, upon animal food 
for man. The Doctor does not agree 
■with the vegetation philosophy. We do 
not know but the question of meat or no 
meat will be one of debate while the world 
stands. Concei-ning the influence of cli- 
mate upon diet, Di*. Draper speaks as fol- 
lows: 

"Custom and religion have, it is true, a 
certain influence over the diet of a nation, 
but the habits of a people in this respect 
are, to a great extent, under the control of 
climate. The inhabitant of a torrid region 
delights in the fruits and succulent vege- 
tables with which nature bountifully sup- 
plies him, and does not care to undergo 
the fatigue and exertion necessary to ob- 
tain animal food, when luscious fruit are 
ready to fall into his mouth. He lives 
surrounded by a warm, moist atmosphere, 
he does not require much heat-makiug 
food; the very air is enervating, and why 
should he exert himself when there is no 
necessity ? The dwellers in arctic regions, 
on the contrary, mtist burn away rapidly 
in order to keep the temperature of his 
body at the i)oint required to sustain the 
processes of life. Animal food therefore 
becomes the urgent requirement of his ex- 
istence, and since fat furnishes the greatest 
amount of heat in a given bulk, he seeks 
greedily for the blubber of the seal or 
whale, and a glass of oil is to him far more 
desirable than the choicest wine of a Comet 
vintage. 

"Between these extremes we find the in- 
habitant of the temperate znne, who, while 
he declines to partake of the grosser food 
of his northern neighbor, agrees with him 
in his craving for flesh of all kinds, and 
prizes especially venison and every species 
of game. At his table the fruits and vege- 
tables of the southerner also have their 
place. He occupies the position that na- 
ture has intendt:d for his race. He is an 
omniverous animal and with such a diet, 
and under favorable skies reaches the 
highest development of which his kind is 
capable. It is interesting to notice that 
when the system has become accustomed 
to a mixed diet, a total abstinence from 
either animal or vegetable food causes the 
disease known as scurvy. It is a popular 
error to suppose that this condition is the 
result only of a want of vegetable food. 
This error has arisen from the fact, that, 
heretofore, in long voyages, vegetable 
food has been deficient in quantity, but 
we now know that a species of scurvy may 
arise from a deficiency in the su^jply of 
animal food." 



Hard and Soft Boiled Eggs. 

It is understood that eggs are more easily 
digested if " rare" than "well " done; but 
which portion of the e';^^ resists digestion 
— the " white," which is nearly pure albu- 
men, or the yolk? Lately experiments 
have been made in this direction with am- 
j)le opportunity of demonstrating that 
healthy gastric juice, which the stomach se- 
cretes for puri)oses of digestion, will not 
act readily on firmly coagulated white of 
egg, even if cut in pieces not larger than 
ordinary peas [and that is as fine as people 
usually chew their food !), while it acts 
with facility upon the more brittle yolk. 
The reason is that the coagulated albumen 
is very compact and tenacious, and would 
need to be " ground to powder " to accept 
the chemical affinities of the gastric juice. 

Pour into a basin boiling water sulMcient 
to cover the eggs, put the eggs into the 
water and let them remain 10 or 15 minutes, 
according to circumstances and your own 
taste; keep the water nearly up to boiling 
temperature, but don't boil the eggs. 
Fresh eggs will cook more quickly than 
old ones, and of course small ones quicker 
than large ones. By this process you will 
find the yolks well cooked, while the white 
is left in a condition to digest readily. 



Moths.— In India, upholsterers and sad- 
dlers are badly troubled with moths in their 
work, especially in the rainy season; and 
the upholsterers in that country follow a 
series of simple rules by which they en- 
tirely avoid the ravages of these pests. 
They never put on a burlap or cotton cov- 
ering withoutfirst steeping it in asolution of 
sulphate of copper, made by dissolving 
about one ounce in one gallon of boiling 
water, and then quickly drying the mato- 
rini in the sun or by a hot stove. I'or over 
coverings, especially if of wool, a solution 
of corrosive sublimate dissolved in patent 



colorless alcohol is frequently used with 
good effect. The boiling solution of sul- 
phate of copper is often applied to a floor 
previous to laying a mat or carpet, and in- 
variably under heavy articles of furniture. 

Oil Among the Ancients. 

The ancients knew no method of refining 
oil. As a great luxury, they mixed it with 
perfumes, such as essence of roses and 
sandal-wood; but this rather detracted 
from than added to the burning properties 
of the liquid, and all that was obtained by 
the process v/as an increase of fragrance 
and a diminution of light. The dwellings 
of wealthy men, who expended extrava- 
gant sums upon scented oils, woxild not 
have borne comparison, in point of light- 
ing with the grimest top-room of a gas-lit 
public house. The gold and silver lamps, 
hung by slender woU-wrought chains to 
marble pilasters, only yielded at their best 
a lurid tapering flame, that gave out an 
enormous deal of smoke, fluttered in the 
slightest breeze, and went out altogether 
at a gust of wind. Neither was it possible 
to steady the light by closing the apertures 
through which the air came ; for, had Koman 
or Grecian houses been possessed of glass 
windows, they v/ould soon have become 
uninhabitable. 

The fresco paintings of Pompeian vil- 
las, the delicate colors on the walls of ur- 
ban palaces, would in less than a month 
have been hopelessly coated with lamp 
soot. At the end of an hour's conference 
of an evening, a party of noble Eornans 
would have resembled a congregation of 
chimney-sweeps. A tunic died in Tyrian 
purple would have acquired a mourn- 
ing hue in no time. — All the Year Round. 

Hollow Measure in the United States. 

The following data with regard to meas- 
urements will oftentimes be found conve- 
nient for reference: 

A barrel contains 40 gallons of 321 cubic 
inches, or 9,210 cubic inches. 

The normal bushel is the Winchester; 
this ought to have the diameter in the 
clear of 18% inches, to be 5 inches deep, 
and to have the capacity of 9.25x9. 25x 
3.1-416x8, or about 2,150>^ cubic inches. 

A box 24 inches square and 16 inches 
deep has a capacity of 9,216 cubic inches, 
or nearly a barrel. A bos 17 ■'•4x15x8 inches 
contains 2,130 ciibic inches, or nearly a 
bushel. A box 14^<;xl0x7 J,^ inches con- 
tains 1,075 cubic inches, or exactly a half 
bushel. 

A box 8x8x8 5-12 inches contains .538 cu- 
bic inches, or almost exactly a peck or 
quarter bushel. A box 7x8x43^ inches con- 
tains 231 cubic inches, or a gallon. A box 
6x0x3;-^ inches contains 117 cubic inches, 
or nearly ahalf gallon of 115% cubic inches. 
A box 4x4x3% inches contains 56 cubic 
inches, or nearly a pint or quarter gallon 
(57^4 cubic inches.) 

A New Use for Fresh Eggs. 

Mr. John Murphy of this city — a gentle- 
man of intelligence and close observation 
— recently made to us some interesting 
statements in regard to the value of fresh 
eggs in atlbrding nourishment to weak ani- 
mals, that are worth remembering by all 
farmers. He remarked that he had known 
a young colt which to all aj)pearances was 
nearly dead, the breath of life being barely 
perceptible, to be quite instantly revived 
by giving it one or two fresh eggs. The 
same results, in several cases to which he 
was knowing, have followed the adminis- 
tering of eggs to weak calves, and also to 
feeble and chilled lambs. A remedy so 
simple, so easy at hand and so effectual 
in the cases mentiened — which often occur 
with calves and lambs — should be remem- 
bered by all our readers. 

Cornstalk Syeup. — S. W. Bloom, of 
Broomstown, Ind., has made from common 
cornstalks a syrup superior in flavor to 
sorghum, though there was a sorghum 
flavor discernible. The yield is nearly 
Clonal, per acre, to that of sorghum, and 
does not interfere with the production of 
green corn for market, from the same 
stalk. 



HoESEHADiSH Sauce. — One teacup of 
grated horseradish, one wineglass of good 
cider vinegar' into which has been dis- 
solved a dessert-spoonful of loaf sugar, the 
same of mustard, a teaspoonful of salt; stir 
this to the horseradish. Serve with hot or 
cold meats. 

WuTSN a cork gets inside a jug or bottle, 
and you desire to i-emove it, tie a good- 
sized knot in the end of a stout coxL run 
it into the ves.sel, shake the cork down to 
the neck, .and then pull it out. Don't you 
see how easy it is? 



Domestic Receipts. 

PvEciPE FOE Haie Embeocation. — Oil 
cajeput, two drachms; alcohol, \'2 oz.; gly- 
cerine, loz. ; bay rum, 2% oz.; cologne, 2% 
oz. This makes a fine dressing for the 
hair, keeps the scalp healthy, and is vei-y 
refreshing. 

Sauce foe Plum Pudding. — Of fresh 
butter and loaf sugar, a quarter of a pound 
each, which must be ground until there 
is not a particle of grit in it; the butter 
to be half melted and beaten up with the 
sugar like whijiped cream; then stir in 
gradually a glass of brandy and a glass of 
sherry. This sauce must bo served cold. 
It should not be made until near the time 
it is to be served up, allowing at least a 
half .an hour to whip it; it should be pretty 
stiff if properly made, like ice cream. 

Indian Meal Pudding. — Two quarts of 
milk, nine tablespoonsful of meal, let it 
boil, tlien add four eggs, a piece of batter, 
half a CU13 of brown sugar, one of mo- 
lasses; flavor to taste. , 

Ginger Bread. — Two cups sugar, or 
molasses, one of butter, one cup sweet 
milk, one tablespoonful of ginger, two tea- 
sijoonsful soda, mix soft. 

Puff Cake. — One cup of butter, one tea- 
spoonful of soda, two cups of sugar, two 
teaspoousful cream tartar, three and a 
half of flour, one cuii of milk, and three 

Mos3 Cake. — Two cups sugar, one cup 
of milk, half a cup butter, four eggs, two 
teaspoonfuls of soda, four of cream tartar, 
one small quart of flour, two teaspoousful 
lemon; sprinkle a few dried currants over 
the top; when baked, sprinkle white sugar 
over the top. This receipt makes two 
loaves. 

Apple Sauce. — Stew or bake acid apples; 
when done mash and strain them. To a 
pint add a small piece of butter; sweeten 
to taste; grate over it a little nutmeg; 
serve with pig, goose, or ducks. Dried 
apples and peaches stewed, and sweetened 
and seasoned with lemon or orange peel, 
or nutmeg, makes a good accompaniment 
to fresh meat. Stewed cranberries make a 
superior sauce for meats or poultry. 

Ceeam Cake. — One cup sugar, one and 
a half cups of butter, one and a half cups 
of milk, two eggs, one and a half teasi^oons- 
ful of soda, one of cream tartar, two heaping 
cups of flour; flavor to your taste, then add 
the cream; one heaping tablespoonful of 
flour, two of sugar, one egg, one and a 
lialf pints sweet milk, scalded, pour in the 
mixture, stirring all the time; let it boil a 
moment, get cold; cut the cake when cold 
and sijread on the cream, flavored to your 
taste. 

Mechanical Hints. 

Fine Geeen Beonze. — First boil the 
work in a strong solution of potash to 
get off all the old lacquer and grease; next 
wash in clear water, after that let the work 
stand a day or two in a weak solution of 
nitric acid, then take out, wash, and dry; 
then coat the article with some good black 
lead. Polish until you have a good black 
glossy surface; then put on your yellow 
lacquer, which, put on a black surface, is 
your green bronze. 

Wateepeoof Gltte. — A glue that will 
resist both lire and water may be prepared 
by mixing a handful of quicklime with four 
ounces of linseed oil, thoroughly levigated, 
then boiled to a good thickness, and kept 
in the shade, on tin plates, to dry. It may 
be rendered tit for use by boiling it over a 
fire in the ordinary manner. 

Ameeican Fueniture Abroad. — During 
the week ending Dec. 12th, thei-e was ex- 
ported from the port of New York five 
cases of redwood to Stittin; two pianos and 
seven hundred and fifty fine packages of 
furniture, valued at .S9,932 to Peru; eleven 
boxes of furniture and one hundred logs 
of maple to Loudon ; seven packages of 
furniture to the British West Indies; twen- 
ty-five logs of maple to Havre; twc^ntj'- 
niue packages of furniture, valued at $1,510 
to Hayti; fourteen cases of furniture to 
Central America; eleven jjackiiges of fur- 
niture to New Grenada; three packages of 
furniture to Venezuela, and thirty-four 
packages of furniture to Brazil. 

On the 14th of the same month, eight 
cases of furniture were shipped from New 
York to Constantinople; fifteen cases to 
Havana; nineteen packages of furniture to 
Point a Petre; one hundred cases of furni- 
ture to Rio Janeiro; seven packages of 
furniture, one piano and eight cases of 
oil cloth to Vera Cruz. 

On the 16th, one hundred cases of furni- 
ture, shipped from New York to Bombay, 
and ten hundred and sixty seven p.ackagos 
of furniture to Sydney. 



Be praised not for your ancestors, but 
for your own virtues. 

Forgiveness is the odor of sweet flowers 
when trampled upon. 

Nevee despise humble services; when 
large ships run aground, little boats may 
pull them off. 

Be noble, and the nobleness that live 
in other men, sleeping but never dead, 
will rise in majesty to your own. 

Geeatness lies not in being strong, but 
in the right use of strength. 

The road ambition travels is too narrow 
for friendship, too crooked for love, too 
rugged for honesty, and too dark for con- 
science. 

Never get another to do for you what 
you can just as well do for yourself. Money 
thus paid out is thrown away. 

If you would be pungent, be brief; for 
it is with words as with sunbeams — the 
more they are condensed the deeper they 
burn. 

There is a certain softness of manner 
which in either man or woman, adds a 
charm that almost entirely compensates 
for lack of beauty. 

Better be right than conquer in an ar- 
gument. Better bear the assumption of 
ignorant men than waste your dearly 
bought experience on fools. 

Life is a voyage, in the progress of which 
we are perpetually changing our scenes. 

We first leave childhood behind us, then 
youth, then the years of ripened manhood, 
then the better and more jjleasing part of 
old age. 

Peofanity never did any man the least 
good. No man is richer, or wiser for it. 
It commends no one to any society. It is dis- 
gusting to the refined, abominable to the 
good, insulting to those with whom we as- 
sociate, degrading to the mind, unprofit- 
able, needless and injurious to society. 

Dlffusers Happiness. 

Some men move through life as a band 
of music moves down the street, flinging 
out pleasure on every side through the air 
to all, far and near, who can listen. Some 
men fill the air with their presence and 
sweetness, as orchards, in October days, 
fill the air with the perfume of ripe 
fruit. Some women cling to their own 
house, like the honeysuckle over the 
door, yet, like it, till all the region with 
the subtle fragrance of their goodness. 
How great a bounty and blessing is it to 
hold the royal gift of the soul that they 
shall be music to some and fragrance to 
others, and life to all! It would be no 
unworthy thing to live for, to make the 
power which we have within us the breath 
of other men's joys; to fill the atmosphere 
which they must stand in need of with the 
brightness which they cannot create for 
themselves. 



Despair antedates misfortune, and tor- 
ments a man before his time. It preys 
upon the vital like Prometheus' vulture, 
and eats out the heart of all other satisfac- 
tion. It cramps the nature, and cuts the 
sinews of enterprise. I ■would not de- 
spair unless I knew their revocable degree 
was past, unless 1 saw my misfortune re- 
corded in the book of fate, and signed and 
sealed by necessity. To believe a business 
impossii)le is the way to make it so. How 
many feasible projects have miscarried 
through despondency, and been strangled 
in the birth by a cowardly imagination. 

Do YouE Own Thinking. — Yes, that is 
the idea. Think for yourself. It is well to 
listeu to the expressed thoughts of others, 
and it is an agreeable pastime to give express- 
ion to your thoughts. But when alone, 
weigh what yon have said. What you 
thus gain from surroundings, you will un- 
wittingly transmit to the rising generation, 
and the result will be that you will do 
your share in elevating the human family. 



The prayer which Socrates taught his 
disciple Alcibiades deserves a place in the 
daily devotion of every Christian. "That 
ho should beseech the supreme God to 
give him what was good for him though ho 
should not ask it, and to withhold from 
him whatever would be hurtful, though he 
should be so foolish as to pray for it." 

There is not man on earth, however 
humble, who is a blank; there is not one 
man in society wlio is not either a l)lot 
or a blessing. You have therefore, to 
make your choice, and you cannot choose 
otherwise, whether you shall bo a 
blessing, limited it may be; but still, blot 
or blessing, by no possibility a blank, 
must each of us be. 



60 



iter ijtu Jcj o O « 



[January 27, 1872. 



xn The PublisherB of the PRCAT 

'U PACIFIC KURAL UntMl 

POST- .owo.^ft?f,^.Po.t. INDUCE- 
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can with all confidence recommend with jiridc, thus 
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It has a greater vari- OCT MP >-''>' "' ^'^^^^ a"'! 
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will uot be regretted. BKWEY & CO., Publishers. 



Daily Record, 



By the U. S 


. Arm 


y Signal S 
tjduesday, ,. 


ervice. for the week ending 


W 


anuary 24. IS 4*2. 


c » > 


"SI 


2 

21 


3 


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■1° 


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. to Beau- 
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prox'tely. 


O ■_ 


— ? 


State of 
Weather 


«*§ 


=^ 


I 




5 


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^1 

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s. 


1 


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30.11 IS 


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Uentie 




iOlear 


9 SHtnrd.i\ 


:iii.ialis 


S.i 


.N.W. 


12 


Fresh 


4-1 


jCloudy 


2 Sunday.. 


■»:i\'.i', 


S.i 


i\. 


Ii 


Fiesh 


4-4 


ICIoudy 


^ Monday. 


3i.;ii):W 


io 


i\. 


.1 


Gentle 


3-1 


jCloudy 




:i.i.'2:i.'ii 


SK 


.\ 


1 


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Cloudy 


" VVedda> 


■HiMXi 


1.0 


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IX 


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Clear 


"" Thurs.... 


at). 17 


l:i 


u 


h. 


6 


Gentle 






Clear 


o Friday . . 




















S? Saturd.'iy 




















2 Sunday.. 




















_ Monday. 




















g Tuesday. 




















00 "Wed'day 


WI.7J 


•Vi 


73 


S. E. 


12 


Fresh 


2-4 




Tureat'g 


^ Thurs... 


.30.47 


3o 


00 


.\'. W. 


1 


LiBh t 


4-4 




FoK 


o Friday... 








































n Sunday.. 


30.43 


30 


'iK 


s. w. 


J 


Stormy 


1-4 




Clear 


ra Monday. 




















■8 Tue8d,iy. 




















S, Wed'day 


30.612.) 


a 


K. 


3 


Gentle 






Clear 


. Thurs.. . 


■ja.DBl.'i 


S3 


S. E. 


3 


Gentle 






Ulcar 




30.03 i'Au 


N. E. 


."i 


Genile 






I'lear 


K Saturday 


.■io.:;i( 


IL'OO 


S. 


11 


Fresh 






Clear 


> Sundav. . 


•ZH.IB 


ih\ 


K. 


3 


Gentle 






L'lear 




30.13 


1061 


S. E. 


h 


Gentle 






1 'lear 


«> Tuesday. 


3«.»4 


■i»\m 


S. 


8 


Fresh 


L'-l 




Threat. 


£ Wed'day 
"^ Thurs... 


1 














30.44 WSl 


.N.W. 


4 


r.entle 






Clear 


. Frida.v-... 


30. 3M iS lis 


i\. E. 





l''resh 






Clear 


g Saturday 


30.41) uk;i 


N.W. 


4 


Genile 






lUear 


a Sunday.. 


30.43 13 81 


N. 


1 


Fresh 






Clear 


C Monday. 
















Q Tneadny. 
" Wed'day 


30. '20 


I.IS.'l 


Calm 






;!-! 




r <otdy 


a.l.l.'i 


3 10 


^. E. 


M 


High 






rl,.,i,- 


Thurs... 


30. IW 


lil (i7 


Calm 










clear 


^ Friday... 


30.01 


IHS3 


N. 


■26 Brisk 


4-4 




Snow 


P Saturday 


30.03 


10 6. 


i\. 


■23 Brisk 






Clear 


S Sund.Hy. 


liH.Hi 


'I't 


1 1 


W. 


11 Fresh 


4-4 




Cloudy 


g? Monday. 


30.07 


■u 


ii 


\. 


32 High 


1-1 




Fair 


ja Tuesday. 


2:i.0l 


h 


.)i 


.v.w. 


21 Bri^k 


3-4 






" Wedday 


3(1. hi 


10 




N. 


ISi Brisk 






(■lear 


Thurs... 


30 II 


ii 


HO 


s. 


10|Fre<h 






Clear 


Friday. . 


30. OM 


16 


i4 


s. 


2 Stormy 






Clear 


g Saturday 


30,14 


1 


,'i 


s. 


11 Flesh 






Clear 


t- Sunday.. 


30.03 


3-) 


34 


A'.VV. 


24 Brisk 


4-4 




C'oudy 


g Monday. 


30.07 


CI 


M 


s vv. 


11 Fresh 






« lear 


Q Tuesday. 


30.03 


14 


n-j 


Calm 




3-4 






Wed'day 


311.30 





Oil 


iV. 


10 Fresh 


4-4 




Lt. Snow 


Thurs.... 


211.09 


'Jl 


til 


S. VV, 


1 Lixht 






Fair 


F'riday. , . 


■l'.1.1h-r, 


Hs 


.V. u ■ 


lo' Brisk 


4-4 




Lt. Snow 


«a Saturday 


30.0.'i;l.')S-i 


-V.w. 


ISjFresh 


4-4 






■g Sunday.. 


2fl.'.l7 lli»3 


(!alm 




4-4 




( :|ear 


a Monday.. 


■.i0.s(i'-27 


S.-^ 


.N.W. 


1'2 Fresh 






Fair 


o Tuesday. 


■mM I 


liO 


i. \V. 


141 Fresh 


3-4 






Wed'day 


30. W 1 


6S 


V. W. 


lo' Fresh 


3 4 




(■loudy 


►4 Thnrs.... 


30.1.|3IH.'< 


W. 


7 Fresh 


4-4 


.01 


1 loudy 


^ I'riday. .. 


•.'!).S2|.1.1 Wl 


s. 


I Slorniy 


4-1 




Chmdy 


g Saturday 


■»I.HHl2SJ7; 


"1. w. 


12 Kresh 


4-1 




t ■loudy 


g* Sunday.. 


30.l.')|ll 70 


w. 


6 Fresh 


1-4 




.lear 


S Monday. 


■il).77'i<NH 


■i w. 


13 Fresh 


1-4 






iJ Tuesday. 


30.10 N77 


.f. w 


(i Fre h 


1-4 




Clear 


5 Wed'day 


30.37 


1) 


V, 


w. 


14 


Fresh 


1-4 




Clear 



The amount of raiufiiU in Sha.sta for tlie sea- 
sou, up to uoon ou the 5th of January, was 
50.1-1 inches. 

Fkuit Culture. — We have in hand an 
Eisay on IVuit Culture, read before the 
Farmer's Club of Sacramento by Robert 
Williamson, which will receive early at- 
tion. 



The supply of India-rubber is said to be 
iuexhaustible. Each tree can be tapped 
for twenty successive years, and yields on 
an average three tablespoonfuls aday; 
■i3,000 of those trees have been counted 
on a tract of laud thirty miles long by eight 
wide. 



Important to Purchasers of Tide 
Lands. — At a late meeting of the new 
State Board of Tide Land Commissioners, 
licid at Sacramento, the following resolu- 
tion was adopted: 

Resolved, That in all cases where persons 
or corporations are delinquent in their de- 
fi>rrod payments for purchases of Salt 
Marsh and Tide Lands, and the property 
thus delinquent has been advertised for 
re-sale, each delinquent shall be chargea- 
ble with the pro rata cost of advertising in 
addition to the amount of deferred pay- 
ment which may he overdue, before such 
delinquent shall be entitled to have the 
l>i'operty which has been advertised with- 
drawn from sale. 

CALpoRNiA Fruit in Boston. — The 
first shipment of California pears ever 
made to this city direct, came to the mar- 
ket this week over the Pacific Eailroad, 
consisting of 400 boxes, each box con- 
taining tliree pecks, of those large, 
luscious pears for which tlie Golden 
State is so celebrated for raising. They 
were shipped from Sacramento by C. W. 
lieed, and arrived in si)lendid condition. 
The freight bill was .'STOO, and tlio fruit 
was consigned to Hilland, Smith it Co., 
and attracts the attention of all who pass 
by their stall.— //ostoH Bulletin. J&n. 6th. 



City 



KET F\EpOF^T. 



DOMESTIC PRODUCE AT WHOLESALE. 



IThp prices Riven below are those for entire consigumouts 
from tirst hands, unless otherwise specified. J 

San Fbancisco, Thurs., a. m., Jan. 25. 

FLOUR— We note an active local demand with 
a good enquiry for export. The j)riucipal 
movemeuts of the week were the disjjatch of 
Hvl50 bbls. to Hongkong, and receipt of 11,000 
bbls. from Oregon. Sales reported embrace 
5,000 bbls. Cal. extra, 5,000 do. Cal. superfine, 
and 3,000 Oregon extra. We quote prices as 
follows: 

Suporfiue, $5.75@6.00 ; extra, in sacks, 
of I'JG Itjs. $0.7a(Mi,7.0O. Standard Oregon 
brands, extra, may be quoted at $G.75(«J7.00. 

WHEAT — The business has been quiet dur- 
iug the week under review, at a decline in 
prices. Sales ai'gregate 20,000 sacks -fair to 
choice at $'2.1.5(«J'2.30 1^ 100 lbs. Quotable at 
close at S2.'20@,'2.30 per 100 lbs. 

The lat^t Liverpool market quotation comes 
through at 128. 4d. per cental. 

B.VKLEY — Has been inactive during the past 
week, at unchanged rates. Sides embrace 
•1,000 sacks ordinary coast to choice bay, at 
f l..')0@1.70, which is the range at close. 

(.)ATS — Demand has been limited during the 
week under review. Sales 3,000 sacks ordinary 
coast to choice bay, at $1.G5@1.85 per 100 lbs. 
which is the extreme at close. 

COllN— Is quotable at $1.'!0@1.(!5 for yel- 
low and white respectively '^j 100 lbs. 

CORNMEAL— Is quotable at $2.50@$3.00 
~^ 100 lbs. from the mill. 

BUCKWHEAT— Is jobbing at $2.50 per 100 
lbs. 

RYE— According to quality ia quotable at 
$2.25(5>$2.50 per 100 lbs. 

STR.\.\V— Quotable at $7.50@$8.50 per ton 
by the cargo. 

BRAX— Selling at 827.12% per ton from the 
mill. 

MIDDLINGS— For feed, are selling at $37.50 
per ton from mills. 

OIL CAKE MEAL— In good demand at $40 
from the mill. 

HAY — Receipts have been free, and prices at 
close are .'5*18.00@'22.50 for fair to choice ^ ton. 

HONEY — We quote Los Angeles comb at 
r2%@15c. Potter's in 2-lb cans, $4 per doz. 

BEESWAX— In good demand at 40c ''^j lb. 

POIATOES— Market has been quite steady 
during the past week. Bodega, Tomales and 
Petaluma, G0@80c.; Humboldt, 85fe<J5c. '^ ctl. 

HOPS — The range is 45(Vt;G0c. 

HIDES— During past week 1,120 Cal. dry 
sold at 18@19 and 890 salted at 8(Vi(U%c. 

WOOL— The transactions have been large 
during the week under review, and nearly 
closed out all the fall clip in first hands. Sales 
of 415,000 lbs. private and 50,000 at full figures. 
Prices for goo(l to choice shipi)ing grades are 
22(3 '28c ptT fti- Burry 17(aj21. 

TALLOW— Market quiet at 8%@0e ^ Jb. 

SEEDS— Flax 3c. ; Canary, G@7;/sC., Alfalfa, 
15(a)20c; Mustard — California Brown, 3(a)Gc; 
Cal. W'hite 'i\(w/^y^c. "^ lb. 

PROVISIONS— California Bacon Uy^QvUc; 
Oregon, 14%@15c; Eastern do. 13%(nil4c; 
for clear and 14(^15 for sugar-cured Breakfast; 
Cal. Hams 11{«'14%; Oregon, 15 %((tllGc; Califor- 
nia Sugar-cured Hams, 1GJ/j@17g; Oregon do. 
17(rtil8c; Eastern do, 18(a»/20c; Cahfornia 
Smoked Beef, 12J 2@14c. per lb. 

BEANS— Market"conlinues fair. The follow- 
ing are jobbing rates: Pea $3@3..50; small 
White $2.75^/,:*3.00; small Butter $2.50@2.75, 
large $3.00@$3.25; Pink $3; Bayo, $3.40® 
S3.G0; Navy $3.50 ^ 100 lbs. 

ONIONS— Fair to choice, $75@1.25 'p, 100 
lbs. 

NUTS— Cahfornia Almonds, 8@,10c. for 
hard and 18@'25 for soft shell; Peanuts, 5® 
8c; Pecan, 25c ^ lb Walnuts, now, 12%c; Hick- 
ory, 12c; Brazil, 16c; Chili Wahiuts, 10c. ; 
Cocoanuts, $G. 00(7/8.00 per 100. 

FRESH ME.VT— Market has remained firm 
since last report. We quote slaughterer's rates 
as follows: — 

BEEF— .iinerioan, 1st qnaUty,10@12%c |»j lb. 
do. ■2d quality 'J(uj,H)o '^j lb.; do. 3d do. G(a(7c. 

VEAL— Quotable at 10(ajr2%c. 

MUTTON— 12@,15c. "^ ft). 

LAMB — None in market. 

PORK — Undressed grain-fed is quotable at 
6%@,7c. dressed, grain-fed, 10%@llc. per lb. 

POULTRY— Live Turkeys, 17@,l'Jc. '^ ft).; 
dressed, 21c. i>er lb.; Hens and large Roos- 
ters, $0.00 per dozen; Spring Chickens, $8.00@ 
D.OO; Ducks, tame, $9.01X3*10.00 per doz.; Geese, 
$15@$18 '^ dozen. 

WILD GAME— Dealers pay the following 
prices for lots from the couutry: Hare, $3.00(«} 
$3.50 per dozen; Rabbits, $1.25(n'$1.50; Quail, 
$1.75(>//2.00; English Snipe, $'2.00Ca)$2..50; Mal- 
lardDucks, $3.00@$3.50; Small Ducks, $1.50; 
Wild Geese $2.00(a}$3.00 ^ doz. 

DAIRY PRODUCTS— Fresh California But- 
ter, common to good in rolls, is in free supply, 
and prices tending downwaid; it may lie quoted 
at 25(at35c; Cahfornia firkin butter, 20@/27%c. 
Pickled, 25(2;27%c. Eastern firkin, 20(a25c. 

Cheese- CaUfomia,16@19c, Eastem,15@17c. 
per lb. 

Eggs — lu fair supply. California fresh, 42% 
(S!45c. ^ doz. 

LARD-California 12>,;c«;13%; Oregouiubbls. 
and kegs 12%@13c.; Eastern in cases Xi@ 
14%c. ; do in tcs. 12%@13c. per ft). 



FRUIT. 
Mex. OranKes.M.»30 Of)(§3,5 (X) 

CalilornLulu .. 16 (JOKJi 00 

Linics.-i;**! V> 0^1(0)17 iU 

Alistlnl.enuin8.1'X 4 OtXaJ — 

Sicily do ^ bs. 8 u*){Sl« 00 



Apiile*. 'S ft.... 

■''ears, "^ It) 

I'eaches, "H ft... 
Aprleoi.--, iH lb.. 
I'lilms, %4 111 



Calibace. 



lb.. 



Oil. do r^ \m 

Bananas,^ biiiieh 

\piiles, earing, o.\ 

do eofikin'.;, bx 

fears, ^ box .... 

DRIED FKUIT. 

8; (a) 9e I Pitted, dol* ft.. 

5 felU tHalsin*,* ft 

8 (gJlO lilsek Pi|,'', ^ lb... 
(i (<n s'l White, do .... 

6 |u) 8 I 
VEGETABLES. 
1 ga imlMarfl. Squash. ton $—@S!.') 00 



2 2.51^ — 

■i ."HJiat 3 50 

1 TMai 2 0" 

7.^3/ I ■.'•> 

75(fj> 3 00 

. 20 ®22 

. 10 %\:, 

■ « (a>Viii 

. 15 (s'Ai 



yu 00 

•20 00 
30 00 
20 00 
16 00 
12 00 
25 UO 
16 00 



(jurlie, %4 lb i (^ 

GENERAL MERCHANDISE. 

AGRICULTUR.\L IMPLEMENTS— Dealers 
report a good demand for seasonable articles 
under this head. 

BAGS AND BAGGING— There is only a 
moderate demand for any kind at present, aud 
prices remain largely nominal. Burlap sacks 
15c; Flour sacks lOy^a. for (jrs. and IGc. for 
hlfs. Standard Gunnies are jobbing at 23(«i 
24c. 

BOOTS AND SHOES— There has been a 
fair demand during the week under review for 
goods in this line at unchanged rates. 
BUILDING AND FENCING M.VrERIALS— 
The local trade has been fair, and only moderate 
demand for export. Dealers pay for cargoes 
of Oregon as follows: Rough $1G; do 
dressed ?>25; Spruce $17(aJ,18; Redwood $1G@ 
$30 for rough and dressed, and 12 for refuse. 
We quote Laths at $2.75@3.00; Shingles $2.50 
(((}2.75. Redwood Lumber Association's prices 
are as follows: 

Merchantable worked rustic,' $:il 00 to $32 50 

llefuse do do 20 00 to 21.10 

Merchantable surfaced and rough clear 28 00 tu 

Refuse surfaced and rough 18 00 to 

Merchantable beaded flooring 28 00 to 

Refuse do do 18 00 to 

Merchantable rough IS 00 to 

Refuse do do 11 00 to 

Fancy Pickets 2'i 60 to 

Rough Pickets 13 00 to 

The mill price for cargo lots from Northern 
Ports is $"J.O0@$10 for timber, aud $17.50@ 
$20 for flooring. 

COFFEE— Costa Rica 20%c; Guatemala 19c; 
Jav.i 25%c; Manilla, 19%; Rio 19%@20. 
Ground Coffee in cases 30c.; Chiccory, 12%. 

SPICES— Allspice 14(ajl5c. Cloves lG(«a7c. 
Cassia35@36c. Nutmegs $1.00(i(),$l. 10. W'hole 
Pepper 19c. GroundSpices — Allspice $1.00 ^ 
doz.; Ciissia $1.50; Cloves $1.12%; Mustard 
$1.50; Ginger and Pepper, each $1.00 '^ doz.; 
Mace $1.50 ^, lb.; Ginger 1.5c ^ lb. 

FISH— We (juote Pacific Dry Cod iu bun- 
dles at 5c., and in cases at 8(Vi).8%c; Salmon, 
in bbls. $5.00@7.00, hf do, $3.50(rtj4.50; Case 
Salmon, $'2@3 ^ doz for l(aj"2-ft) cans respec- 
tively; Pickled Cod, $4.50 iu hf bbls and $8 in 
bbls; Puget Sound Smoked Hen'ing, 60@85c 
per box; Mackerel, hf bbls, new, per rail, 
$12; do in kits, $3 ; exti'a mess do, $5 ; 
Smoked Salmon, 7@7%e per lb. 

NAILS — Quotable at $5 50@7.75 for invoice 
lots ex ship. 

PAPER — California Straw Wrapping, sells at 
$1.50 "^ ream. 

PAINTS— W^e quote White Lead at 10@12%c ; 
Whitening, 2%c. ; Chalk 2c.; Paris AVhite 3c.; 
Ochre 3(//,3%c. ; Venetian Red 3@5c. ; Litharge 
9@llc. ^ ft). 

RICE— Sales of China No. 1 at8%@8%c and 
No. 2 at7'4@7,^+c "^ lb; Siam, quotable at.7(oj 
7%ciumat8; Carolina, Table, 9%(t^lO; Hawai- 
ian, 8%(oi9 per lb. 

SUGAR— We quote Cal. Cube at 14%c; Cir- 
cle A Crushed, 14%c, and Granulated 14c; Yel- 
low Coffee and Golden C, 12%@13c; Hawaiian 
8@/12c as extremes ^ lb. 

SY'RUP — Prices may be given as follows: 
82 %c in bbls, 85 in hf bbls, and 90c in kegs. 

SALT— California Bay sells at $5((i!$15; 
Carmen Island, in bulk, $14; Liverpool Coarse, 
$18@20; do Stoved, $23.00 ^ ton. 

SOAP — The prices for local brands are 5@ 
10c, and Castile, 12(a,15c '^ lb. 

TEA— We quote Hyson at G0@,75c ; Gun- 
powder and Imperiid, 95c(a)1.05 ; Young Hy- 
son and Moyune, 90c@l.l5; FooChow Oolong, 
50@90c; Pouchong, 37%@45c; Souchong, 50 
@75c; Jap an 40@75c. ^ ft). 

Leather Market Report. 

[Corrected weekly by Dolliver & Bro., No. 109 Post St.] 
San Francisco, Thursday, .lanuarj- 25, 1872. 

Sole Leatheb.— The demand is still equal to the supply, 
and i'rices still continue Ilrnl. 

Citj laniied I.eatbcr, ^ ft 26@29 

SanlaC'rui-, Leather.* ft a8@'i9 

Country Leather, |« lb 25'^'28 

The market is well supplied with French Btoeks, and 
prices liave a downward tendeac>'. Ueavy California skins 
are lirni, with an upward tendency. 

Jodot, H Kil.. i)er do/. ... 

Jodot. II to 19 Kil., per doz....... 

Jodot. second choice. II Ui 15 Kil. ^ doz... 

Lenioine. 16 to la Kil ,^do7. 

Levin, 12 and 13 Kil.. per doz 

CornelliaD, 16 Kil.. per doz 

Cornell ian. 12 to U Kil., per doz 

OKerau Calf, * doz 

.Simon, IH Kil., ft doz 

Simon, '20 Kil. * doz 

Simon. U Kil. ¥ doz 

Robert, Calf. 7 and 8 Kil 35 0()(<$ 40 00 

Frenih Kips. ■}» ft 1(0® ISO 

California Kip. •« doz 66 00 to 80 00 

French Sh»cp. all colors, V doz IS 00 

Eastern Calf for Backs. %* ft i \!i@ 125 



San Francisco Retail Market Rates. 



. .;iiO 00(9 

. . "6 m.-j) 9.5 00 
. . 6U (lOl^ 80 00 
. . 95 (IIM 
. . 68 (Xm 70 00 
..70 00(3) 
.. 60 om 68 00 
. . 54 OOg) 
..65 00 
.. 68 00 
72 00 



Sheep Itoans for TopiiioK. all colors, iP doz 6 00® 13 00 

o,. „,.__.,-_,:_:■.--., J-- 550(910,50 

... 1 75(3) 5 90 

... 6 25 

... 4 50@ 600 

... i 00 



Sheirp Koans for LininRs, ift doz 

California Russett Sheep LininRjl. 



Best, Jodot Caf Boot Leu's, ^pair 
Uood French Calf Hoot Lees, iJ* pair 

French Calf Boot l.eKS.%^ pair 

Harness Leather, "t* iS 

Fair Bridlv Leather, ft doz 

Skirting r.,ealher, ^ ft 

■Writ leather, V.Ioz 

BuB Leather. * foot 

■Wax Stdtt Leatuer, 1^ foot 



=^^7ra? 



, 48 0U($ 

taooq 



21 
20 



Cnitebsity of CALrroKNiA. — The Preparatory Dcpart- 
^lent is uni ler the charge of five Professors of the Dni- 
versity, and six tutors. 

Besides the Ntudles of the public schools. Algebra, 
Geometry, I.,atin, (ireek, Qeruiau, I'reuch, Spanish and 
Book-KwpiuKlure taught. 

Terms: Board and tuition, 1 weeks, $30. Students re- 
ceived at any time. Ueoboe Tait, Oakland, Master 
Fifth Class. Be9bptf 



60 



25 ® 30 

'20 @ 'i^ 

f5l liO 

IS to 20 



Butter, Oal f r . ft .50 (a 

Pickled, Cal. ft 40 (» 
do OreKoQ, ft.. a 

Honey, ^ ft — 

Cheese, t* ft , . . 

Kkrs, 6erdaz.. 

Lard, ^ Q) 

Suear. cr., 6'< ft.l (PO w 

B>own, do.V ft 10 {<u 

Beet, do 1 00 fi) 

SuKar. Man. ft. '25 (g) .10 

Plums, drieu, ft. 1.5 (a) 30 

Peaches, dried,* 15 ^ 30 

Wool Sacks, new (^ 

iSecond-hnddo 67 is*^ 70 



TnunsDAT Noon, January 25, I8i2. 
MISCELLANEOUS. 



13 



Wheat-sks, 22x36 IS 9 13 

Potato G'y Bags. '22 (4 21 

Second-linddo 15 («l 15 

Deer Skins, %( ft. 15 (v 22 

Sheep ska. wl on .50 ® 75 

Sheep sks, plain. I2/ji(^ 25 

Coatskins.each. V> (^ .VI 
Dry Cal. Hides.. 
Salted do. . . . 
Dry Mex. Hides. 

Salted do 

(Jodhsh, dry, ft.. ^ _ 

Live Oak ■Wood. 9 .50 ®l0 00 

Tallow 8>4® 9 



18S® 



17'^® 
o.'slg) 



HI 

'J,'ll 



10 m 12!^ 

.50 ®1o r 



PRODUCE. ETC. 



Flour,ei,T!*bbl..7 fO ® — 

Supertine, do .(> 50 (.jj7 OU 

Corn Meal. 100 ft.3 00 ^:( .50 

Wheat, 14 100 fts.2 40 <ai 60 

Oats, ^ 100 fts...I 75 (a2 00 

FRLITS. VKGETABLES 

Pine Apples, t. .5 00 roJO 00 

Bananas,'^ bneh ;jO iu> SO 

Cal. Walnuts, lb. @ '20 

Cranberries, i^ g 7S (a^l 00 

Cranberries, O.T (ml 25 

Pears, table.'P hx 75 ml 25 

Plums, Cherry,". 6 («) 8 

Oranges.* IO(W..3ll 00 (<a 

Lemons, t« IdU.. A 00 w! 00 

Limes, per 100... 2 00 (at 
Fiss. dried, ^ ft 



Barley, cwt 1 85 ®2 20 

Beans, cwt 3 .50 ®4 .50 

Dry Lima Beans ¥ ft 8 

Hay. % ton . ..-ii OU («30 00 

Putaloes if> c'.l .. 75 'p I l'2;i 

ETC. 

Cress. *! doz bun 20 @ 25 

Hei 



Dried Herbs, b'h 

Garlics 

Green Peas, ^ ft 
Lettuce, y. do/... 
Mushrooms. V lb 
Hor.'.eradish.'W ft 
Okra. dried. ■$( ft 
Pumpkins. ^ ft. 
Parsnips, tbnchs 

Parsley 

Pickles, li^ gal... 
Rhubarb, -f ft. 



(a> .50 
S <gt 

(0 '20 

12 @ 25 



Asparagus, wh.* 
Artichokes, doz. 
Brussei's sprts, • 

Beets, f* doz 

Potatoes, %* ft .. 

Potatoes, sweet,* 

Broccoli, ■? doz. 1 .50 @'2 I 'Dry Lima. shl. 

(;aulitlower, t . . (<vl 50 i Spmaee. 1B bskt. 

(;abliage.'Wdoz..l 1)0 (g,! .50 'Salsify. ^ hunch 

f Carrots. V doz... 10 (0) "25 jTurnips. ij* doz. . 

Celery, %* doz 75 (9,100 I 



10 (m 12'a Radishes, t buns 

20 m 25 I Red. do 

2 @ 3 Manowfat. do. 

1,9 S I Hubbard, do.. 



3 (U) 4 
20 IVjt 

(at '« 

.50 (a, 75 

@ 25 

(4 25 

(a) 3 

(A) 4 

6 @ 8 

25 @ .50 

12 (<u '2S 

20 gi 25 



POULTRY. GAME. FISH, MEATS, ETC. 



(;hickons, apiece ST.'i.foil 00 
Turkeys, ^ to.. 25 ('» 30 
Ducks, wild, T^ p .50(ail 00 

Tame, do 1 75 IQ'i CO 

Teal, ^ doz.... 3 00 

Geese, wild, pair (5I 00 

Tame, %( pair. .2 .50 lai3 (K) 

Hens, each 75 (»l UO 

Snipe, %» doz ...1 50 iwi 00 

English, do. . . .2 .50 (^3 00 
(Juails, %4 doz ...2 25 («,2 60 
Pigeons, dom.do3 00 (0)3 50 

WUd, do dv 

Mares, each ... 40 (g .50 
Rabbits, tame.. 75 (u)l 00 

Wild. do. t* dz.l 75 lii^'i 00 
Squirrel, ^ pair. 25 un 
Beef, tend,f) ft. '20 (^ 

Corned. ^ ft.. 10 (3) 

Smoked, «t ft . " ' 
Pork, rib, etc., ft 

Chops, do, # to 15 
Veal. ^ ft 15 

Cutlet, do..,.. 
Mutton chops,* 

Leg, » ft 

I,amb. f^ ft 

Tongues, lieef, ea 
Tongues, pig, ea 
Bacon, Cat., ^ ft 

Oregon, do 
Hams, Cal, ■#». 
•Perth, 



- ® 
IS (3 
10 ® 



15 (0/ 
12'4«* 



25 
12 
18 
15 
20 
. '20 
(3 20 
(5 18 

S IN 

® 18 

(* 75 

O 15 

til 20 

(a, '20 
a 20 



Hams, Cross' so — (dj '25 

Choice D'lHeld — (m '25 

Whittaker's .. — ® '25 

,Ioluison's Or, 
(■ lounder, V to. 
.Salmon, "r* Di. .. 

Smoked, new, 

Pickled,** ft. 
Rock Cod. *f< ft.. — 
Perch, s water, ft — 

Freshwater, ft — 
r,ake Big. Trout* — 
Smelts, laigeV'to — 

Small do 

Soles, V ft 30 

Herring, fresh.. 5 

Sm'kd.jierlOO — 
Tomcod, ^, ft — ;^0 
Terrapin, "i^ doz. 
Mackerel, p'k,ea 

Fresh, do — 

Sea Bass, I* ft. . . — 

Halibut — 

Sturgeon. 1|( ft.. 



25 
25 
20 
12 

15 
10 
15 
»7« 



35 



<^l 00 

a — 



. 5 a 8 

Oysters, *(100...1 00 al 25 

,'hesp. %* (■ 



Crabs % doz 
Soft Shell.. 

Shrimps 

Prawns. 



doz.. — 
1 W 



i Per dozen. 5 Per ffoUon. 

San Francisco Metal Market 

[Corrected weekly by Hooker A Co., 117 and 119 Cal. street.] 
PR1018 roR i.xroiois 



lobbing prices rul* frmn ten to A/I^en per cent, higher that 
foltotoinfi Q'lritaiioti*. 

Thcksday, January 25, W 

[RON.— 

Scotch andlF.nglish Pig Iron, ^» ton $52 .50 @ 55 

■White I'iK, "fi, ton .45 00 (g) — 

Refined Bar, bad assortment, ^ft — 04 (3I — 

Refined Bar, good assortment, ^ ft — OS (^ — 

Boiler, No. 1 to 4 — 05 (31 — 

Plate, No. 5 to 9 (SI — ( 

Sheet, No. 10 to 13 — Oi'im — ■ 

Sheet, No. 14 to 20 — 06 @ — ■ 

Sheet, No. '24 to 27 —06 (a; — ■ 

liorse Shoes 7 .50 

Nail Rod 10 

Norway Iron 8 

Rolled Iron S 

Other Irons for Blacksmiths, Miners, etc. 5 (g) 

Co I' FEB.- 

Sheathing,* to — 24 @ — 

Sheathing, ■yellow — 24 (J — 

Sheathinif. Old ■V'ollow _ H (9 — 

Composition Nails — 24 — 

Composition Bolts — '24 — 

Tin Platk-s.- 

Plates. Charcoal. IX ?l box 12 00 — 

Plates, ICiJharcoal 10 00 10 

Roofing PLUes,.-. 11 00 — 

BancaTin. Slabs. T)» ft — 

SrEKl,.-Euglish Cast, *( ft — 16 — 

Drill 16 

FlatBar 17 

Plough Points 3 75 

Russia (for monld.boards) Vl}i 

QCICKSILVEB.— %* to — 

LE.M).-Pig, ^ ft --0.5,'-S — 

Sheet — 08 — 

Pipe — 9 — 

Bar 06 - 

ZINC.-Sheets, f, to — 10 — 

BoiiAX.— Refilled — 25 _ 

Borax, crude — 5 — 



ih. 



OVA 
06)i 



26 
■23 



85 

ir 

09 

IO,*i 

30 



Go to the Best.— ■young and middle-SRed men 
should remember that the Pacific Bcsisess College is 
the oldest and most jiopular and euccessful Business 
Training School on this coast. Upwards of Three 
Thousaud Students have attended during the past six 
years, many of whom now hold prominent positions In 
the first banking and mercantile houses of this city. 
This is the model tkaining school fob business on this 
coast, having the greatest corps of Professors aud 
Teachers, and the greatest number of students in at- 
tendance, of any institution of the kind. Young men 
flock to this College from all parts of the Pacilic States 
and Territories, British Columbia, Mexico, Sandwich 
Islands and South America. We shall be pleased to 
send our College Circular, giving full information, to 
all who send us their address. When you write, mention 
that you saw this notice in the Pacii'Io Rcilil Pbess. 
M. K. LAUDEN, President, San Francisco, Cal. 



Dickey's liiquid Bennet, 

For making Slip, Curds, Whey, Oust&rd, Etc., and for 
preiiaring Infants' Food. 

It is prepared from tbe lining membrane of the 
stomach of the calf, and is invaluable as a corrective to 
render cow's milk digestible when it is found to disa 
gree with the tender infant. Full directions accompany 
oach bottle, which is sufiBcicnt for eight gallons of milk. 

For sale by all druggists and grocers, lv3-3m 

TThe Evangrel, Ofiice, 414 Clay street, San Fran- 
Cisco. Terms, J4 per year, in advance. The Evangel 
is the organ of the Baptist Denomination for the Pacific 
States and Territories. All efforts on the part of 
bri^threii and friends to extend its circulation will be 
gratefully apjircclated. f;), for one year's subscription, 
will be received from ne* subscribers, strictly in ad- 
vance. Address " Evangel, Sun Francisco, Cal." 
Sami>le copies furnished free, 4v31ambptf 



January 27, 1872.] 



61 



Trade Mark Patents for Mer- 
chants and Manufacturers 

Can now be secured to advantage under the 
NEW LAW in the United States. Parties in- 
terested will be furnished with all information 
desired, and have their application intelligently 
prepared and promptly forwarded to the Patent 
Office, and their patents secured in good time, 
by DEWEY & CO., U. S. and Foreign Patent 
Agents, No. 414 Clay street, S. F. bp-16p 



Something New in the United Slates. 
SEEDS 

— OF THE— 

FAMOUS TURKISH MUSKMELON, 

Which Keeps Sound the Year Kound, 

A LUXUHY FOR ALL SEASONS. 

Now for Sale for the first time in this country, 
by DEWEY cfe CO., of this office. 

Small packages will be Bent, post paid, to any part of 
the Union for 50 cents. 

These Melons are certainly a remarkable production, 
and we believe fully worthy of a trial by tlmge who are 
fond of this kind of Fruit and would like the con- 
venience and novelty of having it tlirougliout the yuar 
The following is from the introducer, who has given us 
the sole agency for furnishing the Seeds throughout the 
United States: 

December 29, 1871. 

Messk.s. Dkwey k Co.: I herewith send you, per 
Wells, Fargo d Co.'s Exiiress, a fine lot of seeds of the 
celebrated Turkish Muskmelou, which you are at lib- 
erty to dispose of. 

Now, as you are aware of and know of its value and 
the rarity of such Seeds and Melons in the United States, 
they therefore ought to command a good deal of attcn 
tiou. You may introduce them, with the exclusive 
agency, in any market on the Continent. They will 
grow in any soil that any other Melon will grow in. 
The usual time of setting Melons will suit them. At 
the maturity of the Melon, for winter use, you must be 
careful and not brui.'^e it; handle it carefully, and when 
ripe, i>lace it in twine netting or its equivalent, hang it 
up, and I will guarantee that it will keep the year 
round arid retain its Jlnc JLavor — tke same as if it had just 
been plucked from the vine. 

It has cost me time, and trouble, and expense in pro- 
curing the Seeds first. Furthermore it has been my de- 
sire to prove their success on this coast. They have 
given entire satisfaction thus far {two seasons) , and 1 
have not the least doubt but that tliey will grow suc- 
cessfully in any jiart of the United States. This is the 
only lot that I know of which has ever been imported to 
the United Stites. Therefore, from its rarity, and from 
the rich flavor which it contains, its cultivation is a 
great object, and will enuble its possessor to say, in 
mid winter, " Let us eat a melon," which should besuf- 
tteient to open the ears of the ei)icurean, at the hotel or 
in his own private dining room. 

Bespectfully, etc., R. Marchell.\. 




Nineteen Years in the Nursery Business in 
California. 

A. D. "pR Y AL, 

^STurseryinan. 

Three Miles North of Oakland, on tho 
Temascal Creek, 
One Mile from Temascal R. R. Depot, 
Offers for sale a good assortment of 
Frviit and Forest Trees, 
Including Blue Gum, Monterey Cypress, Pines, Orange 
and Lemon Trees. 
A large assortment of choice varieties of 
Knglish Gooseberries, Currants of all good sorts, Bar- 
berries, Roses and Climbing Plants, of 
new and old vari ties. 
Also the largest coUectionvnf Lilacs in the State. A 
fine aesortment of choice Bulbs at low prices. 

All orders directed to Oakland P. 0., Cal., will be 
promptly attended to. ja20-lm 

XSainie Koots lor iSnle, 

IN LOTS TO SUIT. 

BY JOHN S. DRtTRY, 

At C. F. Ejchaeds & Co.'s Drug Store, S. W. comer of 
Clay and Sansome streets, San Francisoo., 

And by W. W. DRURY, at RAMIE NURSERY, 

n American River, near Central Pacific Railroad Bridge 

south side. Sacramento. 

21v2-3m 



Cheap Fruit Trees and Plants. 

Apple Grafts on whole roots $10.00 per M. 

Pear Grafts on whole roots 18.00 per M. 

One Year Apple Grafts 40.00 |ier M. 

One Year St. Pear V.'J.Oo per M. 

Wilson Strawberry Plants 2.50 per M. 

Quince and Currant Cuttings, Cheap. 
Address WILL & CLARK, 

j»20-lmlGp FayetteVille, N. Y. 

IMMENSE STOCK OF APPLE, 

AND OTHER 

FRUIT TREES, VINES AIMD PLANTS, 

Of Finest Quality, at Astonishingly Low Rates. 

Extraordinary inducements to wholesale buyers. 
Catalogues Free. 

4v3-.3m STARK k BARNETT, Louisiana, Mo. 

averill's 
ch:e:m:ica.l paitstt, 

Of any desired Shade or Color, 
Mixed ready for application, and sold by the gallon 

It is Cheaper, Handsomer, more Durable and Elastic 
than the best of any other Paint. 

Office, corner Fourth and Townsend streets, 
Francisco. HELY k JEWELL, Agents. 

15v23-.3m 

SILK WORM EGGS. 



LIKFOIITH, KELLOGG & CO,, 



IMPORTERS OF 



H:i!LR33^V\^^TlE 



AGRICULTURAL IMPLEMENTS. 



The attention of Farmers is respectfully called to the 
following Superior 



GJS^TSGr PLOWS, 

Which we now offer as the best hitherlo made : 

PACIFIC RAILROAD, 

MONITOR, 

EUREKA. 

General Agents for the Pacific Coast for the Celebrated 

WORLD MOWERS AND REAPERS, 
BALL'S OHIO REAPERS, 

TORNADO THRESHERS. 

Rumsey's Lilt and Force Pumps, 

WOOL-WORTH HANDLE WORKS, 

LEARY RAILROAD LANTERN, 
E:tc., Iiltc., Etc. 

IRON PIPE, RUBBER HOSE, RUBBER AND 

LEATHER BELTING, ROPE AND FENCE 

WIRE, ALL AT LOWEST 

MARKET RATES. 

3 and 5 Front Street, San Francisco. 



WILLCOX & GIBBS 

Family Sewing • Machine 

IS THE BEST IN THE MARKET. 

It is the Most Simple, 

Easy to run (a child can operate it) , not liable to get out 
of order, sews the heaviest or lightest goods, and 
is remarkable for the great variety, perfec- 
tion and durability of its work. 

It is the only Machine 

Making the triple-threaded seam, with the twisted loop 
stitch, the strongest and most elastic made. 

The Willcox & Gibbs 

Received the only honorable mention and strong recom- 
mendation at the last Stockton Agricultural Fair. 

Its Work Received the First Premium 

it the San Francisco Mechanics' Institute Fair, 1871. 

Don't Fail to Exa-inine. 

flST PERFECT SATISFACTION GUARANTEED. 
Other Machines taken in part payment. 
Call on or address 

WILLCOX & GIBBS S. M. CO., 

113 Post Street, S. F. 

22v2-9m 



Fine Imported Poiiltiy, 



CONSISTING OP 

Dark Brahmas, Light Brahmas, Buff 
Cochin, Patridge Cochin, and Houdans, 

Guaranteed Piu-e, and bred direct from the finest im- 
ported stock in America. 

Of the above varieties for sale carefully packed. 
Poultry Yards at San Leandro, Alameda county, Cal. 



Address 



W. FORD THOMAS, 

Custom House, 
San Francisco. 



NATIONAL LIVE-STOCK JOURNAL, Pub- 
lished at Chicago. $2ayear. Specimens free. 



FOR SALE— A few ounces of Choice Silk Worm Eggs 
(French Annual) . Apply at 
Ja20-2w Room 32, MerckantE' Exchange. 



THE CELEBRATED 

"H. H. H." Horse Medicine 

Is truly a Scientific Preparation. Having adopted the 
RUBBER CORK, it can safely be kept for months with- 
out losing any of its healing pi'opertios. 

No Farmer, Teamster, Liveryman or 

STOCK DEALER .should be without it. It will remove 
Calous Lumps, Splints, Wind Galls and Spavins 
Sweeny, StiflF Joints and Contracted L aders readily 
yield to its penetrating qualities. 
COLIC has lost its sting. The 

H. H. II. 

Will Cure in Fifteen Minutes. 

It is sold everywhere on the Coast. 

WILLIAMS k MOORE, Proprietors, 
4v3-6m Stockton, Cal. 



NATIONAL LIVE-STOCK JOURNAL, Pub- 
lished at Chicago. $2 a year. Specimens free. 



BEST PAPER FOR STOCK BREEDERS, STOCK 
Raisers, Dairymen, Poultry Fanciers and Apari- 
ANS. Devoted exclusively to improvement of Live-Stock 
and advancement of Dairy interests, and crntains no 
matter not relating to these interests. Unquestionably 
superior to all papers of its class, Geo. W. Rust & Co., 
Publishers, Chicago, III. ja20-lm 





BiiitSiilSiiiiiBKIilllJ'iiiKsiiiili 




The First Edition of Two ITundred Thovsaiii) copies 
just published. It is elegantly pi'inted on tine tinted 
paper, in Two Colors, and illustrated with over Three 
Hundred Engravings of Flowers and Vegetables, and 

TWO COLORED PLATES. 
The most beautiful and instructive Catalogue and 
Floral Guide in the world — 112 pages, giving thorough 
directions for the culture of Flowers and Vegetables, 
ornamenting grounds, making walks, etc. 

A Christmas present for my customers, but forwarded 
to any who apply by mail, for Ten Cents, only one- 
quarter the cost. Address JAMES VICK, 

decao-at Rochester, N. Y. 




Single copy 15 cts.— Sl.GO per annum. 
Address O. F. & W. J. YOUNG. Box 1501, San Fran- 
insco, California. Iv3-tf 



GREATEST NOVELTY of 
the age, now on exhibition at 
208 Montgomery street. — 
WEEDS PATENT CARPET 
SWEEPER, Broom and Dust- 
pan combined. A child can 
sweep a large parlor carpet 
in three min ites without 
raising any dust. Call and 
examine them. Cheaper than 
brooms at five cent.^ apiece. 
DORSEY & LOWERY, Agents 
for California, NevdAi, Ore- 
gon and Idaho. Agents wanted in every county of the 
State. Exclusive right to sell Weed's Sweeper in Oregon 
for sale. No. 208 Montgomery street. Iv3-tf 




FREEMAN'S GRAIN SEPARATOR. 

THE 

BEST 

PATENT 

SEPARATOR 

MADE. 

I will gu.tr- 
antee it to Ex- 
cel any other 
Machine ex- 
tant in sepa- 
rating Grain 
from all kinds 
of Foreign 
Seeds. It will 
separate per- 
fectly the different qutilities of Cirnins, producing p\ire 
Seed. It is in every way a Practical and Successful Cal- 
ifornia Machine. It as proven successful over all 
other Machines on trial, and has taken two First Prenii- 
nms at the Petaluma Fair. Machines and State and 
County Rights for sale by W. D. FREEMAN, 

Tomales, Marin county, Cal. 
Send for Circulars. 

P. S.— The right to use my superior Patent Pod Screen 
will be sold at reasonable prices to owners of Tnreshers. 
4v,3-2m-eowbp 




IMPROVED STEAM WATER 



LIFTER. 




With neither Engine, Piston, or Plunger. 

The most Simple, Durable, and in al 
respects the most Economical of all 
Steam Pumps. Uses the same ste;im 
twice instead of once. Any iwrson can 

-j^, run it. They are used on the Central 

ggjlii^ and Western Pacific R.R. from Oakland 
to Ogden. They are used for Water 
WorksT Mining, Irrigation, and all other ordinary pump- 
ing. Send for Descriptive Circular and Price List. Ad- 
dress ALLEN WILCOX, No. 21 Fremont street, San 
Francisco. 16v2-3in 

manufa'tureb of 
Ofliee, Scltool Fixrniture 

AND SETTEES, 
And all kinds of Ofliee and Cabinet Work to order. 
Olfice, No. 607 Clay street, near Montgomery, Sun 
Francisco. SILVER MEDAL awarded for the best Cali- 
fornia-made Office and School Furniture, at the Eighth 
Mechanics' Fair. 1871. 19V2-:i m 

Pacific Oil and Lead Works, 

SAN FRANCISCO. 
Manufacturers of 

Liiiscccl tiiitl Castoi- Oil.s, 

OIL CAKES AND MEAL. 
Highest price paid for Flax Seed and Castor Beans de- 
livered at our works. 
Office, 3 and 5 Front street. SvS-eow-Iy 

Works, King street, bet. Second and Third. 



CLABROUGH & BRO., 

BATH STREET, BIRMINGHAM, ENGL 

S.VN Francisco House— No. GSn Mont- 
gomery street. The only California 
House that are ACTUAL MANUFAC- 

'turers. 

We macufacture in England for our California trade, 
to the order of our resident partners, every description 
of 

Sporting- and Defensive Firearms. 

Sporting Goods and Gunsmiths' Stock of all kinds 
constantly on hand, Wholesale or Retail. 3v3 Sm 

McDOUGALL & MARQUIS, 

Architects, 

San Francisco, Cal. 
Iv3 3m 



WEBSTEE'S PIONEER 
Ag^ricultiiral "Wai-elioiiso, 

No. 201 and 203 El Dorado street, 
STOCKTON, 

Agency and General Depot for the San Joaquin Valley 
for the sale of the Celebrated STUDEBAKEll WAGONS 
and all kinds of Standard Farming Implements. 
4v3-3m 



Farms for Nothing in Montana Territory. 

Send $2 (greenback) to H. W. MAGUIRE, Bozeman 
City, Montana, and get full particulars about the 

Lands and General Business Prospects 
On the line of the N. P. R. R. Special questions care- 
fully answered, and investments made for non-residents. 
References, Editors Rural PnEss. 3T3-3m 

Keclaiiiiecl Txile Lsiiicl. 

FOR RENT OR ON SHARES, 

EIGHT HUNDRED ACRES, SECURELY LEVEED, 
being located in Suisun Bay. The levee having sus- 
tained no injury by the recent flood, the laud is now 
ready for cultivation. House and barn at the steam- 
boat landing. Apply to 

W. T. S. RYER, 
j.'i27-lt 408 California street, San Francisco. 

SsiKICO WHEAT. 

WHITE TUSCAN, 

Superior for Productiveness, Late Sowing, and Excel- 
lence for Flour-making. 
Ordfrs addressed to G. C. PEARSON, 
4v:)-Tm South Vallejo, Cal. 

San Francisco Wire Works, 

NO. 605 MISSION STREET, 

Near Third Street San Francisco. 

C. H. GRUENHAGEN & CO. 



RIFLES, SHOT-GUNS, REVOLVERS, Gun 
Mat-^rial. Write lor Price List, to GREAT WEST- 
ERN GLl.> WORKS, Pittbbm-gh, Pa. Arjuy Guns, Re- 
volvers, Etc.. ux' or traded for. Agents Wanted. 
5v2-fira 

SPANISH MERINOS.-We offer for sale low. about 100 
of niir tine Thoroughbreds. .Send for Catalogue. Orders 
solicited. (24-v2) John Sheldon & Son, Moscow, N. Y. 




FINE CHICKEN EGGS. 

THE UNDERSIGNED IS NOW PREPARED 
to furnish EGGS for breeding of the follow- 
ing varieties: Dark and Light Bralima: Biift' 
Cochin, Partridge Cochin, La Fleche, Silver 
Spangled Hamburg, White Leghorn, White Face Si)an- 
ish. and Silver Laced Sebright Bantam. 

All these Chickens are imported prize birds, and have 
not their superior in this htate. 

Orders left at WM BOFEK .t CO.'S, CIO Sacramento 
street, can be filled immediately. A. MARQUARD, 
2v3-lm Importer and Breeder of Fancy F(.wls. 

Imported Poultry Eggs for Sale 

Of the following well known varieties: 

LIGHT BRAHM.VS, Dnke of York Strain; 
BUFF COCHINS, Cooper Strain; 
HOUDANS, French Breed; 
In Limited Quantities. Apply to 

W. W. HATCH, 
El Dorado Market, El Dorado street, Stockton, C»l. 
4v3-3m 





Will change gray hair to its youthful color with a few 
njiplicati ns. Suits all shades of color and complexion. 
Will neither stain hands, scalp or clothing. No sedi- 
ment: clear as crj'Stal. Nii sulphur or other lad smell, 
but delightfully perfumed. As a hair dressing it has 
no (tqiial. It makes th hair rich in appi'aranc-e, glost-y 
and curly; cures dandrutt and all other irritations of 
the skin, and prevents the hair from falling out. Lib. 
eral discount allowed dealers. Address orders to J. F. 
FUOAZI, or H. C. Kirk k Co., Sacramento; Hug & 
Schmidt, Agents, 535 Commercial street; Heathtield, 
Bogel & Co., -206 Battery street, San Francisco. Sold by 
all Druggiits. delC-3t 



62 



»lr^>s£?kj \jj jijd, Ju w »lt\») hJ Jblb>ifiJU,tt>) (jbr «lrC Jc> o © > 



[January 27, 1872. 



HILL'S PATENT 

EUREKA GANG PLOW, 




The undersigned, Manufacturers of 
ENT EUREKA GANG PLOWS," take 



•HILL'S PAT- 
ENT EUREKA GANG PLOWS," take this nietliod of 
calling the attention of Agriculturists throughout the 
Pacific States and Territories to the merits of the above 
named Plows, and offer the following reasons why they 
are entitled to preference over any other Plow in use. 

They are made of the best niateiial, and every Plow 
warranted. 

Thiy are of light draught, easily adapted to any 
depth, and are very easily handled. 

They will plow any kind of soil, and leave the ground 
in perfect order. 

FIRST PREMIUMS! 

These Plows took the First I'n mium at the State Fair 
in Sacramento, in 1870: at the Northern District Fair in 
Marysville, 1870 and 1871; and at the Upper Sacramento 
Valley Fair, Chico, 1870 and 1871. At the Mechanics' 
Fair, held in San Francisco in 1871, a Silver Medal was 
awarded these Plows; and the State Agricultural So- 
ciety, at the last Fair, offered a premium of $40 for the 
heat Gang Plow. The committee was composed of 
practical farmers from the agricultural counties, who, 
alter a fair test and thorough competition with the 
leading plows of the State, awarded the premium to the 
F.iireka Gang Plow. From this it will be seen that 
these celebrated plows still maintain their i-eputation 
over all competitors. Patented Sept. 7, IStjg. 

Champion Deep-T Uling Stubble Plow, 

which took the First Premium over all competitors at 
the State Fair, 1871. It turns a furrow 14 inches deep 
and 24 inches wide. 

This Gang Plow combines durability with cheapness, 
being made entirely of iron by experienced workmen, of 
the best material. Over three hundred are now in use, 
and all have given entire satisfaction. 

Manulaetured and for sale at the corner of Third 
street and Virgin Alley, Marysville, by 

HILIi & KKAUGH, 
And also by most leading Agricultural Dealers in the 

State. All others are invited to apply at once for 

Circulars, prices, etc. liivLiStf 



MATTESON & WILLIAMSONS 




a 



Took the Premium over all at the great Plowing 
Match in Stockton, in 1870. 

This Plow is thoroughly made by practical men who 
have been long in the business and know what is re- 
quired iu the construction of Wang Plows. It is quickly 
adjusted. Sutficient play is given so that the tongue will 
pass over cradle knfdls without changing the working 
position of the shares. It is so construited that the 
wheels thcm.selves govern the action of the Plow cor- 
rectly. It has various points of superiority, and can he 
relied upon as tlie Best and Most Desirable Gang Plow 
iu the world. Send for circular to 

MATTtSON & WILLIAJISON, 

14v2-3m Stockton, Cal. 



BAKER &c HAMILTON, 
Sa.oi'a,iuciito and ^an. Franolsoo, 

— niIPOBTI':BS OF — 

Farming Implemenis, 

M:acliines, Ete., Ete. 

Qang' Flow3, 

Single Steel Flows. 

Iron Plows, 

Harrows, 

Cultivators, 

Seed Sobers, 

Gh'aiu Drills, 

Etc. Etc. 
18v2 3m 

G-ang and Single Plows. 

I am prepared to furnish my popular Gang and Single 
plows, of the lightest draft (best Plow to scour in sticky 
soil) , and the most etlicieut Plow made My leverage f<»r 
raising the gang has no equal— a thirteen year old boy 
(•an W'>rk it with ease. I make any pattern of mould 
desired, to order. Twenty years experience in plow 
making enables me to demonstrate all I say, and every 
Plow 18 warranted to do all I recommend it to perform. 

Send your orders early, and lor furtlier information 
ai)ply to A. ELLISON, Patentee and Manager, 

26v2-2m Marysville, Cal. 

DEAXERS AND CONSUMERS. 

Arc herebv notilied that 

THE STANDARD SOAP COMPANY 

Continue to mauufacliu'e the following Standard 
Preparations ; 

Detersive, Prize Medal and Laundry Soaps; 

Kane's Condensed Roups; 

Thomas' Cool Water Bleaching Soaps; 

Standard and Eureka Washing Powders; 

Madame Balceur'.s Washiujj Fluid uud Liquid 
Bluing. 

Adamantine Candles, and a general assort- 
ment of Family, Laundry, Fancy and Toilet 
Soaps. 

■7' Uanufactory, 204 and 2U3 Sacramento street, San 
Francisco. 2lT2-3m 



KIMOWLES' PATENT STEAM PUMP. 

Awarded First Premiiim and Diploma 

Over all Competitors, at Meclianicb' Institute I'air of San rrancisco, 1S71 ; also Special 
Medal and Diploma at State Fair. 




It has no Cranks or Fly-Wlicel, and has no dead points where it will stop, consequently it 
is always ready to start without using a Kt«itirig-bar, and does not re<iuire hand-work to get it 
past the center. Will always start when the steam cylinder is lilled with cold water of con- 
densation. 

. The trial of Steam Pumps at the Eighth Industrial F.iir in San Francisco, hy a Committee 
of Five of the most thoroughly practical mechanics on this coast, showed the linowles Pump 
to lose but 11 J^< per cent., while others lost as high as 40 per cent., showing great difference in 
economy. 



CENTBAL PACIFIC R. R., OFFICE OF THE GEN'L MASTER MECHANIC. 1 
Sacramento, Cal., April 14, 1871. ( 

A. L. FISH, Esq., Agent of tho Knowles' Steara Pump, San Francisco— Dear Sir: In reply to your inquiry as 
to the nierits of tlie Knowles* Steam Pump, in use \ipon this road, I will say that we have nineteen of them in 
use on this road as lire engines, and pitmping water for shop and station use. 1 consider the Knowles Steam 
Pump the best in use, end prefer it to any other. Yuurs truly, A. J. STEVENS, Gunci'al Master ijechanic. 



WE BUILD AND HAVE CONSTANTLY ON HAND 

THE LARGEST STOCK OF PUMPS IN THE WORLD. 

And for Every Conceivable Purpose. 

A. L FiSH, Agent. 

IVo O First .Street. fe?an Francisco, Cal. 



P. S. — All kinds of new and second-hand Maehines on hand. 



3v24-eow-bp 



STUDEBAKER 




Have become 

The Standard Wagons of the Pacific Coast. 

FoU QlALIlY, 

1)UEAB1I.ITT, 

LioHT RtJNurao, 

Good Pbopobtion, 

A^D Excellent Stvlk, 
Tlioy Have no roor. 

Ikon Axle, 

Thimble Skeiv, 

UE.lDEn AND 

SrniNo Waoojis, 
Of all sizes, with heavt iinES rivitcd on, always ou 
hand and sold for $1UU to ilOa. 

Having established a MANUFArronv to build Wacions. 
Bi:i>H. Brakes and Seats, I am better prepared than 
over to furnish 

Just the Kinds of Wagons Needed, 
As I make a si'eciai-tv of the wagon trade. 

The attention of Deaiebs is e8pool«lly requested. 
Send for Cuiculab ond Piuci; List. 

2v:t-3ra E. E. AKES, General Agent. 

Factory and Depot, 217 and '-'111 K street, Saohasii nto. 




JACKSON MICHIGAN WAGONS. 



The large sale of the above W.\GONS has induced a 
nimiber of persons to try and sell other Eastern-made 
Wagons, none of which have any proof that they will 
stand in this dry climate. JA( KSON WAGONS have 
the hit^hest certilicati s from use for ten to fourteen 
years, c nsequently the buyer i-uus no risk in purchas- 
ing the Jackson Wagons. Ail sizes for sale low by 

J. D. AKTUUU & SON, Sau Francisco. 

N. B.— Warranted for three yearn. ' 21v2.3m 

CO-OPERATIVE tAARBLE WORKS. 

JOHN DANIEL & CO., 

Miinufac.turers of and Dealers in | 

iVIonuments, Headstones, Tombs, J|l 

MANTEL PIECES, ETC., fMlll 

421 Pine sirect, between Montgomery and 
Kearny, Hak Francuoo. 
aiv2-lj 



J. BOSS BROWNE, 

Oifico, Ko. 4,!5 3VIoi\ticoiiiory Slock, 

Sax FaurcDoo, Oai.. 



FIRST PREMrUM AWARDED at tho State Fair of 
1870; also First Premium at .Mechanics' Fair, San Fran- 
cisco, 1871; and Silver Medal imd First Premium for 
best Farm Wa^on, and First Premium fnrthi^ best im- 
proved Thimble Skein at State F&ir, 1871. Also .State 
Fair GOLD MEDAL for 1»71. 

E. SOULE. 

Corner Tenth and I streets, 
ftp'22-3m Sacramsnto. Cal. 



J. BREUNER & CO., 

Importers, Jobbers and Manufae- 
turers of 

FINE FURNITURE, 

BEDDING, MIRRORS, ETC., AT THE 

Very Lowest Prices. 

No8.1««, 108anai70K»»re!»t SACRAMENTO. 

CHICKERING & SONS' 



Uason & Hamlin's Cabinet Oigrans. 

L. K. UAMMER Agent. 

Also' Importer of Sheet Music. Music Books ami Mu- 
sical IiiBinmienta. Finest Violin and Ouitar Strings. 
No. 2au J street, 8A CKA ."ilENXO . 16yi-3m 

B. IRELAND, 

The old Pioneer Broom F.i<'tory — Established Au- 
gust, "Sfi. No. 82 J stn^^t, between Third and Fourth, 
Sacramento. All kinds of 

"Wood and "Willow "Ware. 

Manufacturer of Bro'ims, Brushes, Baskets, Matches 
and OenersI House Furnishing Oood(, and sells Nichols 
& Falvy's Tnbbs and Pails. lGv2-3m 



Floral Guide for 1872. 

Contajnii., "-^Milv-two pages ond Two Beautiful 

Colored PI llnstrated, giving plain directions 

forthecui nearly a thousand vabietieb of 

Flowers n I'-s. Full bi.und with your name 

in gilt, po^t 1 a ', its. Paper cover and one colored 
plate, 10 cts.' 

Address, M. Q. BETNOLDS, 

22T3-<lm Bocbester, N. T. 




4i 
Second Si, 

LELAND STANFORD 

H. F. HASTINGS, Vice Presideni 
JOS. CRACKBON, • Seoretarj 

^^eyielal tSi^enti'^ ^o-me &//cct 

v2- 3m 137 Montgomery street, San Francisco. 



WAOHHOEST'S TOWN OLOOK 

—AND— 

JK\%"Ii:iL.IlY STORE, 



(/) 



Q 2 
O g 



fe s^ 




Q 
Z 
< 

u 

X 

o 

h- 
< 



THE L.\i;OEST "AND Fl.NEST STOCK OF GOODS 
AT THE VEItY LOWEST PHICE8. 

Every article of .Jewelry bought in this establishment 
Waruanted strictly as represi nted. 

W^atches, Jeweli-y and Clocks Bepaired 

BV tan. UEST WOBKMKN. 

All orders from the country promptly attended to. 
7v2-3m 



THE GRKA.T 
K.ETAIL DRUG- HOXJ>f«E 

OF THE PACXFIO COAST I 

JAMES 6. STEELE & CO., 
Chemists and Apothecaries. 

K7" Import anl sell directly from Eastern and Euro- 
pe';n Markets. 

NO. S2I MOXTOOMFJtY STREET, 

Sau Francisco. 

Manufacturers and Solo Proprietors of 
STEELE'S GLYCEBINE LOTION 

— AMD — 

GRINDELLA LOTION, 

For the Cure of Poison Oak. 



SAN JOSE REAL ESTATE 

FOB SALE. 

Farms from $12 to $l(in per acre. 

Garden f^and from J 100 to $:KW per acre. 

City Lots in San Jose or Santa Ohira ou easy terras. 

Weli Improved Suburban Homesteads and Desirable 
City Property for sale by 

J. A. CLAYTON, Real Estate Agent. 

Office on Santa Clara street, opposite .\u2eraiH House. 

Rents collected. Tax paid, and ^loney invested ou 
flrst-clMS security. 20vti-3m 



January 27, 1872.] 



63 



KELSEY'S NURSERIES. 




OAKLAND. 
Established in 1852. 

CITY l>J3I»OT, 

317 Wasbington Street ^an Fk.incisco. 

The Proprietor haviug upwards of 
100 ACRES OF NURSERY GROUNDS, 
•well stocked with all tlio leading and best varieties of 
Fruit Trees and Fniit Bushes; also Evergreen and De- 
ciduous Trees and Shrubs, including the rarest of Coni- 
fers, can fill all orders on the most reasonable terms 
and with dispatch. 

Choice Roses and Pot Plants 

of every variety. Trees and Plants securely packed to 

travel any distance. 

FOREST TREES 

of Australia, Europe China and Japan; in fact, we aim 

to have and to get all and everything desirable. 

Parties planting can find in this establishment what- 
ever may be wanted, for use and beauty, in furnishing a 
place without being obliged to go trom one Nursery to 
another. W. F. KELSEY, Proprietor. 

21v2-3m 



J. ROCK'S NURSERIES, 



SAN aosK. 



Fruit and Ornamental Trees. 



<^^fc The attention of every Planter, Nur- «i^^ 
aerymau and Dealer is called to our 0^^ 
large and superior stock of 



Fruit and Ornamental Trees, 

Grape Vines and Small Fruits, 
Shrubs and Plants, Etc., Etc. 

IN LARGE QUANTITIES, AT LOWEST KATES. 
Catalogue furnished on application. 



21v2-tf 



JOHN EOCK, San Jose, Cal. 



TREES 

AND PLANTS FOR SALE AT THE 

LIBERTY NURSERIES, 

Fetaluma, Cal. 

The stock I oft'er for sale this season is as varied and 
oomplete as can be found at any Nursery on the Pacihc 
Coast. It consists of 

Apples, Pears, Plums, Peaches, Auricots, Nectarines, 
Figs, Quinces. Cherries, Oranges, Pouigruiuites, Mul- 
berries, Grapes, Currants, Goosetjerries, Blackberries, 
Raspberries, Strawberries, etc. 

Almonds, English Walnuts, California and Eastern 
Black Walnuts Butternuts, American, Jaiian and Sijan- 
isU Chestnuts. 

Locusts, Jlaplcs, Elms, Poplars and Willows. 

Evergreen Trees and Shrubs in great variety. 

Deciduous B'lowring Shrubs in variety, including a 
choice collection of Roses. 

Also a choice collection of Bedding and Conservatory 
Plants, selected from the best new varieties (importa- 
tion of 1H71). 

For complete list send for Descriptive Catalogue. 

The above stock of Trees and Plauts will be sold 

At the Lowest Market Rates 

of the reliable Nurserymen, and giuirautccd to be true 
to name and label. 

(£?" All ord(-rs from unknown persons must be accom- 
puuied with the Cash. 

TREES packed iu th